Authors:Judith Pöppe, Katrin Bote, Roswitha Merle, Olga Makarova and Uwe Roesler
Glyphosate, the active compound of Roundup, is one of the most used pesticides in the world. Its residues are often detected in animal feed, but the impact on the animal gut microbiota and on pathogens of the intestine has not intensively been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of glyphosate isopropylamine salt and a common glyphosate-containing herbicide formulation in 225 Salmonella enterica isolates by broth microdilution. A bacteriostatic effect of glyphosate on Salmonella growth was detected at the concentration range of 10 to 80 mg/mL for both the active ingredient and the ready-to-use formulation. Time/year of isolation, host species, and serovars revealed a statistically significant influence on MIC values. Recently collected Salmonella isolates had significantly higher MIC values for glyphosate and the glyphosate-containing product compared with isolates collected between 1981 and 1990. Isolates from pigs showed significantly higher MIC values compared with isolates from poultry, and isolates of the Salmonella serovar Typhimurium had significantly higher MIC values than Salmonella Enteritidis and Infantis isolates.
Authors:Rita Lenkei, Ákos Pogány and Claudia Fugazza
Most of the studies investigating the effect of early rearing environment in dogs used laboratory dogs and reported that early experiences markedly affect the puppies’ behavior. However, the subjects of these experiments cannot be considered as representatives of family dogs.
In this study, we investigated whether different raising conditions shape social behavior toward humans in 8-week-old family dog puppies of two breeds, Labrador and Czechoslovakian wolf dog. The puppies were tested in a series of tests that represented typical situations of family dogs.
We found that Czechoslovakian wolf dog puppies were more active than Labrador puppies in general, as they were more likely to explore the environment and the objects and spent more time doing so. Tendency to gaze at humans also varied between breeds, but in a context-specific way. Additionally, puppies housed separately from their mother interacted more with toys, puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay closer to the experimenter than puppies raised in the house, and puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay in the proximity of the experimenter more than puppies raised in the house.
Our results provide evidence for early keeping conditions influencing social behavior and also highlight breed differences in puppies’ behavior. Whether these differences are due to different developmental patterns and/or behavioral predispositions remains to be explored.
Authors:Elizabeth M. Marlowe, Peter Gohl, Michael Steidle, Rodney Arcenas and Carolin Bier
Trichomoniasis, a common curable sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is usually asymptomatic. However, symptomatic women may experience vaginal discharge and/or vulvar irritation. This study evaluated cobas® TV/ Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) (Conformité Européene marking for in vitro diagnostic medical devices [CE-IVD]) against other nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detecting TV in female urogenital specimens. Matched de-identified specimens from 412 females were collected. cobas® TV/MG results were compared against a composite reference (CR) of 3 different NAATs for TV (Aptima TV, modified S-DiaMGTV™, and a laboratory-developed test). The overall TV prevalence rate was 6.2%, based on cobas® TV/MG results. Relative to the CR, cobas® TV/MG sensitivity/specificity for the specimen types were endocervical swabs (ES) 100%/99.2%, vaginal swabs (VS) 100%/99.7%, urine (U) 100%/99.7%, and cervical specimens in PreservCyt® solution (PC) 100%/99.5%. There was no significant statistical difference between clinician-collected and self-collected VS (p = 0.28). Correlation of cobas® TV/MG vs. Aptima TV demonstrated the following positive, negative, and overall percent agreements, respectively: ES 69.0%, 98.7%, and 96.6%; VS 88.9%, 99.5%, and 98.8%; U 100%, 100%, and 100%; and PC 95.5%, 99.0%, and 98.8%. Detection of TV with cobas® TV/MG for use on the cobas® 6800/8800 systems demonstrated excellent performance in female urogenital specimens (overall sensitivity/specificity of 100%/≥99.2%).
Authors:S. Montoya-Arango, J. F. Acevedo-Quintero and J. L. Parra
The relationships between frugivorous animals and plants are of vital importance particularly in tropical forests. The way species interact and how they are organized within interaction networks could be determined by their ecological and morphological characteristics. This study evaluates the hypothesis that the topological position of species within an interaction network is determined by their degree of frugivory, body size, and abundance. Thus, we constructed the frugivory network between birds and plants in a rainforest fragment in northwestern Colombia. The position of the species within the network was calculated based on three centrality measures (degree, betweenness, and closeness), and its association with relative abundance, degree of frugivory, and body size of each bird species was evaluated by means of a generalized linear model. We found that the species that were most abundant and had the smallest body size had central positions in the interaction network. This pattern is contrary to what has been observed in pristine forests, where species with large body size are more important for network stability. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation modifies the roles of species within the network structure, in part, due to changes in the makeup of the original frugivore community. The information presented may be useful to evaluate the effects of the loss of species as a result of anthropic actions, with the aim of generating ecosystem restoration strategies.
Authors:M. Panuccio, N. Agostini, L. Nelli, G. Andreou and S. Xirouchachis
A growing number of ecological studies suggest that animal distributions are not only influenced by classical ecological features such as habitat availability, but also by the motion capacity of the studied animal. Here we analyse the diversity and density of two wintering raptor communities from Crete and Sicily, two large Mediterranean islands located along migratory flyways. We performed 611 and 1030 km of transects in Crete and Sicily respectively, examining the spatial distribution of raptors in relation to land use, topography, raptor species diversity and abundance. Our results show that community diversity and specific abundance are strictly related in accordance with the ‘More Individuals Hypothesis’. Comparing the two most common raptors, the density of the Eurasian kestrel was the highest in Sicily and that of the common buzzard in Crete. An overall positive effect of Eurasian kestrel density on that of the common buzzard was found in both islands, but higher in Crete. Our findings suggest that the distribution and density of the Eurasian kestrel, because of its higher movement ability, are less influenced by the presence of ecological barriers along potentially migratory flyways. We cannot exclude that higher inter specific competition with common buzzards in Crete might have pushed the smaller species to cross the Mediterranean Sea in order to overwinter in Africa.
Biological invasion is a crucial problem in the world because of its negative consequences for protected areas. The degradation stage of vegetation might affect the success of invasion. One of the most abundant and threatening invasive species is the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) which has invaded already 23 countries of Europe and in several habitat types its further spreading is promoted by climate change. Pannonian sand grassland is one of the most threatened habitat by common milkweed invasion. Therefore, invasion in sand grassland vegetation is an important issue. However, the effects of the invasive plant in the open sand grassland are rather controversial. In order to clarify the existing contradictory results, the study was carried out in a strictly protected area, near Fülöpháza (Hungary) in a reserve core area in a UNESCO biosphere reserve. Microcoenological study was applied to determinate the fine-scale community characteristics of non-invaded and invaded stands in natural and seminatural vegetation and data were processed by Juhász-Nagy's information theory models. Shannon diversity of species combinations (compositional diversity) which describes the ways of the coexistence of species, and the number of realized species combinations were used for measuring beta diversity. Differences between stands were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The maximum compositional diversity of species and main life-forms (annuals, perennials and cryptogams) did not differ significantly between the non-invaded and invaded stands. In contrast, significantly larger characteristic areas of compositional diversity were detected in the invaded stands. Based on these results, it could be concluded that diversity of species combinations did not change but those values have shifted to coarser scales in case of invaded stands. The direction of this change suggests a kind of impoverishment in the presence of Asclepias. Thus, it is worth mentioning from the invasion management point of view that protection of the habitats against disturbance is a more cost-effective and successful way than protection against the establishment or extirpation of invasive species, since disturbance facilitates the invasions throughout the impoverishment of the community.
Functional responses measure the trophic interactions between species, taking into account the density and behavior of the interacting species. In predator-prey interactions, the prey preference of the predator and the antipredator behavior of the prey together determine the feeding rate of the predator and the survival rate of the prey. Consequently, the behavior dependent functional responses make it possible to establish dynamic ecological models providing insight, among others, into the coexistence of predator and prey species and the efficiency of agents in biological pest control. In this paper the derivation methods of functional responses are reviewed. Basically, there are three classes of such methods: heuristic, stochastic and deterministic ones. All of them can take account of the behavior of the predator and prey. There are three main stochastic methods for the derivation of functional responses: renewal theory, Markov chain and the Wald equality-based method. All these methods assume that during the foraging process the prey densities do not change, which provides a mathematical basis for heuristic derivation. There are two deterministic methods using differential equations. The first one also assumes that during the foraging process the prey densities do not change, while the second one does not use that assumption. These derivation methods are appropriate to handle the behavior dependent functional responses, which is essential in the derivation of ecological games, when the payoff of prey and predator depends on the strategies of the prey and predator at the same time.
Authors:Carlo Pazzini, Parviz Ahmad-Nejad and Beniam Ghebremedhin
Nowadays, multidrug-resistant bacteria are considered as an increasing serious threat to public health worldwide. Global and local surveillance data are helpful in the application of the most efficient antimicrobial agent in bacterial infections. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the activity of the previously cleared agent ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) in African and European multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Susceptibility testing was performed on 147 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (107 Escherichia coli and 40 Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 103 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria using Etest according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) clinical breakpoints. Among the extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing isolates, 91 Escherichia coli isolates (85%) and 23 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (57.5%) were susceptible towards C/T whereas out of the 103 carbapenemase-producing isolates 102 (99.0%) were C/T-resistant. C/T should be included in susceptibility testing to fairly administer this antimicrobial agent in infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. It may be considered as a therapy option for infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria once susceptibility to this antimicrobial combination has been confirmed.
This paper presents the phytosociological description of a drained swamp community, Veratro albi-Fraxinetum angustifoliae, so far found only in the Nyírség at Nyírábrány “Kis-kőrises”, “Mogyorósi-erdő”; Vámospércs “Jónásrész-Kőrises”; and Vámospércs “Jónásrész-Buzita”. The habitat of the community is transitional between that of alder swamps (Fraxino pannonicae-Alnetum glutinosae), and hardwood riparian forests (Fraxino pannonicae-Ulmetum). The community is characterised by high proportions of character species of Alnion glutinosae and Molinion coerulei as well as Quercetea pubescentis-petraeae s. l. whereas character species of the order Fagetalia are almost completely absent. It hosts several rare, often threatened species, such as Angelica palustris, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Trollius europaeus and Veratrum album.
Authors:Katharina Mrazek, Stefan Bereswill and Markus M. Heimesaat
Intestinal carriage of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae) constitutes a pivotal prerequisite for subsequent fatal endogenous infections in patients at risk. We here addressed whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could effectively combat MDR-Psae carriage. Therefore, secondary abiotic mice were challenged with MDR-Psae by gavage. One week later, mice were subjected to peroral FMT from either murine or human donors on 3 consecutive days. Irrespective of murine or human origin of fecal transplant, intestinal MDR-Psae loads decreased as early as 24 h after the initial FMT. Remarkably, the murine FMT could lower intestinal MDR-Psae burdens by approximately 4 log orders of magnitude within 1 week. In another intervention study, mice harboring a human gut microbiota were perorally challenged with MDR-Psae and subjected to murine FMT on 3 consecutive days, 1 week later. Strikingly, within 5 days, murine FMT resulted in lower loads and carrier rates of MDR-Psae in mice with a human gut microbiota. In conclusion, FMT might be a promising antibiotics-independent option to combat intestinal MDR-Psae carriage and thus prevent from future endogenous infections of patients at risk.