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Authors: Kovács Krisztina, F. Földi Rita, Smohai Máté, Géczi Gábor and Gyömbér Noémi

Háttér és célkitűzések

Jelen tanulmány célja a Szülői Bevonódás a Sportban Kérdőív magyar változatának (PISQ-H) pszichometriai vizsgálata, a mérőeszköz reliabilitásának és validitásának ellenőrzése.

Módszer

A keresztmetszeti kutatás keretében a kérdőív érvényességét és megbízhatóságát 13-21 év közötti (M = 16,76 év; SD = 2,79 év) 471 fős (40,3% fiú és 54,2% lány, 5,5% hiányzó adat) kényelmi mintán ellenőriztük. A fent említett kérdőív mellett felvételre került az Észlelt Szülői Autonómiatámogatás Kérdőív is.

Eredmények

A feltáró faktoranalízis során négy elkülönülő faktort kaptunk (Dicséret és támogatás, Szülői nyomásgyakorlás, Aktív bevonódás, valamint Direkt, kontrolláló viselkedés). A kérdőív alskáláinak belső megbízhatósága megfelelőnek bizonyult (Cronbach-α: 0,640,85). A mérőeszköz időbeli stabilitásának vizsgálata során szignifikáns (p < 0,001), pozitív irányú, erős teszt-reteszt korrelációs együtthatókat kaptunk (Dicséret és támogatás alskála: r(67) = 0,82; Szülői nyomásgyakorlás alskála: r(67) = 0,81; Direkt, kontrolláló viselkedés alskála: r(67) = 0,93; és Aktív bevonódás alskála: r(67) = 0,94. A konstruktum validitás vizsgálata során a korábbi kutatásokkal megegyező, gyenge-mérsékelt erősségű korrelációt kaptunk a PISQ-H két alskálája és az Észlelt Szülői Autonómiatámogatás Kérdőív között (r = 0,30–0,56; p < 0,001).

Következtetések

A Szülői Bevonódás a Sportban Kérdőív kérdőív magyar változata pszichometriailag megfelelő mérőeszköznek tekinthető.

Open access

Sharing-Based Co-Housing Categorization

A Structural Overview of the Terms and Characteristics Used in Urban Co-Housing

Authors: Annamária Babos, Julianna Szabó, Annamária Orbán and Melinda Benkő

The European urban areas are growing fast, with many contemporary housing forms. Among these, co-housing forms related to sharing have become a key issue for urban housing development. These housing forms are analysed (their physical and social characteristics or effects) in more and more publications, without a common terminology of this interdisciplinary research field. In our study, based on the overview of existing definitions, characteristics we introduce a comprehensive sharing based categorization that could be valuable for terms and projects, as well. With the note, that the social dimension of sharing methods would not exist without the physical ones, because in co-housing the shared space is the basic criteria. In this paper, we focus on three groups of the social fields of sharing related to housing: the shared creation, the shared tenure, and the shared activities. We conclude the structural approach of our overview unravels new perspectives for the classification of housing forms. Based on our categorization and methodology, we recommend the development of a sharing based scalable classification that measures projects consistent and comparable.

Összefoglaló

A városias, beépített területek aránya Európa szerte folyamatosan növekszik, ennek következtében kortárs városi lakhatási formák is teret nyernek. A megosztáshoz kötődő, úgynevezett co-housing formák a kortárs városi lakófejlesztések jelentős részét képzik. Éppen ezért egyre több elemzés és publikáció születik a témában (például a fizikai és társadalmi jellemzőikről vagy azok hatásairól), azonban a lakhatás kutatási területén nincs egyetértés a kifejezések és definíciók használatában. A következő tanulmányban egy, a lakhatási formákat megosztás alapján rendszerező kategorizáció kerül bemutatásra, melynek elméleti és gyakorlati haszna is lehet. A kategorizáció a meglévő kifejezésekre, definíciókra és jellemzőkre egyaránt épít. A co-housing lakhatás alapvető feltétele a - változó méretű és minőségű - megosztott tér, így a társadalmi dimenziók minden esetben kötődnek egy fajta tériséghez is. A lakhatási formákban jelenlévő társadalmi és fizikai dimenziók együttes vizsgálata nem képezi jelen kutatás tárgyát, a társadalmi típusúakra koncentrál: a megosztott létrehozásra, tulajdonlásra és a tevékenységekre. Megállapítható, hogy a kutatás során alkalmazott rendszerezett áttekintés új irányvonalakra mutatott rá a lakhatási formák osztályozásának területén. A tanulmányban tárgyalt megosztás-alapú kategorizálásra és módszertanra alapozva egy, a megosztásra épülő és skálázható osztályozás kidolgozása javasolt, melyben a projektek mérése és összehasonlítása egységes módon történhet.

Open access
Authors: Ji-Bin Li, Anise M.S. Wu, Li-Fen Feng, Yang Deng, Jing-Hua Li, Yu-Xia Chen, Jin-Chen Mai, Phoenix K.H. Mo and Joseph T.F. Lau

Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic online social networking use is prevalent among adolescents, but consensus about the instruments and their optimal cut-off points is lacking. This study derived an optimal cut-off point for the validated Online Social Networking Addiction (OSNA) scale to identify probable OSNA cases among Chinese adolescents.

Methods

A survey recruited 4,951 adolescent online social networking users. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were applied to the validated 8-item OSNA scale to determine its optimal cut-off point.

Results

The 3-class model was selected by multiple criteria, and validated in a randomly split-half subsample. Accordingly, participants were categorized into the low risk (36.4%), average risk (50.4%), and high risk (13.2%) groups. The highest risk group was regarded as “cases” and the rest as “non-cases”, serving as the reference standard in ROC analysis, which identified an optimal cut-off point of 23 (sensitivity: 97.2%, specificity: 95.2%). The cut-off point was used to classify participants into positive (probable case: 17:0%) and negative groups according to their OSNA scores. The positive group (probable cases) reported significantly longer duration and higher intensity of online social networking use, and higher prevalence of Internet addiction than the negative group.

Conclusions

The classification strategy and results are potentially useful for future research that measure problematic online social networking use and its impact on health among adolescents. The approach can facilitate research that requires cut-off points of screening tools but gold standards are unavailable.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims: The UK allows a number of gambling products to be legally used by people under the age of 18. The aim of this study was to explore associations between recalled legal usage of five youth gambling products and adult disordered gambling. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 1,057 adult UK gamblers, aged 18–40. Recalled legal use of five youth gambling products (category D fruit machines, coin push machines, crane grab machines, the National Lottery, and National Lottery scratchcards) was correlated with adult disordered gambling symptoms as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Results: Recalled rates of legal engagement with each product ranged from 50.9% for Category D fruit machines to 96.6% for coin push machines. For category D fruit machines, the National Lottery, and National Lottery scratchcards, merely having legally engaged with these products as a child was associated with adult disordered gambling. Furthermore, higher levels of recalled legal youth usage with each of the five products was also associated with adult disordered gambling. Discussion and conclusions: These results relate to recent government proposals to increase the National Lottery scratchcard legal age to 18, and add to a wider literature on youth gambling and subsequent gambling-related harm.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Gambling disorder (GD) is a mental disorder with a relatively higher prevalence in university students compared to adolescents and adults. Its reciprocity with mental being indicators, such as psychological flourishing, would be expected, but prior to this study had not yet been empirically examined. In addition, the predictive value of purpose in life (PIL) on university students' GD and psychological flourishing also remained unknown. This 1-year longitudinal study was the first to test the potential bidirectional relationships among PIL, self-reported GD symptoms, and psychological flourishing.

Methods

In this study, a total of 283 university students (39.6% females; age = 18–27 years,M = 20.47,SD = 1.15) completed an anonymous questionnaire at both baseline and a year later in a follow-up study.

Results

The results of our cross-lagged analysis did not show the hypothesized reciprocity between GD symptoms and psychological flourishing (P > 0.05). However, PIL significantly predicted fewer GD symptoms (β = −0.23,P < 0.001) and higher levels of psychological flourishing (β = 0.30,P < 0.001) in the follow-up study. Moreover, psychological flourishing predicted PIL a year later.

Conclusion

The findings demonstrate the potential efficacy of purpose/meaning oriented interventions in gambling prevention and in well-being promotion programs.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of the experiment is to establish a method for the determination of acrylamide in food by automatic accelerated solvent extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D3-acrylamide was used as isotope internal standard, crushed samples were extracted and purified by automatic accelerated solvent, acrylamide was derivatized into 2,3-dibromopropanamide by potassium bromide and potassium bromate under acidic conditions, and then the derivative was extracted by ethyl acetate and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method had a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 10–2000 ng/mL, and the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.9997. The detection limit of the method was 3 μg/kg. The quantification limit of the method was 10 μg/kg. The standard addition recovery of acrylamide was between 105 and 120%, and the relative standard deviation of the recovery of acrylamide was less than 3.0%. The experimental result showed that the method was simple, sensitive, efficient and accurate, and could be used for the determination of acrylamide in food.

Open access

Abstract

Introduction

To evaluate the automated cartridge-based PCR approach ARIES SARS-CoV-2 Assay targeting the ORF-sequence and the N-gene of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods

In line with the suggestions by Rabenau and colleagues, the automated ARIES SARS-CoV-2 Assay was challenged with strongly positive samples, weakly positive samples and negative samples. Further, intra-assay and inter-assay precision as well as the limit-of-detection (lod) were defined with quantified target RNA and DNA. The Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-Cov-2 Assay was used as gold standard.

Results

Concordance between the ARIES assay and the Cepheid assay was 100% for strongly positive samples and for negative samples, respectively. For weakly positive samples as confirmed applying the Cepheid assay, a relevant minority of 4 out of 15 samples (26.7%) went undetected by the ARIES assay. Intra- and inter-assay precision were satisfactory, while the lod was in the 103 DNA copies/reaction-range, in the 103 virus copies/reaction-range, or in the 103–104 free RNA copies/reaction-range in our hands.

Conclusions

The automated ARIES assay shows comparable test characteristics as the Cepheid assay focusing on strongly positive and negative samples but a slightly reduced sensitivity with weakly positive samples. Decisions on diagnostic use should include considerations on the lod.

Open access

Abstract

One of the major public health concerns today is bacterial infection-associated diseases. Traditional antibacterial therapies are becoming less efficient because frequent and inadequate use of antibiotics has caused mutations in bacteria that led to many antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. It is, therefore, crucial to develop novel antibacterial materials and strategies that will successfully combat both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we will demonstrate a simple and efficient method for bacteria capture and elimination through photothermal ablation. The developed material consists of a flexible Kapton substrate, coated with reduced graphene oxide-chitosan (rGO-CS) thin films. Reduced graphene oxide has strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region, while chitosan has the ability to bind bacteria through electrostatic interactions. The K/rGO-CS device proved to capture and efficiently eradicate both planktonic Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria after 10 min of NIR (980 nm) irradiation.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Studies have demonstrated associations between both problematic smartphone and social networks use with everyday life adversities. However, examination of associations between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and problematic use of specific social networking platforms, especially on item-level data, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore how items of problematic smartphone, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram use are associated.

Methods

949 German-speaking adults participated in a web survey study. The participants were queried about their socio-demographics as well as levels of problematic smartphone, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram use. In addition to bivariate correlation analysis, exploratory graph analysis (EGA), a type of network analysis, was conducted.

Results

The results showed that while problematic Facebook and Instagram use seem to be distinct phenomena, problematic smartphone and WhatsApp use were heavily intertwined. Furthermore, the only cross-platform symptom observed was the extent of reported pain in wrists and neck due to digital technology use. The EGA network models showed very good stability in bootstrap analyses.

Discussion and conclusions

In general, the results of this study suggest that while Instagram and Facebook use may potentially constitute distinct problematic behaviors, problematic smartphone/WhatsApp use scales may be measuring highly similar or even the same construct.

Open access
Authors: Sara M. van Bonn, Sebastian P. Schraven, Tobias Schuldt, Markus M. Heimesaat, Robert Mlynski and Philipp C. Warnke

Abstract

We report a case of a chronic mesotympanic otitis media with a smelly purulent secretion from both ears and recurrent otalgia over the last five years in a six-year-old girl after swimming in the German Baltic Sea. Besides Staphylococcus aureus a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strain could be isolated from patient samples. An antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone was administered followed by atticotomy combined with tympanoplasty. We conclude that V. cholerae should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis to otitis infections, especially when patients present with extra-intestinal infections after contact with brackish- or saltwater aquatic environments.

Open access