Authors:Iina Hellsten, Renaud Lambiotte, Andrea Scharnhorst, and Marcel Ausloos
This paper introduces a new approach to detecting scientists’ field mobility by focusing on an author’s self-citation network,
and the co-authorships and keywords in self-citing articles. Contrary to much previous literature on self-citations, we will
show that author’s self-citation patterns reveal important information on the development and emergence of new research topics
over time. More specifically, we will discuss self-citations as a means to detect scientists’ field mobility. We introduce
a network based definition of field mobility, using the Optimal Percolation Method (Lambiotte & Ausloos, 2005; 2006). The results of the study can be extended to selfcitation networks of groups of authors and, generally also
for other types of networks.
Innovation research builds on the analysis of micro level data describing innovative behaviour of individual firms. One increasingly
popular type of data are Literature-based Innovation Output (LBIO) data. These are compiled by screening specialist trade
journals for new-product announcements. Notwithstanding the substantial advantages, the eligibility of LBIO data for innovation
research remains controversial. In this paper the merits of LBIO data are examined by means of comparative analysis. A newly
built LBIO database is systematically compared with the widely used Community Innovation Survey. It shows that both databases
identify similar innovators in terms of firm size, distribution across industries and degree of innovativeness: LBIO data
can be considered a fully fledged alternative to traditional innovation data, highly eligible for innovation research.
This paper examines general characteristics of African science from a quantitative ‘scientometric’ perspective. More specifically,
that of research outputs of Africa-based authors published in the scientific literature during the years 1980–2004, either
within the international journals representing ‘mainstream’ science, or within national and regional journals reflecting ‘indigenous
science’. As for the international journals, the findings derived from Thomson Scientific’s Citation Indexes show that while
Africa’s share in worldwide science has steadily declined, the share of international co-publications has increased very significantly,
whereas low levels of international citation impact persist. A case study of South African journals reveals the existence
of several journals that are not processed for these international databases but nonetheless show a distinctive citation impact
on international research communities.
The two Journal Citation Reports of the Science Citation Index 2004 and the Social Science Citation Index 2004 were combined in order to analyze and map journals
and specialties at the edges and in the overlap between the two databases. For journals which belong to the overlap (e.g.,
Scientometrics), the merger mainly enriches our insight into the structure which can be obtained from the two databases separately; but
in the case of scientific journals which are more marginal in either database, the combination can provide a new perspective
on the position and function of these journals (e.g., Environment and Planning B — Planning and Design). The combined database additionally enables us to map citation environments in terms of the various specialties comprehensively.
Using the vector-space model, visualizations are provided for specialties that are parts of the overlap (information science,
science & technology studies). On the basis of the resulting visualizations, “betweenness” — a measure from social network
analysis — is suggested as an indicator for measuring the interdisciplinarity of journals.
Authors:Clara Calero, Thed van Leeuwen, and Robert Tijssen
Bio-pharmaceutical R&D is increasingly an international affair. Research articles published in the peer-reviewed international
scientific and technical journals represent quantifiable research outputs of bio-pharmaceutical firms. Large-scale systemic
measurements of worldwide trends and sectoral patterns within bio-pharmaceutical science can be gauged from these articles,
where coauthored research papers are assumed to reflect research cooperation and associated knowledge flows and exchanges.
We focus our attention on the largest science-based multinational enterprises (MNEs), those that produce relatively large
quantities of research articles. The study deals with the worldwide output of research articles that are co-produced by corporate
researchers during the years 1996–2001.
We employ these publications to examine structural factors characterizing research cooperation networks within industry at
the level of major geographical regions (North America, Europe, Pacific-Asia), with a breakdown by within-MNE and between-MNE
network linkages. The descriptive statistics on publication output and results of network analyses of co-publication linkages
not only indicate regional differences, with a central role for US companies in biopharmaceutical research, but also a variety
of firm-specific research cooperation networks which enabled us to develop a tentative typology of MNEs in terms of their
intra- and interorganizational patterns of research cooperation linkages.
This article explores the emergence of knowledge from scientific discoveries and their effects on the structure of scientific
communication. Network analysis is applied to understand this emergence institutionally as changes in the journals; semantically
as changes in the codification of meaning in terms of words; and cognitively as the new knowledge becomes the emergent foundation
of further developments. The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 is analyzed as the scientific discovery that triggered a process
which led to research in nanotubes.
The Journal Citation Reports of the Science Citation Index 2004 were used to delineate a core set of nanotechnology journals and a nanotechnology-relevant
set. In comparison with 2003, the core set has grown and the relevant set has decreased. This suggests a higher degree of
codification in the field of nanotechnology: the field has become more focused in terms of citation practices. Using the citing
patterns among journals at the aggregate level, a core group of ten nanotechnology journals in the vector space can be delineated
on the criterion of betweenness centrality. National contributions to this core group of journals are evaluated for the years
2003, 2004, and 2005. Additionally, the specific class of nanotechnology patents in the database of the U. S. Patent and Trade
Office (USPTO) is analyzed to determine if non-patent literature references can be used as a source for the delineation of
the knowledge base in terms of scientific journals. The references are primarily to general science journals and letters,
and therefore not specific enough for the purpose of delineating a journal set.
Authors:Douglas Robinson, Martin Ruivenkamp, and Arie Rip
The past 10 years has seen an explosion of interest for the area of science and technology labelled “nanotechnology.” Although
at an early stage, nanotechnology is providing a space for the creation of new alliances and the forging of new ties in many
actor arenas, initiated based on promises and high expectations of the fruits that could be harvested from development and
investment into nanotechnology. Those trying to characterise the dynamics of emerging ties and networks within this field
are faced with a number of complexities which are characteristic of the nanotechnology umbrella term, which covers many technologies,
various mixes of disciplines and actors, and ongoing debates about definitions of fields and terminology.
In this paper we explore an approach for capturing dynamics of emergence of a particular area of nanotechnology by investigating
visions of possible futures in relation to molecular mechanical systems (molecular machines). The focus of this text is to
outline an approach used to map and analyse visions in an emerging field by taking as the unit of analysis linkages made in
statements in texts, and the agglomeration of linkages around certain nodes. Taking the linkage, rather than node, allows
one to probe deeper into the dynamics of emergence at early stages when definitions and meanings of certain words/nodes are
in flux and patterns of their use change dramatically over short periods of time.
As part of a larger project on single and macromolecular machines we explore the dynamics of visions in the field of molecular
machines with the eventual aim to elucidate the shaping strength of visions within nanotechnology.
Authors:Johan Bollen, Marko A. Rodriquez, and Herbert Van de Sompel
The status of an actor
in a social context is commonly defined in terms of two factors: the total
number of endorsements the actor receives from other actors and the prestige of
the endorsing actors. These two factors indicate the distinction between popularity
and expert appreciation of the actor, respectively. We refer to the former as
popularity and to the latter as prestige. These notions of popularity and
prestige also apply to the domain of scholarly assessment. The ISI Impact
Factor (ISI IF) is defined as the mean number of citations a journal receives
over a 2 year period. By merely counting the amount of citations and
disregarding the prestige of the citing journals, the ISI IF is a metric of
popularity, not of prestige. We demonstrate how a weighted version of the
popular PageRank algorithm can be used to obtain a metric that reflects
prestige. We contrast the rankings of journals according to their ISI IF and
their Weighted PageRank, and we provide an analysis that reveals both
significant overlaps and differences. Furthermore, we introduce the Y-factor
which is a simple combination of both the ISI IF and the weighted PageRank, and
find that the resulting journal rankings correspond well to a general
understanding of journal status.