The present study investigated processing bias for game-related cues in problematic mobile gamers (PMGs) under or above the threshold of conscious awareness.
In Experiment 1, all participants (20 PMGs and 23 casual players (CPs)) finished a masked visual probe task during a brief (17ms) masked exposure condition. In Experiment 2, an unmasked visual probe task was conducted by an additional forty participants (20 PMGs and 20 CPs) at two exposure durations (200 and 500ms).
Results showed that PMGs, but not CPs, had an attentional bias for game-related cues which had been presented with two exposure durations (17 and 200ms).
Discussion and conclusion
In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that bias in PMGs could be observed both preconsciously and consciously. The results are discussed with reference to incentive sensitization theory and automatic action schema theory.
Gambling disorder is associated with increased suicidality, especially in women who also are more likely to have psychiatric comorbid disorders and more often have experiences of traumatic life events. Although suicidality is increased and several risk factors have been identified, knowledge of the suicidal process is lacking, especially for women.
To explore the lived experiences of suicidality in women with gambling disorder and to investigate potential factors involved in the development of suicidality.
Semi-structured interviews were held with seven women with experiences of gambling disorder and suicidality in Malmö, Sweden between November 2021 and June 2022, when saturation was reached. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded in NVivo. Qualitative content analysis was used to build categories and themes.
Several women had experienced suicidality before developing gambling disorder and gambling-related suicidality. However, for some, suicidality had appeared seemingly only due to the gambling disorder. Suicidality ranged from ideation to severe suicide attempts. Three themes of factors modulating suicidality related to gambling were found; a) guilt shame and self-stigmatization, b) loss of control/chaotic life circumstances, and c) social consequences/fear of guilt and shame from others.
More research on the experience of suicidality in women with gambling disorder is needed. Attempts to address self-stigmatization, guilt, and shame in women with gambling disorder and society at large as well as aiding women to regain a sense of control over their economy and gambling may be ways to reduce suicidality.
Despite its inclusion in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, there is a virtual paucity of high-quality scientific evidence about compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD), especially in underrepresented and underserved populations. Therefore, we comprehensively examined CSBD across 42 countries, genders, and sexual orientations, and validated the original (CSBD-19) and short (CSBD-7) versions of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder Scale to provide standardized, state-of-the-art screening tools for research and clinical practice.
Using data from the International Sex Survey (N = 82,243; Mage= 32.39 years, SD = 12.52), we evaluated the psychometric properties of the CSBD-19 and CSBD-7 and compared CSBD across 42 countries, three genders, eight sexual orientations, and individuals with low vs. high risk of experiencing CSBD.
A total of 4.8% of the participants were at high risk of experiencing CSBD. Country- and gender-based differences were observed, while no sexual-orientation-based differences were present in CSBD levels. Only 14% of individuals with CSBD have ever sought treatment for this disorder, with an additional 33% not having sought treatment because of various reasons. Both versions of the scale demonstrated excellent validity and reliability.
Discussion and conclusions
This study contributes to a better understanding of CSBD in underrepresented and underserved populations and facilitates its identification in diverse populations by providing freely accessible ICD-11-based screening tools in 26 languages. The findings may also serve as a crucial building block to stimulate research into evidence-based, culturally sensitive prevention and intervention strategies for CSBD that are currently missing from the literature.
Gambling in adolescents is a public health concern. This study sought to examine patterns of gambling among Connecticut high-school students using seven representative samples covering a 12-year period.
Data were analyzed from N = 14,401 participants in cross-sectional surveys conducted every two years based on random sampling from schools in the state of Connecticut. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires included socio-demographic data, current substance use, social support, and traumatic experiences at school. Chi-square tests were used to compare socio-demographic characteristics between gambling and non-gambling groups. Logistic regressions were used to assess changes in the prevalence of gambling over time and effects of potential risk factors on the prevalence, adjusted for age, sex, and race.
Overall, the prevalence of gambling largely decreased from 2007 to 2019, although the pattern was not linear. After steadily declining from 2007 to 2017, 2019 was associated with increased rates of gambling participation. Consistent statistical predictors of gambling were male gender, older age, alcohol and marijuana use, higher levels of traumatic experiences at school, depression, and low levels of social support.
Discussion and conclusion
Among adolescents, older males may be particularly vulnerable to gambling that relates importantly to substance use, trauma, affective concerns, and poor support. Although gambling participation appears to have declined, the recent increase in 2019 that coincides with increased sports gambling advertisements, media coverage and availability warrants further study. Our findings suggest the importance of developing school-based social support programs that may help reduce adolescent gambling.
Most modern modalities of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP) aim to minimize harm and maximize support by utilizing close, formalized supervision for a single participant per session. However, these substances are used naturalistically in a wide variety of settings. Our goal was to evaluate the perceived benefits and harms of naturalistic psychedelic use in diverse settings, with and without guidance/supervision.
An anonymous survey was distributed over Internet forums to solicit responses from English-speaking adults, with questions regarding the setting and perceived mental health-related outcomes of classic psychedelics. Data were analyzed to compare effects of group versus solo setting on perceived outcomes.
For the goal of improving mental health, use in a solo setting was more common than in a group setting (COR 0.37 (0.20–0.68), p = 0.03) and was associated with more subjective symptom improvement (COR 0.22 (0.11–0.42), p = 0.0002). However, there was no significant difference in perceived overall mental health benefit between use in group and solo settings (p = 1). Subjective negative outcomes on mental health were rare and not associated more so with psychedelic use in any particular setting. A majority of naturalistic psychedelic use took place in an informal setting, with no significant difference between solo or group users (95% vs 91%, p = 0.3).
Naturalistic psychedelic users are as likely to report an overall positive outcome and no more likely to report adverse events in group settings than in solo settings. This supports further research into PAP in group settings.
The intersection between philosophy and psychedelics is explored in the book “Philosophy and Psychedelics: Frameworks for Exceptional Experience”. The authors aim to develop a dialogue between the two disciplines and explore the various frameworks for understanding exceptional experiences that psychedelics have afforded human beings. The book delves into foundational, ontological, and epistemological questions, including the hard problem of consciousness, the metaphysical understanding of the self, and the aesthetic meaning of the sublime in psychedelic experience. The book provides valuable exploration of questions concerning prevailing metaphysical frameworks, epistemic belief structures, and modes of inquiry, and the effort made by the authors to bring into dialogue multiple dialectics and practices, perspectives and methods is commendable.
Sports betting has increased markedly in recent years, in part due to legislative changes and the introduction of novel forms of sports betting (e.g., in-play betting). Some evidence suggests that in-play betting is more harmful than other types of sports betting (i.e., traditional and single-event). However, existing research on in-play sports betting has been limited in scope. To address this gap, the present study examined the extent to which demographic, psychological, and gambling-related constructs (e.g., harms) are endorsed by in-play sports bettors relative to single-event and traditional sports bettors.
Sports bettors (N = 920) aged 18+ from Ontario, Canada completed an online survey containing self-report measures of demographic, psychological, and gambling-related variables. Participants were classified as either in-play (n = 223), single-event (n = 533), or traditional bettors (n = 164) based on their sports betting engagement.
In-play sports bettors reported higher problem gambling severity, endorsed greater gambling-related harms across several domains, and reported greater mental health and substance use difficulties compared to single-event and traditional sports bettors. There were generally no differences between single-event and traditional sports bettors.
Results provide empirical support for the potential harms associated with in-play sports betting and inform our understanding of who may be at risk for increased harms associated with in-play betting.
Findings may be important for the development of public health and responsible gambling initiatives to reduce the potential harms of in-play betting, particularly as many jurisdictions globally move towards legalization of sports betting.
Individuals with gambling disorder (GD) often suffer from psychiatric comorbidities. Previous studies demonstrated greater severity of GD among gamblers with psychiatric comorbidities. However, evidence on the association between psychiatric comorbidity and course of GD severity during and after outpatient treatment is sparse. This study analyses data from a longitudinal one-armed cohort study on outpatient addiction care clients over three years.
We investigated the course of GD severity using data from 123 clients in 28 outpatient addiction care facilities in Bavaria using generalized estimation equations (GEE). We applied time* interaction analyses to examine different development profiles in participants with and without (1) affective disorders, or (2) anxiety disorders, and (3) to account for the co-occurrence of both.
All participants benefitted from outpatient gambling treatment. Improvement in GD severity was poorer in participants with anxiety disorders compared to participants without anxiety disorders. The co-occurrence of affective and anxiety disorders was linked to a less favourable course of GD than the presence of affective disorders alone. However, the combined occurrence of both disorders was more favourable than the presence of anxiety disorders alone.
Discussion and conclusions
Our study suggests that clients with GD, with and without psychiatric comorbidities, benefit from outpatient gambling care. Psychiatric comorbidity, especially comorbid anxiety disorders, seems to be negatively associated with the course of GD within outpatient gambling care. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity within the treatment of GD and offering individualised help are required to meet the needs of this clientele.
On February 2023, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) released a document to the legal team representing the Church of the Eagle and the Condor (“CEC”). This disclosure came two years after the church, in conjunction with Chacruna Institute, submitted two FOIA requests to the DEA and the Department of Justice requesting all records pertaining to ayahuasca. This report, titled “Ayahuasca: Risks to Public Health and Safety,” was issued in July 2020. In the present article, we challenge a number of claims made in the DEA report and highlight significant factual omissions, theoretical biases, and misinterpretations of existing data. We will demonstrate that the DEA report severely downplays the safety profile and therapeutic potential of ayahuasca and overemphasizes the risks. It also fails to include current research on ayahuasca demonstrating its potential benefits.
Problematic use of the internet (PUI) among adolescents has become one of the public problems around the world. Understanding the developmental trajectory of PUI may be beneficial to develop prevention and intervention. The current study aimed to identify the developmental trajectories of PUI among adolescents, considering individual differences over time. And also explored how familial factors contributed to the identified trajectories, and the relationship between PUI changes over time and social, mental health, and academic functioning.
A total of 1,149 adolescents (Mage = 15.82, SD = 0.61; 55.27% girls at Wave 1) participated in assessments at four time points, using 6-month assessment intervals.
Based on a latent class growth model, three trajectories of PUI were identified: Low Decreasing, Moderate Increasing, and High Increasing groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that inter-parental conflicts and childhood maltreatment served as negative familial predictors for the risk trajectories of PUI (i.e., Moderate Increasing and High Increasing groups). Additionally, adolescents in these two groups displayed more estranged interpersonal relationships, more mental health difficulties, and poorer academic functioning.
Discussion and conclusions
It is important to consider individual differences in understanding the developmental patterns of PUI among adolescents. Identifying family predictors and the behavioral outcome associated with groups with different developmental trajectories of PUI, which may help to understand better risk factors related to specific developmental patterns of PUI and its adverse correlates. The findings highlight a need to develop more specific effective intervention programs for individuals displaying different problematic developmental trajectories with PUI.