Authors:Gusztáv Áron Szíki, Attila Szántó, and Tamás Mankovits
Nowadays, vehicles with alternative drives are playing an increasingly important role in road transport. Among the various types of alternative-drives, the most widespread ones are hybrid and electric ones, thanks for the rapid development of modern batteries, and hybrid and electrical systems. The above fact establishes the importance of research on various types of electric motors. The Faculty of Engineering of the University of Debrecen has more than a decade of experience in developing prototype race cars with pneumatic and electric drive. For the more effective and conscious development and racing a simulation program has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment for the computation of the dynamic functions of a vehicle moving in a linear path. The program is characterized by a modular structure, so the different structural units (vehicle body, front and rear wheels, power train, motor) are modelled and simulated separately. In this study we present models and simulation programs for different electric motor types (series-wound DC and brushless DC motors) in MATLAB/Simulink and apply them in our vehicle dynamics simulation program. From the simulation results the performance of a vehicle – driven by an electric motor – can be predicted in a race situation, consequently the most suitable motor with the optimal characteristics can be selected to it.
Authors:Nihal D. Salman, György Pillinger, and Péter Kiss
This study intends to examine the soil behaviour in the case of finite thickness, represented by the hard layer under a soft layer of soil. A further aim is to define load-bearing capacity parameters (n and k). The experimental work is carried out under laboratory conditions by using hydraulic bevameter to apply the load. A circular plate with a diameter of 100 mm is used to push down the load over the targeted area with a penetration rate of about 9 cm/min for sinkage plates. The study was conducted in a soil bin (length of 200 cm, width of 100 cm and variable thickness) using a sandy loam soil. First, the study has been done with loose soil with a thickness of 11 cm, which maintained with 10% moisture content and initial density of 1.190 g/cm3. After that, a two thickness of 6 and 18 cm with 8% moisture content and initial soil density of 1.375 g/cm3 were tested to explain the effect of thickness. In each test, the bevameter plate was loaded at multiple locations, the result showed the soil was near uniform. The result suggests that it is not easy to obtain one equation for the load bearing capacity because the layer near to the surface behaves like soil with infinite thickness and the deeper layer like soil with finite thickness.
During the production of natural gas one of the major problems is the formation of hydrate crystals in the pipeline. The forming hydrate crystals can form hydrate plugs in the pipeline. The hydrate plugs lengthen production outages and result in financial losses for the producer, because the removal of the plugs is a time consuming procedure. One of the solutions used to prevent hydrate formation is the injection of modern compositions to the gas flow. The modern compositions help to dehydrate the gas, thus, the size of hydrate crystals does not increase. The substances, used in low concentrations, have to be locally injected, at the gas well sites. Inhibitor dosing depends on the amount of gas hydrate present. In the article a neural network based predictive detection solution is presented, which uses four factors.
In this study the competitiveness of Hungarian enterprises was analyzed, because relatively little research has been conducted to investigate small enterprises. More specifically, the paper examines to what extent the use of online solutions gives companies a competitive advantage. Nearly 800 companies were involved in the research, for which a new methodology was used. It is built on a multi-step model, which is based on mathematical calculations. From the result of a questionnaire survey, variables were generated to create a number of competitiveness pillars, which were used to determine the final competitiveness index of each company. The research was carried out at the Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Pécs. Scientists form the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs were involved in the online analysis of the companies, the results of which were integrated into the research findings. The analysis shows that the companies, which do not use online solutions during their operations can be competitive but generally those present in the online space are more competitive, and use more sophisticated solutions in their business processes, which has a positive effect on several functions of the company. Overall these companies have a higher competitiveness index, which confirms that it is worth using online solutions for companies.
Authors:S. Kolayli, I. Palabiyik, D.S. Atik, M. Keskin, A. Bozdeveci, and S.A. Karaoglu
Honey is the most important bee product. There are many secondary metabolites, carbohydrates, enzymes, and vitamins in honey, thus, honey has antimicrobial activity. In this study, in vitro antimicrobial activity of forty-two honey and eight propolis ethanolic extracts (PEE) were investigated against 16 microorganisms. Total phenolic content ranged between 20.00–124.10 mg GAE/100 g and 103–232 mg GAE/g for honey and raw propolis samples, respectively. Pine and oak honeydew honeys had higher antimicrobial activity than four diﬀerent grades of Manuka Honeys up to 18 mm minimum inhibition zone diameters. The ethanolic propolis extracts showed much higher antimicrobial activity than the honey samples. Fungi species were inhibited by the propolis samples. Helicobacter pylorii (H. pylorii) was the most sensitive, whereas Streptococcus agalactiae was the most resistant bacteria among the studied microorganisms. Brazilian and Zonguldak propolis had the closest antimicrobial activity to ampicillin, streptomycin, and ﬂuconazole. It can be concluded that both honey and propolis could be used in preservative and complementary medicine.
Modiﬁcation of dairy products’ fat composition or replacement by other fats are common practices in the industry. Products in which milkfat is partially or wholly substituted by vegetable fats are deﬁned as dairy analogues. This study delivers gap-ﬁlling information about sour cream analogues in nutritional aspects, focusing on the fat-related attributes. Analogue sour creams contained 29.6% less saturated fatty acids, 88.4% less cholesterol and 88.7% more mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids than the sour creams. Trans fatty acids were present in both products, which could not be linked to artiﬁcial hydrogenation in either case. Digestibility of the examined samples might be diﬀerent, as sour creams had more short and medium chain fatty acids than the analogues. Overall, sour cream analogues, besides serving as an alternative to sour cream, have particular advantages based on their nutritional values.
Authors:Viktória Kállai, Gábor L. Szepesi, and Péter Mizsey
Chemical industry has a high demand for ethylene quantity, especially with high quality. This paper discusses dynamic simulation models of an ethaneethylene high-pressure cryogenic rectification column with Unisim Design process simulator software. Distillation is one of the most essential technologies in chemical industry, it is important that the operation of the procedure can be modeled not only in steady-state mode but also in a dynamic way. The goal during this study is to make simulations with system-controlling and to investigate the effect the disturbance on the behavior of the columns.
Authors:D. Koren, B. Hegyesné Vecseri, and G. Kun-Farkas
There are numerous scientiﬁc publications about the folate content of several types of beers available in commercial trade, but there is limited information about the eﬀect of raw materials and technological steps of brewing on folate content. In this study the aim was to investigate diﬀerent raw materials and the evolution of folate content during laboratory and pilot scale brewing. For the determination of folate content of diﬀerent malts, three types of barley malts (Pilsner, Caramel, and Coloring), wheat malt, rye malt, and oat malt were analysed. For the study of the evolution of folate content during the brewing process, worts were produced on laboratory and pilot scale. Among malts, Pilsner type barley malt had the highest folate content (44.7 μg/100 g d.m.). During brewing the protein rest seemed to dissolve the majority of the folate content, and with the increasing temperature of the β- and α-amylase rests there was a further dissolution. Filtration and sparging did not have negative eﬀect on folate concentration related to the extract content of the wort. Hop boiling had no negative eﬀect on folate content, folate seemed to be stable during the one-hour boiling. Natural folate of barley malt seemed to be stable through the technological steps of brewing, oﬀering the possibility to produce a foodstuﬀ with high natural folate content.
This study aims to experimentally investigate the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer performance of magnesium oxide nanoparticles MgO based deionized water nanofluid at the atmospheric pressure condition. Dilute volumetric concentrations within a range of 0.001% to 0.01% Vol. were used to examine the pool boiling heat transfer performance represented by pool boiling curve, and pool boiling heat transfer coefficient. The heating element was a horizontal copper heated tube with a typical diameter 22 mm submerged inside the cubic boiling chamber. Efforts have been made to measure the surface temperatures along the heated tube to ensure the proper and accurate heat transfer coefficient calculations in this work. The results indicated that the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient enhancement ratio (PBHTC /PBHTC ) was intensified for volume fractions i.e. 0.001%, 0.004%, and 0.007% Vol. while it was degraded for volume concentrations i.e. 0.01%, and 0.04% Vol. compared to deionized water as baseline case.