A free computer program, called DiffMap, is presented for off-line evaluation of both phase maps and orientation maps from a large number of diffraction patterns recorded with a nearly parallel nano-beam scanned line-by-line over a rectangular area in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The program runs in the Windows operating system on IBM PC compatible computers. The patterns, which are recorded independently from this program by a CCD or CMOS camera or by a pixelated camera are in Tif format, serve as input to DiffMap. Many STEMs can collect such a four-dimensional electron diffraction (4D-ED) data sets by proper selection of microscope parameters, even if this fact is not over-emphasized in the operating manuals. These phase and orientation maps can complement usual compositional maps collected in the same STEM with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometers (EDS) to give a complete description of the crystalline phases. Application is exemplified on the (fcc, hcp and bcc) phases in a sample with 4 major components (Co, Cr, Fe, Ni).
Soil science, a relatively young field of research with a history of fewer than two centuries, experienced an exponential expansion in scientific output in the last decades. While the output of all sub-disciplines is growing, research efforts in these sub-disciplines differ, reflecting the importance of the subjects. The broadening focus of soil science can be detected by the content of the increasing number and diverting thematic sessions of the World Soil Science Congresses, which are held every four years since the beginning of the 20th century. The structure of the current world congress is supposed to reflect the contemporary understanding of the internal structure of soil science, including its subdivision by major themes. Considering these soil themes/sub-disciplines, we assessed the evolution of soil science in the last three decades using scientific publications as indicators. Furthermore, we evaluated the inter-linkages of soil topics within soil research using network analysis and assessed the contribution of science to the broader fields of studies, from agriculture to engineering and environmental sciences. Results show that scientific interest towards all sub-disciplines is exploding, but environment-related topics, including subjects related to climate and contamination, show an even sharper increase. As far as the internal structure of soil science is concerned, research efforts are organised around the major topics of microbiology, soil contamination, nutrients, soil physics and water management. Our study reveals that currently the highest interest towards soil is coming from ecology and environmental sciences, followed by agriculture, engineering, geology and plant sciences, respectively.
Authors:N. Kellner, E. Antal, A. Szabó, and R. Matolcsi
Guignardia bidwellii, indigenous to North America, is a significant pathogen of grapes long known in Hungary, infecting only the growing green parts of the vine (leaves, petioles, shoots, and bunches). In the absence of adequate plant protection and extreme weather conditions such as a predominantly humid, warm year, black rot of grapes can be expected. The pathogen can cause high yield losses due to grape rot and reduce wine quality if the infection is severe.
The evolution of certain biogenic amine compounds were investigated under the influence of grape black rot. The results obtained showed that they were present in low concentrations from an oenological point of view. Polyphenol composition was consistent with the literature, blackening affected mainly the concentration of catechin. Black rot fungus does not produce β-glucosidase enzyme. In terms of resveratrol content, black rot has no particular effect. However, like Botrytis cinerea, it produces glycerol and, proportionally, gluconic acid in lower concentrations.
It can be concluded that black rot of grapes does not cause health problems when introduced into wine processing.
Authors:Péter Németh, Kit McColl, Laurence A.J. Garvie, Furio Corà, Christoph G. Salzmann, and Paul F. McMillan
Shock waves resulting from asteroidal and laboratory impacts convert sp2-bonded graphitic material to sp3-bonded diamond. Depending on the shock pressure and temperature conditions, complex nanostructures can form that are neither graphite nor diamond but belong to the diaphite material group, which are characterized by structurally intergrown layered sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon domains. Our ultrahigh-resolution transmission electron microscopy images combined with density functional theory calculations demonstrate that diaphites have two related but distinct structural families. Here, we describe diaphite nanostructures from natural and laboratory shocked samples, provide a framework for classifying the members of these materials, and draw attention to their excellent mechanical and electronic material properties.
Authors:József Mihalkó, Dóra Szepesi-Bencsik, Gabriella Zsarnóczay, and László Ferenc Friedrich
Animal food, especially meat, has played an important role in the history of mankind. Different meats can be used in the production of meat products. In addition to lean meats, mechanically deboned meat (MDM) and mechanically separated meat (MSM) can also be used in meat products. However, the latter does not qualify as meat due to damage to the muscular structure due to the high pressure applied during the separation, therefore cannot be included in the meat content of products.
The aim of our experiment was to compare whole, minced meat, MDM and MSM from turkey (raw and in the form of meat paste). Technofunctional tests (water-holding and -binding capacity), color measurement, chemical composition (moisture, protein and fat content), electron microscopic recording, rheological properties show that the quality of MSM is inferior to other meat raw materials. These properties can also result in the production of lower quality products.
Authors:I. Soural, P. Švestková, P. Híc, and J. Balík
A number of methods have been applied to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC), including FRAP, which is based on reducing the amount of iron ions in a complex compound. Researchers often use measurement of absorbance 10 min after mixing a sample with the FRAP reaction solution to calculate TAC. The FRAP solution has been shown to alter absorbance over time by ca 0.0010–0.0020 per hour, under storage conditions. This article intends to show that some substances do not fully or sufficiently react within the common analysis period. It is evident from the results that some substances react more quickly and others very slowly. Absorbance in relation to various phenols was measured. Compared to the levels of absorbance at 10 min, mean absorbance at 48 h was higher by 5,395% for vanillin, 426% for caffeic acid, 170% for sinapinic acid, 67% for gallic acid, 19% for syringic acid, and only by 4% for Trolox. Results for vanillin and caffeic acid indicate potential auto-catalysis.
Authors:Cs. Benedek, O. Szakolczi, G. Makai, G. Kiskó, and Z. Kókai
Hungarian fruit vinegars were characterised in terms of physicochemical attributes (total polyphenol content, antioxidant characteristics/FRAP, CUPRAC, ABTS/, ascorbic acid content, pH, total soluble solids), sensory profiles, and antimicrobial properties.
Both compositional and sensory profiles showed distinct patterns depending on the type of vinegar (Tokaj wine, balsamic or apple) and the additional fruit used. Balsamic vinegars maturated on rosehip, sea buckthorn, and raspberry showed outstanding antioxidant performances. Rosehip, raspberry, and quince vinegars, as well as vinegars produced from Tokaji aszú and balsamic apple obtained high scores for fruity and sweet notes.
Antimicrobial activities were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, including probiotic bacteria. Generally, only weak activities were obtained, which was attributed to the natural sugar content of the samples, depending on the type of the vinegar and the fruit. Similar results, but more pronounced bacterial growth inhibitions were obtained for probiotic strains, however, some probiotic strains were resistant to at least two of the vinegars. Based on these, balsamic apple, raspberry, rosehip, quince, and sea buckthorn may qualify as potential functional components of probiotic preparations containing some of the strains tested.
Authors:Beáta Dávid, Tünde Szabó, Éva Huszti, and István Bukovics
Összefoglaló. Jelen tanulmányunk a biztonság társadalmi aspektusait
egy speciális csoport, a mélyszegénységben élő családok és az őket segítő
szakemberek körében vizsgálja a COVID–19 idején. Kvalitatív módszerrel
(csoportos és egyéni interjúk) a makro- (szociális támogatórendszer) és a
mikrotársadalmi biztonság dimenziók összefüggését, valamint a mikroszintű
biztonság dimenziók közti viszonyokat elemezzük. Ez utóbbi dimenziók leírásánál
a kisgyermekes családok munkaerőpiaci és ezzel együtt anyagi helyzetére,
mentális egészségi állapotukra, valamint az oktatási helyzet bemutatására
koncentrálunk. Az egyes témák leírásánál az érintett családok és az őket segítő
szakemberek helyzetértékelése is megjelenik a velük készített interjúk elemzése
Summary. This study examines the social aspects of security among a
specific group of families living in extreme poverty and the professionals
helping them during Covid-19. Using a qualitative method (group and individual
interviews), we analyse the relationship between macro (social support system)
and micro social dimensions of security, as well as the linkages between
micro-level dimensions of security. In describing the latter dimensions, we will
focus on the labour market situation of families with young children, and hence
on their financial situation, their mental health situation and their
educational situation. The description of each theme also includes an assessment
of the situation of the families concerned and the professionals who help them,
based on an analysis of the interviews conducted with them. In the first phase
of the study, social problems were identified on the basis of interviews with
experts. In the second phase, individual interviews were conducted with the
people concerned, the disadvantaged. 11 interviews were conducted with experts:
5 individual and 6 group interviews. In the second phase, 50 disadvantaged
people were interviewed individually.
In general, it can be concluded that the daily life of people living in
disadvantaged areas has been further affected by the pandemic. The labour market
situation has changed and, in this context, the financial situation of the
interviewees has further deteriorated. Single-parent families were particularly
affected by these problems. The transition to online education has created
difficulties for families, children, and teachers and additional tasks for
social workers. In many places, the lack of accessible services, the low
availability of equipment and low level of digital literacy have prevented
distance learning from taking place, and the negative consequences for the
population under study can only be predicted. The epidemic has affected the
population not only financially but also mentally. The reduction in social life
has led to an increase in domestic violence. In some areas, the number of births
in disadvantaged families has increased, especially among minors. In fact, the
epidemic has brought to the surface the problems that disadvantaged people face
on a daily basis: unemployment and deprivation, compounded by educational
underachievement. The workload of those working in the social field has also
become more visible: a shortage of staff and a lack of resources. At the same
time, the enormous potential and flexibility of the current human resources have
Összefoglaló. Az elmúlt mintegy másfél év alatt a COVID–19 vírus
valójában több struktúrában megrengette a világot, az Európai Uniót és egyes
országokat is. A világ államai rövid idő alatt bezárkóztak, az Európai Unió 30
napra lezárta külső határait, az egyes tagállamok pedig az uniós belső határokat
is lezárták. Veszélybe került a schengeni rendszer. A Kárpát-medence államai az
elsők között reagáltak a határok lezárásával. Az egyéni döntések kritikája
erőteljesen megjelent az Európai Bizottság részéről. A globális, az európai és a
szomszédállami folyamatok összefüggtek. A határok lezárása feltehetően
hozzájárult a vírus terjedésének a korlátozásához. (Ausztrália példája ezt
erősíti.) A határzárak a nemzetközi tranzitforgalomban, a határ menti
területeken élők és az ingázók között okozták a legnagyobb bizonytalanságot,
több esetben zűrzavart.
Summary. According to the first ‘official announcement’ in December
of 2019 the Covid-19 virus is reported to have emerged in China. The global
spread of the virus was extremely fast. On 11 March 2020, the WHO declared
Covid-19 to be a global pandemic. As of 31 March 2020 about 91% of the world
population lived in countries with border and travel restrictions (border-closed
world). The brief analysis reviews the main processes affecting EU and Member
States borders, with a special regard to Hungary and its neighbours in the
Carpathian Basin. On 17 March 2020, the EU closed its external borders for 30
days.to non-EU citizens. In parallel, a number of Member States decided to close
their borders to both Schengen Zone members and third countries. As a response
to border closures, the EU Commission and some states organized the repatriation
of about 600,000 EU citizens. On 4 March, virus was officially reported to have
been detected in Hungary. On 11 March the Hungarian Government declared a
national state of emergency. On 15 March the first coronavirus-related death was
announced. On 16 March the Government ordered the complete closure of Hungarian
borders. After a border ‘traffic chaos’ along the Austrian-Hungarian border, the
Hungarian Government – with collaborations with Romania – opened humanitarian
corridors for foreign citizens. The possibilities of border crossings of
citizens of seven neighbours of Hungary were formed not just by Hungary. In 2020
because of different changes (modifications, opening and closing) we could form
at least three categories: open borders, partly open borders, closed borders. In
the neighbouring countries (Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia,
Croatia, Slovenia) the progression of the epidemic followed the same pattern.
Over the past year and a half the virus crisis has actually shaken many
structures of the globalized world, the European Union and many countries in the
Carpathian Basin. The virus crises has disrupted intensive connections between
Hungary and neighbouring countries. Neither Hungary nor its neighbours were able
to insulate themselves from the epidemic waves. The border restrictions
primarily affected the movements of persons. Because of ‘permanent uncertainty’
commuters were the losers of the crisis.
Authors:Zsuzsanna Hauck, Tamás Vasvári, and József Vörös
Összefoglaló. Jelen tanulmányban a termelési folyamatokat, valamint
statisztikai adatokat elemezve azt vizsgáljuk, hogy a pandémia során milyen
hatások érték az inputokat, magát a termelést, az outputokat, illetve hogyan
változtak meg olyan versenyprioritási tényezők, mint az idő, a minőség vagy a
rugalmasság. Mivel a rövidebb, a kevésbé komplex és rugalmasabb értékláncok
válságállóbbnak tűnnek, ez felgyorsíthatja az ellátási láncok regionalizációját,
amit tovább fokoz, hogy a termelőszektor gyors visszarendeződésével szemben a
szolgáltató ágazatoknak elhúzódó kilábalással kell szembenézniük. Ezért azt is
megvizsgáltuk, hogy az egyes országok ellenálló képessége függ-e a termelő
szektor méretétől. Eredményeink alapján, ahol nagyobb az ipar aránya, ott
gyorsabban képes a gazdaság talpra állni, ami újabb lökést adhat a fejlett
államok iparfejlesztési törekvéseinek.
Summary. The coronavirus epidemic posed challenges to all. However,
with proper discipline, increased efficiency and adaptability, companies and
economies can emerge stronger from this situation. In this study, we examine
vulnerability of industries along three dimensions according to the general
model of production complemented by aggregate statistics from Eurostat.
In terms of procurement, shorter value chains seem more resilient than complex
and long supply chains. Supplier risks may be also mitigated by increasing the
number of suppliers of critical inputs. The costs and risks of transporting
goods are also increasing. 90% of industrial products are involved in
international trade, mostly transported through maritime shipping that faces
significant increase in tariffs, and the difficulty of replacing crews could
lead to further disruptions to the operation of maritime routes. Thus, it is not
surprising that the pandemic has increased the issue of supply chain flexibility
and simplification, and has drawn attention to the importance of inventories and
input replacement. Companies may consider to diversify production sites or even
reshore or nearshore their production.
The rate of recovery varies in each sector: in services requiring a personal
presence, such as tourism, the sudden economic downturn is followed by a slow
growth, contrary to the rapid rebound of industrial production. Therefore,
countries with significant manufacturing will witness V-shaped recovery, while
higher reliance on services is characterized by slower and longer L-shaped
scenario. Thus, the pandemic also pointed out that industrial production is key
in a national economy: besides that industrial innovations increase productivity
(and living standards) and manufacturing functions also have a significant
multiplier effect on the service sector, manufacturing also has significant
resistance against a pandemic. This could give a further push to the ongoing
industrial development programs of developed economies such as Germany, the
United States, or the European Union. At the same time, services that are able
to move online show no decline, while service requiring a personal presence may
struggle in the long run. Overall, structural changes are inevitable and
companies have to adapt to the novel consuming and working preferences.