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Abstract

Food industrial bacterial cells eliminate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) at different ratios. The study aimed to investigate the effect of AFM1 on probiotic industrial bacteria (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis R703, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12, and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 431) and evaluating their AFM1 binding ability in naturally contaminated milk. The growth of the R703 strain was affected by AFM1 at 1.47 μg L−1 concentration. Peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall fractions of R703 and BB12 bound a significant amount of AFM1 from naturally contaminated milk under one-hour treatment, while L. paracasei 431 was not effective. PG was better absorbent for AFM1 than viable cells of BB12, while the difference was insignificant for the R703 strain. Increasing the time did not significantly change the mycotoxin binding of BB12, while for R703 PG the absorption seemed reversible. BB12 PG needs further analysis for biotechnological application in dairy products.

Open access

Abstract

This work used a carrageenan-based thrombosis model to determine the preventative effects of Lactobacillus plantarum YS1 (LPYS1) on thrombus. In thrombotic mice, LPYS1 improved the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), while decreasing the thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (FIB) content. In thrombotic mouse serum, LPYS1 decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), while also increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Moreover, LPYS1 upregulated the mRNA expression levels of copper/zinc-SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD), manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD), and CAT in the colon tissues of thrombotic mice, while downregulating those of NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA. In tail vein vascular tissues, LPYS1 suppressed the mRNA expression levels of NF-κB p65, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. The abundances of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria were altered by LPYS1. These findings show that LPYS1 has the capacity to protect mice from thrombosis, while also revealing some of the underlying mechanisms of this effect.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Chaalal
,
S. Ydjedd
,
L. Chemache
,
R. López-Nicolás
,
T. Sánchez-Moya
,
C. Frontela-Saseta
,
G. Ros-Berruezo
, and
D.E. Kati

Abstract

Carob pulp is a natural source of polyphenols, which have been shown to possess health benefits. These compounds play a crucial role in initiating, shaping, and modulating the gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of carob pulp phenolic extracts on nine specific groups of human gut microbiota before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The effects of pure gallic and coumaric acids were also tested. The results showed that the treated phenolic compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of most pathogenic bacteria. Gallic acid, in particular, demonstrated the most potent antimicrobial effect on Listeria monocytogenes, reducing its growth to below 5%. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli showed a growth reduction of up to 10%. Furthermore, both phenolic acids, before and after digestion, led to a slight reduction in E. coli O157:H7 numbers. Probiotic bacteria experienced minimal decrease following exposure to phenolic extracts. However, the growth of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus was significantly inhibited by almost 50%. Interestingly, the in vitro digestion process exhibited a stronger antibacterial effect against pathogenic bacteria compared to probiotic bacteria. These results highlight the potential of carob phenolic extracts in modulating the intestinal microbiota, thereby offering interesting prospects for the development of diet-based health strategies.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Vishwa A. Khatri
,
Sambuddha Paul
,
Niraj Jatin Patel
,
Sahaja Thippani
,
Janhavi Y. Sawant
,
Katie L. Durkee
,
Cassandra L. Murphy
,
Geneve Ortiz Aleman
,
Justine A. Valentino
,
Jasmine Jathan
,
Anthony Melillo
, and
Eva Sapi

Abstract

The bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease, can disseminate and colonize various tissues and organs, orchestrating severe clinical symptoms including arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis. Previous research has demonstrated that breast cancer tissues could provide an ideal habitat for diverse populations of bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Recently, we demonstrated that infection with B. burgdorferi enhances the invasion and migration of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells which represent a type of breast tumor with more aggressive cancer traits. In this study, we hypothesized that infection by B. burgdorferi affects the expression of cancer-associated genes to effectuate breast cancer phenotypes. We applied the high-throughput technique of RNA-sequencing on B. burgdorferi-infected MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and normal-like MCF10A cells to determine the most differentially expressed genes (DEG) upon infection. Overall, 142 DEGs were identified between uninfected and infected samples in MDA-MB-231 while 95 DEGs were found in MCF10A cells. A major trend of the upregulation of C-X-C and C-C motif chemokine family members as well as genes and pathways was associated with infection, inflammation, and cancer. These genes could serve as potential biomarkers for pathogen-related tumorigenesis and cancer progression which could lead to new therapeutic opportunities.

Open access

Abstract

Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are currently a worldwide threat affecting millions of individuals. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is associated with numerous virulence factors, including cell surface proteins, polysaccharides, and secreted toxins. The pore-forming α-hemolysin, known as α-toxin, is produced by nearly all virulent strains of S. aureus and is implicated in several diseases including skin and soft tissue infections, atopic dermatitis, and pneumonia. There are currently no vaccines available for the prevention of S. aureus infections and the efficacy of available antibiotics has been fading. In this study we examined the mode of antihemolytic activity of theaflavin-3,3′-digallate against α-hemolysin of methicillin-resistant S. aureus by molecular docking using AutoDock Vina as the molecular docking tool. The theaflavin-3,3′-digallate docked the molecular sequence of the Hla (PDB ID:7ahl). The scores of the top 10 binding modes obtained were between −9.0 and −8.5 kcal mol−1, and the best binding mode was −9.0 kcal mol−1. Direct binding sites of theaflavin-3,3′-digallate to the “stem” domain of Hla were revealed which primarily targeted of the residues Met113, Thr117, Asn139. The disclosure of this potential binding mode warrants further clinical evaluation of theaflavin-3,3′-digallate as an anti-hemolytic compound in order to practically validate our results.

Open access

Abstract

In this study, we compile the findings to date on using several cellulose-based materials as adsorbents of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from wastewater. Furthermore, this review discussed the destiny of PTEs-loaded cellulose-based adsorbents and some sustainable methods for their management, hoping to close the pollution loop.

Open access
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors:
Josepha El Chami
,
Elias El Chami
,
Ákos Tarnawa
,
Katalin Maria Kassai
,
Zoltán Kende
, and
Márton Jolánkai

Abstract

Wheat is a cereal of special importance in the world cereal production. Fusarium head blight is one of the most important diseases of wheat caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium species that significantly reduce wheat production. This disease reduces grain yield and quality and causes the presence of harmful mycotoxins. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality parameters in two wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj. The results showed that Fusarium infection was higher in 2021 (91.47% and 95.20%) compared to 2020 (44.33% and 40.27%) in the two wheat varieties used Alföld and Mv Karéj respectively. In Alföld, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, gluten content and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas falling number was not affected. In Mv Karéj, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas protein content and gluten content were not affected. Although Fusarium infection reduced wheat quality, Mv Karéj showed a stable protein and gluten content whereas Alföld showed a stable falling number. Thus, Mv Karéj is more tolerant to Fusarium infection compared to Alföld.

Open access

Abstract

The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the physical attributes and chemical characteristics of dried apple cubes. The apple cubes were dried in vacuum and infrared dryers at 40 °C and freeze dryer individually and in combination. The physical properties – texture and rehydration – of vacuum drying-assisted freeze-dried apple dices were close to the freeze-dried products. The hardness of vacuum drying-assisted freeze-dried apples was better, by at least 15.8%, than those dried by infrared-freeze, but rehydration capacities were similar. The freeze-dried control samples achieved a lower water activity (0.145) in comparison with infrared, vacuum, and combined dried ones. The infrared-freeze-dried samples retained 3.6 and 11.6% more polyphenols and antioxidant capacity than samples prepared by the other methods. The ascorbic acid content of the freeze-dried samples was significantly higher by about 59% than that of the hybrid dried samples.

Open access

Abstract

The popularity of sweet potatoes in Central Europe has been increasing recently, mainly the high-quality, perfect, fresh tubers are in demand. However, out of class grade tubers could be marketed in dried, grounded form as sweet potato flour.

The aim of this study was to characterise some important nutritional properties of flours of three sweet potato genotypes with different tuber colours (white, purple, and orange) and to investigate how this raw material affects the rheological properties of sweet potato-wheat flour blends.

Dietary fibres are present in sweet potatoes in a significant proportion, orange coloured flour showed the highest values. The main free sugars were sucrose, glucose, and fructose, but sucrose was the dominant one. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content also varied considerably, the purple flour had the highest values. Mineral composition showed significant variability, the purple flour contained the highest level of minerals. It was confirmed that adding sweet potato flour to wheat flour affected its rheological properties, however in a varied manner. For the orange flour these properties have lightly decreased, though it had no significant effect on dough quality, while the white and purple flours with a dosage of 5, 10 and 15% could improve the dough behaviour. Thus, sweet potato in this form is a valuable raw material.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of our research was to study the water and ethanol extractable polyphenols of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) harvested in different seasons and to determine their antimicrobial activity against certain human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria and yeasts.

Our results indicate that the spring leaf extracts had higher polyphenol contents than the root one; however, close to the end of the vegetation period these values decreased considerably in both leaves and roots. Detection and quantification of the most abundant phenolic compounds in the spring extracts by HPLC revealed the occurrence of 12 different phenol carboxylic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoid compounds were more abundant than phenol carboxylic acids in the leaves; however, their proportion was equal in the case of the roots. Nettle leaf extracts had remarkable antimicrobial activity, the spring extracts were more efficient than the autumn ones. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to every leaf extract, while Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had reduced but remarkable sensitivity patterns. Among the yeasts, Candida glabrata was strongly inhibited by the aqueous leaf extracts. Most of the strains were insensitive to the root extracts, although Enterococcus faecalis was inhibited by the root and not the leaf extracts.

Open access