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Abstract

This study examines the complexity in the Eastern European economies, with a focus on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI). Despite transitioning to market economies, these countries remain economically fragile and dependent. Their lower technological complexity and reliance on foreign capacity make them vulnerable. However, some countries like Austria and Poland demonstrate successful integration of production and innovation. The analysis shows FDI has a limited impact on developing complex knowledge but contributes positively to economic complexity. Results also indicate that in the long-term, economic and technological complexity does not lead to accelerated total factor productivity growth, contrary to complexity literature. Combining labour with innovation, safeguarding local industries, and prioritizing education and research are more effective approaches. The study clearly shows how Hungary is stuck in an “assembler trap.” It also finds that the gap between economic and technological complexity negatively affects liberal democracies.

Open access
Acta Oeconomica
Authors:
José Antonio Clemente-Almendros
,
Florin Teodor Boldeanu
,
Cristina Drumea
, and
Samer Ajour El Zein

Abstract

This paper investigates the use of redundancy procedures (RPs) by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. The novelty of this study is that it goes beyond the direct influence of the determinants of RPs on RP use, and analyses how the interactions among them moderate the direct effect. In contexts of rising uncertainty, businesses need to adapt their operations and fixed costs, including staffing. While teleworking is an alternative to RPs, our results show that it was not enough to deal with the negative impact of a worsening crisis. Moreover, when the survival of the business is at stake, the use of RPs increases further when the company is simultaneously affected by changes in demand and liquidity issues. We argue that our results reveal the need for flexible tools along with the policies that take into account the fact that businesses' reactions are contingent on their exposure to risk.

Full access
Society and Economy
Authors:
Krisztofer Szabó
and
Márta Aranyossy

Abstract

With an overall aim of providing insights into fostering an entrepreneurial mindset and promoting economic development, researchers have devoted notable attention to intentional and motivational factors for starting businesses, as well as those influencing processes from idea generation to the realisation of a new business. This research project aims to investigate the influence of family business background on entrepreneurial intention. One of the novel features of the approach is the rigorous statistical exploration of direct and moderating effects of family business background while accounting for other factors influencing entrepreneurial intention. The analysis is based on a survey of 590 active university students studying business and economics in the seven largest universities in Hungary. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to examine how the existence of family business background can influence and moderate relationships between individual factors and entrepreneurial intention. Results confirm that family business background has a significant positive impact on entrepreneurial intention and is most likely to exert its impact through increased human capital levels, entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and experience. The findings not only contribute to accumulated knowledge of the interdisciplinary family entrepreneurship field, but also have policy and educational implications.

Open access
Society and Economy
Authors:
Srdana Táborosi
,
Jelena Rajković Avdija
,
Jasmina Poštin
,
Edit Terek Stojanović
,
Nemanja Berber
, and
Milan Nikolić

Abstract

The paper presents the results of research on the impact of national culture, Big Five personality traits, and emotional intelligence on job satisfaction in teleworkers. The impacts were also examined in conventionally employed, which enabled a comparison. The research was conducted in the countries of the Western Balkans and included 313 respondents. The job satisfaction of teleworkers is most positively influenced by humane orientation, performance orientation, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, self-regulation, and social skills. Self-awareness can act both positively and negatively, and neuroticism has a negative impact on job satisfaction. National culture has a greater impact on job satisfaction among conventionally employed rather than within teleworkers. Big Five personality traits work differently: extroversion has a greater impact on job satisfaction among conventionally employed, while agreeableness and conscientiousness have a greater impact on job satisfaction among teleworkers. Emotional intelligence has a greater impact on job satisfaction among conventionally employed rather than teleworkers. Teleworking employees are less influenced by the environment, and thus less influenced by national culture. Emotional intelligence helps conventionally employed work more, while teleworkers place higher value on the results of their work.

Open access

Abstract

In a recent pilot study, we examined the potential benefits and opportunities that ChatGPT can bring to higher education, particularly from the perspective of business students and educators. The study included 41 participants and aimed to explore their opinions on using ChatGPT in business language classes. Twelve students did not use ChatGPT during the course (control group), while 29 students used it actively (experimental group). Examining their experiences and comparing the two groups, it is evident that students see the benefits and disadvantages of ChatGPT and use it for tasks they find helpful. However, the practice and hands-on experience helped the experimental group members gain much more diverse and nuanced opinions about ChatGPT. These results underline that universities and their boards must embrace the technology and find reasonable areas to use ChatGPT. These may not only be connected to assignment forms and plagiarism, but can embrace more general topics, like equal eligibility to these new technologies or strengthening the students' social and emotional intelligence and skills to help their future lives.

Open access

Abstract

The impact of the Russian-Ukrainian war on energy prices contributed significantly to European price increases in 2022. The study aims to find a linkage between the performance of 24 EU countries during the energy inflation crisis and their preparedness, vulnerability or exposure. The verified hypotheses reflect on the role of initial conditions of countries and the one-year impact of energy inflation on their economic performance. The two-step analysis first creates six clusters of countries based on their energy, trade, financial and political vulnerability, and preparedness indicators. The second step is to explore the shifts of clusters in expectations on macroeconomic indicators. Specific patterns of country groups are explored in the value and evolution of wartime indicators of inflation, GDP growth, consumer and business confidence, as well as FX volatility. The exploration concludes that the entry variables of clustering are relevant, and the EU countries can be segmented by dependency, energy, financial, and political aspects. Thus, it is possible to verify the distance in risk and exposure among EU economies. The impact variables demonstrated that the extent of the inflationary effect depended on the initial conditions. In addition, the research identified protective short-term factors against energy inflation originating in a trade and war context.

Open access

The revival of comparative economic systems research

Reflections inspired by the recent publication of the collected works of Domenico Mario Nuti

Acta Oeconomica
Author:
László Csaba

Abstract

This essay offers an overview of the state and perspectives of comparative economics in Europe. The starting point is the publication of the collected works of Mario Nuti, but the overview covers several Handbooks and collections as well as individual contributions. The big picture of the post-transition period highlights the relevance of “old” comparative economics, especially when interpreting illiberal practices in the post-communist Europe and the debate on the nature and limitations of the Chinese market socialism.

Open access

Abstract

This article focuses on mortgage interest deduction (MID) as an indirect tax support for acquiring one's housing. This form of support is the most widely used in the Czech Republic compared to other tax reliefs and causes the highest losses for the government budget. This paper provides quantitative evidence on how the MID was distributed among taxpayers in the Czech Republic in the period 2008–2019 in relation to taxable income and revenue losses for the government budget. Furthermore, it assesses the effectiveness of these tax measures in reducing socioeconomic inequalities among taxpayers. Research based on the application of the MID in tax returns has shown the effective distribution of the MID until 2017. Tax support for housing was used mainly by taxpayers with low taxable income, which is also the largest group. The essence of vertical equity has been fulfilled, which contributed to reducing the level of social inequality. This positive distributional effect has diminished over time. As of 2019, the highest share of public expenditure was redistributed to taxpayers with higher taxable income, indicating the existence of inequalities in the tax system. The different developments over time have shown that the use of the mortgage interest deduction cannot be assessed statically, as it evolves dynamically over time.

Open access

Abstract

The topic of the research is whether better human capital, as determined by secondary school learning outcomes measured by PISA scores, promotes economic growth. The literature often uses the PISA results as a proxy for growth, while its use and impact on growth are not empirically proven. These questions are analyzed through two hypotheses. The first hypothesis (H1) states that in a worldwide sample of countries, GDP per capita growth between 2006 and 2019 was positively impacted by rising PISA results. The second hypothesis (H2) states that between 2006 and 2019, the rise in PISA scores in East Asia had a stronger influence on economic growth than in the rest of the world. The study examines 59 nations that have administered two PISA tests during the period of 2006–2019. The findings imply that there is generally no causal connection between PISA results and growth and the PISA results play no additional role in the development of East Asian nations. The results can be explained in two ways. The first is that human capital includes more than just skills. The second is that the data only covers a short period of time, which may limit the analysis of long-term patterns.

Open access

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of review quality (a situational stimulus) on consumers' risk perception and purchase intention in cross-border e-commerce based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) model. In doing so, quantitative research involving 400 Hungarian respondents was performed. The data were analysed using composite-based structural equation modelling (SEM). The study concludes that an experience created through highly qualified online reviews of previous consumers has a significant effect on mitigating consumers' risk perception while increasing their purchase intentions. The study also differentiates two aspects of risk, including perceived risk and affective risk, and reveals the two-fold mechanism of the decision-making journey. These results enrich the existing literature by supporting the use of the SOR model and introducing review quality as a situational stimulus to explain consumers' risk perception and purchase behaviours in cross-border e-commerce. Additionally, the study also provides valuable guidance in website design that can stimulate purchasing while lowering online perceived risk.

Open access