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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Anna Visy
,
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
Annamária Barkó
,
Lien Le Phuong Nguyen
,
László Friedrich
, and
Gábor Jónás

Abstract

Consuming enough protein is a very important part of a balanced and healthy diet. Complete proteins are those in which all essential amino acids are present. In meat products, like hams, many different reactions occur during ageing and storage. For example, the production of free amino acids or the production of biogenic amines is formed by decarboxylation. In this study, the presence of these amino acids and biogenic amines, as well as the quality properties of cured hams during curing and ageing, were investigated.

The meat samples were immersed into 100 g L−1 NaCl brine. The curing took 20 days, followed by smoking and ageing for 35 days (12 °C, 75% RH). The wet-cured ham samples were analysed for changes in NaCl concentration (at 3 parts: surface, core, bottom layer). Moreover, color, water activity, denaturation temperature and enthalpy (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), free amino acids (FAAs) and biogenic amines (BAs) were also evaluated.

Open access

Abstract

One of the most important components in spreads is the fat phase. The characteristics of the used fat determine most of the quality factors of the products such as viscosity, texture, colour, shelf life, etc. In these kinds of products, the commonly used fat is palm fat, however, in recent years it has had a bad press due to its negative environmental impact and health concerns. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a palm oil free hazelnut spread. We investigated the effect of replacing the fat in the fat phase with milk fat or coconut fat to the apparent viscosity, colour and texture properties of the product. According to our results the palm fat had the highest and coconut fat had the lowest viscosity. In texture analyses palm fat and milk fat showed no significant difference in hardness and in work of penetration. Coconut fat was significantly different in every texture attributes from the other samples. In the case of colour measurement all samples were significantly different. Despite the observed differences in some parameters the suitability of milk fat for hazelnut spread production should be further investigated (sensory analyses, shelf-life).

Open access

Abstract

In the current study, cakes were prepared with the addition of different levels of chia gel obtained by soaking 1 part of chia seeds in 9 parts of water by weight. Mix was allowed to stand for 30 min for gel formation and seeds were left in the gel and later incorporated into the batter. The addition of chia gel to cake batter to partially substitute the fat from the basic recipe (control) resulted both in improved quality characteristics at all levels of substitution and reduction of caloric value, at the expense of energy from fat, especially at higher reduction levels (40 and 60%). The fat replacement at 40 and 60% had a caloric value decrease by 48 kcal per 100 g compared to the control and respectively the energy at the expense of the fat was 37.9 and 25.7% (reduction by 71.3 and 48.3%). Sensory evaluation demonstrated good acceptability for all the products with slight prevail for the samples with 40% followed closer by those with 20% fat replacement. Hence, chia gel proved to be a good alternative for fat substitution in baking goods recipes while preserving the quality and sensory parameters aiming to produce healthier foods.

Open access

Abstract

Animal blood is a by-product, which can be utilized in a value-adding way instead of being wasted. Allergen substitution is an obvious possibility because many properties of blood plasma are similar to egg white. Techno-functional and sensory attributes (water activity, moisture content, colour and texture related properties) were measured by instrumental methods. The allergenic egg powder can be substituted by non-allergenic blood plasma powder in sponge cakes, but the change in the ingredient has an effect on hardness and tolerating compressive stress until the breaking. In the case of water activity and moisture content, sponge cakes with blood plasma were as desirable as sponge cakes with egg.

Open access

Abstract

Presented work evaluated how quality of catfish fillets is affected by treatments using lactic acid or lysozyme in combination with chlorine. Fish fillets without skin were consecutively immersed and washed in 100 ppm chlorine solution and sprayed with 2.5% lactic acid or 0.5% lysozyme solution. Control samples were only washed with water at the same time. Samples were stored at 2 °C for 10 days in vacuum packaging. Parameters of pH, firmness, surface color and microbial cell counts (cfu/g) were measured on the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th days. Especially the latter had high importance from the point of view of food safety. Catfish fillets shown decreased survival of microorganisms as a result of treatment. Lysozyme and lactic acid achieved 1.8 and 2.4 log cfu/g reduction, respectively. Lower cell counts were observed for all treated samples compared to control during 10 days. Chlorine in combination with lactic acid achieved the best efficiency. The results are promising and suggest that combined treatment is able to improve safety by controlling microorganisms on fish fillets during cold storage.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Viktória Zsom-Muha
,
Lien Le Phuong Nguyen
,
László Baranyai
,
Géza Hitka
,
Zsuzsanna Horváth-Mezőfi
,
Gergő Szabó
, and
Tamás Zsom

Abstract

Among improper harvest and/or postharvest storage conditions, the effect of direct sunlight plays an important role in quality degradation of potato resulting in the development of green surface color based on chlorophyll formation associated with the formation of poisonous chemicals – glycoalcaloids – known as α-chaconine and α-solanine. Yellow skinned and fleshed potatoes with or without visible initial marks of green surface color were stored at normal room temperature under direct natural (sun)light conditions for almost two months. The aim of this study was the preliminary investigation of the sunlight induced formation of chlorophyll related compounds in potato indirectly by the detection of chlorophyll development. This attempt was based on nondestructive determination of chlorophyll related spectral and fluorescence indices for both sunlight exposed and unexposed potato sides. For both potato groups the chlorophyll content related DA-index® and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics (F0, Fm, Fv and Fv/Fm) increased during the storage period representing chlorophyll formation. In the case of Fm, Fv and Fv/Fm values, the yellow samples reached the values of the initial spotted green samples by the 7th–9th days. From this time, the chlorophyll fluorescence values changed only minimally. After storage day 34, in the case of both at day 0 yellow and green spotted potatoes, the sunny side's F0 value was lower than that of shaded side. Close relationship was found between the results of Walz monitoring-PAM (Pulse Amplitude-Modulated) chlorophyll fluorometer and the PSI (Photon Systems Instruments) chlorophyll fluorescence imaging device (e.g. Fv R2 = 0.7226). According to our preliminary results, the Vis/NIR DA-meter®, the monitoring-PAM and the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging fluorometers were found to be suitable nondestructive devices for further investigations concerning the postharvest chlorophyll formation based greening phenomena, which is associated with solanine development in potato.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Mai Sao Dam
,
Vuong Duc Nguyen
,
Tamás Zsom
,
Lien Le Phuong Nguyen
, and
Géza Hitka

Abstract

The effect of storage temperature and ozone treatment on the post-harvest quality of cucumber and tomato was investigated. Cucumber and tomato were stored together with or without gaseous ozone treatment at 20 °C and 14 °C for 16 days. Firmness, color, weight loss, DA index and decay percentage of samples were evaluated during storage period. The results showed that the combination of ozone treatment and cold storage could maintain the quality of these horticultural products and decreased the decay incidence. Additionally, this combination also reduced the weight loss of samples during storage. Furthermore, ozone treatment maintained the green skin color of cucumber. No sign of chilling injury occurred during storage at 14 °C. Commodities stored with approximately 0.1 ppm gaseous ozone at 14 °C retained the firmness compared to other treatments until the end of the experiment. This study suggests a promising use of gaseous ozone treatment in storage chamber where ethylene-producing and ethylene-sensitive vegetables are stored together.

Open access

Abstract

Animal blood is a by-product, which can be utilized in a value-adding way instead of being wasted. Allergen substitution is a good possibility especially for a substance that is difficult to substitute, such as milk. Blood plasma is a fluid with high protein content without blood (iron) taste and colour, so it is similar to milk in several ways. While investigating the substitution of milk, it is advisable to investigate the substitution of sugar as well because a lot of consumers who exclude milk from their diet find the glycaemic index and energy content of foods important. The investigated model food is a simple, homogeneous matrix: vanilla custard with milk and with and without sugar and vanilla custard with blood plasma and with and without sugar. Colour, pH and rheological attributes of custard sample groups were measured. According to the results the used protein source as well as sweetener significantly determine the colour, pH and texture of the final product. However, colour and pH are easy to change with other components (food colours, acidity regulators) and the effect of milk and sugar substitution on rheological attributes might not be possible to detect without instrumental analysis.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
E. Somogyi
,
Á. Kun
,
J. Lázár
,
P. Bodor-Pesti
, and
D. Á. Nyitrainé Sárdy

Abstract

Quantitative evaluation of the horticultural crops has high importance to identify cultivars, describe the effect of the growing location and cultivation technology or define consumer's preference regarding the size and shape. Fruit traits of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are mainly described by the bunch and berry morphology notably bunch and berry size, weight and shape. Ampelographers particularly evaluate the berry based on the seed number as it influences size and consumers' decision. In this study, berry morphological traits of the grapevine cultivar ‘Italia’ was investigated based on digital image analysis. Samples were collected from two vineyards in Hungary with different ecological and cultivation circumstances. Altogether 12 traits were investigated: weight, seed number, size and shape attributes. Results showed that berry morphological traits – except from the shape attributes – are not differing between the two sampling locations. In accordance with previous studies, seed number – ranging from 0 to 4 – had noticeable effect on the size attributes.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Anikó Kovács
,
Raul Kolinka
,
Györgyné Kóczán
, and
Zoltán Kókai

Abstract

The population of gluten sensitive people has been gradually rising in the last decades. The food industry, especially the bakery industry has to develop more gluten-free products to satisfy the consumer's demand. However, the quality of these products differs from the quality attributes of a standard glutenious bakery product. Therefore, the aim of our research was to develop a good quality gluten-free sourdough product with 3 different gluten-free flours: millet, brown rice and a commercially available mixture (Belbake). We investigated the differences in moisture content, the baking loss, the texture and the sensory properties of the products. According to our results in the case of the moisture content the brown rice sample had the highest, while the millet gave the lowest value. The baking loss measurement gave reverse results. In the texture analysis the brown rice sample was the softest, but the millet and the Belbake had better results in resilience and in springiness. Also, in the sensory analyses the Belbake product was found to be the best by the judges, however, there were no significant differences between them. In conclusion, the product development of a gluten-free sourdough bakery product was successful. Further research is needed to investigate the shelf life of the products.

Open access