Converging evidence suggests that the presence of (attentive) others has a positive effect on people’s propensity to conform to social rules. It is also increasingly accepted that pet dogs are promising test subjects to study non-human analogues of “audience effect.” This study investigates whether dogs show a tendency to change their behavior according to the visual attention of familiar and unfamiliar human partners in a situation in which human partners disallowed the dog from eating a piece of food.
Dogs (n = 64) participated in two observational conditions (Attentive Owner and Attentive Experimenter) and a control condition in which both human participants engaged in distracting activity.
The results showed that the identity of the attentive or inattentive partner has little relevance to the dogs’ gazing behavior (i.e., head orientation toward the different partners and the food) and their decisions about breaking or following the rule. This is in line with previous studies suggesting that the presence of the owner predominantly determines the dogs’ responses to such situations.
Further analysis of dogs responding differently to the obedience challenge showed marked differences in the role of the “audience effect” might play in modulating “fully obedient,” “ignorer,” and “hesitating” dogs’ gazing behavior. These findings point to the context-dependent nature of the audience effect in dogs and highlight the importance of frequently ignored individual differences in dogs’ tendency to conform to the situational rules.
Authors:M. Tóth, P. Landolt, I. Szarukán, A. Nagy, and J. K. Jósvai
The addition of synthetic eugenol and benzyl acetate to the known floral chemical
and moth attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the silver Y
moth Autographa gamma, an important noctuid pest. Traps baited
with the ternary blend caught 2 to 6 times more A. gamma moths
than traps baited with phenylac-etaldehyde alone. Both female and male moths
were attracted, supposedly in the natural sex ratio of the local population.
More A. gamma were caught when the blend was formulated in
dispenser types with higher release rates. Traps baited with the ternary lure in
polyethylene bag dispensers caught 20% to 34% as many moths as were caught in
traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone, suggesting that this improved
bisexual lure could be efficient enough to yield a new tool for detection and
monitoring of female and male A. gamma, for more reliable plant
The same ternary lure also improved trap catches of moths over phenylacetaldehyde
alone for the plusiinae pests MacDunnoughia confusa (in Europe)
and Autographa californica (in North America) and for the
Noctuinae cutworm Xestia c-nigrum (in North America).
Authors:Anna Gábor, Noémi Kaszás, Ádám Miklósi, Tamás Faragó, and Attila Andics
Background and aims
Conspecific individual recognition using vocal cues has been shown in a wide range of species but there is no published evidence that dogs are able to recognize their owner based on his/her voice alone (interspecific individual recognition).
In our test, dogs had to rely on vocal cues to find their hidden owner in a two-way choice task. From behind an opaque screen, both the owner and a control person uttered neutral speech (reading sentences from a receipt) before the dogs were allowed to make their choice. Correct choices were reinforced by food and by verbal praise.
During the six-choice trials, dogs chose their owner’s voice significantly more often than the control person’s voice. There was no effect of learning throughout the trials, and dogs did not show side preference.
Thus, dogs are able to discriminate interspecific voices, suggesting that they are able to identify their owner based on vocal cues alone. This experimental design allows exploration of the role of individual acoustic parameters (such as fundamental frequency) in voice discrimination.
Authors:J.S. Khokhar, S. Sareen, B.S. Tyagi, L. Wilson, I.P. King, S.D. Young, and M.R. Broadley
Correlations between juvenile wheat root traits, and grain yield and yield component traits under optimal field conditions have previously been reported in some conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that juvenile wheat root traits correlate with yield, yield components and grain mineral composition traits under a range of soil environments in India. A diverse panel of 36 Indian wheat genotypes were grown for ten days in ‘pouch and wick’ high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) system (20 replicates). Correlations between juvenile root architecture traits, including primary and lateral root length, and grain yield, yield components and grain mineral composition traits were determined, using field data from previously published experiments at six sites in India. Only a limited number of juvenile root traits correlated with grain yield (GYD), yield components, and grain mineral composition traits. A narrow root angle, potentially representing a ‘steep’ phenotype, was associated with increased GYD and harvest index (HI) averaged across sites and years. Length related root traits were not correlated with GYD or HI at most sites, however, the total length of lateral roots and lateral root number correlated with GYD at a sodic site of pH 9.5. The total length of lateral roots (TLLR) correlated with grain zinc (Zn) concentration at one site. A wider root angle, representing a shallow root system, correlated with grain iron (Fe) concentration at most sites. The total length of all roots (TLAR) and total length of primary roots (TLPR) correlated with grain S concentration at most sites. Narrow root angle in juvenile plants could be a useful proxy trait for screening germplasm for improved grain yield. Lateral root and shallow root traits could potentially be used to improve grain mineral concentrations. The use of juvenile root traits should be explored further in wheat breeding for diverse environments.
Authors:Judith Pöppe, Katrin Bote, Roswitha Merle, Olga Makarova, and Uwe Roesler
Glyphosate, the active compound of Roundup, is one of the most used pesticides in the world. Its residues are often detected in animal feed, but the impact on the animal gut microbiota and on pathogens of the intestine has not intensively been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of glyphosate isopropylamine salt and a common glyphosate-containing herbicide formulation in 225 Salmonella enterica isolates by broth microdilution. A bacteriostatic effect of glyphosate on Salmonella growth was detected at the concentration range of 10 to 80 mg/mL for both the active ingredient and the ready-to-use formulation. Time/year of isolation, host species, and serovars revealed a statistically significant influence on MIC values. Recently collected Salmonella isolates had significantly higher MIC values for glyphosate and the glyphosate-containing product compared with isolates collected between 1981 and 1990. Isolates from pigs showed significantly higher MIC values compared with isolates from poultry, and isolates of the Salmonella serovar Typhimurium had significantly higher MIC values than Salmonella Enteritidis and Infantis isolates.
Authors:G. Bozsik, A. Lakatos, G. Szőcs, and I. Tóbiás
The European corn borer moth, (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis
(Lepidoptera: Crambidae, Pyraustinae) is one of the most destructive pests of
maize worldwide. ECB has two pheromone-strains, separated by specific ratios of
isomers of E- and Z11-tetradecenyl acetates (E11- and Z11-14Ac), but appearing
morphologically identical. Accordingly, E- and Z-ECB pheromone traps are
available for the respective populations for practical monitoring of the flight,
however, traps for Z-strain are unreliable for practical usage in some parts of
Central-Europe. E- and Z-ECB populations occur in sympatry in some areas, while
in allelopatry in other areas. Determining the strains before the flight of
adults, when difference in the composition of their respective pheromones is
manifested, would be of practical interest for early warning. In addition to the
known fatty-acyl-reductase (FAR) marker, further markers would allow more
comprehensive studies. We screened the following common markers for
mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions: partial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI),
cytochrome B (CytB), the second spacer of the internal transcribed spacer
(ITS2), Elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and actin gene (Act). In addition, a marker
of the Δ11-desaturase gene (11desat), linked to biosynthesis of female-produced
sex pheromone, was also included, because we reported earlier a differential
expression for this site. Three Z-ECB populations locating at distant sites
within Hungary, an area where only Z-strain occurs, and an E-ECB population in
Slovenia, known as the closest-occurring E-strain, were included into the study.
Separate laboratory colonies were established from each population, and
F1 generations were sampled to verify the identity of pheromone
strains, by analysing the composition of sex pheromone by gas chromatography
linked to an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD). Molecular studies were
conducted using specimens taken from the F2 generations. Results of
genetic studies showed that there were no differences between the Z and E
populations for the common markers. In contrast to this, several nucleic acid
changes (11 nt in 4 positions) were found between the three Z-populations
(Hungary) and the E-population (Slovenia) in the desaturase marker. Further
study is required to reveal whether the differences found in this study are
consistent across E-populations, thus making these markers suitable for
Authors:Rita Lenkei, Ákos Pogány, and Claudia Fugazza
Most of the studies investigating the effect of early rearing environment in dogs used laboratory dogs and reported that early experiences markedly affect the puppies’ behavior. However, the subjects of these experiments cannot be considered as representatives of family dogs.
In this study, we investigated whether different raising conditions shape social behavior toward humans in 8-week-old family dog puppies of two breeds, Labrador and Czechoslovakian wolf dog. The puppies were tested in a series of tests that represented typical situations of family dogs.
We found that Czechoslovakian wolf dog puppies were more active than Labrador puppies in general, as they were more likely to explore the environment and the objects and spent more time doing so. Tendency to gaze at humans also varied between breeds, but in a context-specific way. Additionally, puppies housed separately from their mother interacted more with toys, puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay closer to the experimenter than puppies raised in the house, and puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay in the proximity of the experimenter more than puppies raised in the house.
Our results provide evidence for early keeping conditions influencing social behavior and also highlight breed differences in puppies’ behavior. Whether these differences are due to different developmental patterns and/or behavioral predispositions remains to be explored.
Authors:Elizabeth M. Marlowe, Peter Gohl, Michael Steidle, Rodney Arcenas, and Carolin Bier
Trichomoniasis, a common curable sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), is usually asymptomatic. However, symptomatic women may experience vaginal discharge and/or vulvar irritation. This study evaluated cobas® TV/ Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) (Conformité Européene marking for in vitro diagnostic medical devices [CE-IVD]) against other nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detecting TV in female urogenital specimens. Matched de-identified specimens from 412 females were collected. cobas® TV/MG results were compared against a composite reference (CR) of 3 different NAATs for TV (Aptima TV, modified S-DiaMGTV™, and a laboratory-developed test). The overall TV prevalence rate was 6.2%, based on cobas® TV/MG results. Relative to the CR, cobas® TV/MG sensitivity/specificity for the specimen types were endocervical swabs (ES) 100%/99.2%, vaginal swabs (VS) 100%/99.7%, urine (U) 100%/99.7%, and cervical specimens in PreservCyt® solution (PC) 100%/99.5%. There was no significant statistical difference between clinician-collected and self-collected VS (p = 0.28). Correlation of cobas® TV/MG vs. Aptima TV demonstrated the following positive, negative, and overall percent agreements, respectively: ES 69.0%, 98.7%, and 96.6%; VS 88.9%, 99.5%, and 98.8%; U 100%, 100%, and 100%; and PC 95.5%, 99.0%, and 98.8%. Detection of TV with cobas® TV/MG for use on the cobas® 6800/8800 systems demonstrated excellent performance in female urogenital specimens (overall sensitivity/specificity of 100%/≥99.2%).
Authors:S. Montoya-Arango, J. F. Acevedo-Quintero, and J. L. Parra
The relationships between frugivorous animals and plants are of vital importance particularly in tropical forests. The way species interact and how they are organized within interaction networks could be determined by their ecological and morphological characteristics. This study evaluates the hypothesis that the topological position of species within an interaction network is determined by their degree of frugivory, body size, and abundance. Thus, we constructed the frugivory network between birds and plants in a rainforest fragment in northwestern Colombia. The position of the species within the network was calculated based on three centrality measures (degree, betweenness, and closeness), and its association with relative abundance, degree of frugivory, and body size of each bird species was evaluated by means of a generalized linear model. We found that the species that were most abundant and had the smallest body size had central positions in the interaction network. This pattern is contrary to what has been observed in pristine forests, where species with large body size are more important for network stability. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation modifies the roles of species within the network structure, in part, due to changes in the makeup of the original frugivore community. The information presented may be useful to evaluate the effects of the loss of species as a result of anthropic actions, with the aim of generating ecosystem restoration strategies.