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Abstract

As a result of rainfall in large quantities, the leachate generated under the municipal solid waste (MSW) is increased, which leaks to the groundwater aquifers and pollutes it. Accurate evaluation of leachate leaks levels has long been regarded as a problem in Iraq due to a lack of reliable data and costly measuring costs. This work proposes a novel fuzzy expert system to predict the pollution status of the underground water in sandy soils. The expert system consists of two subsystems; fuzzy logic system and crisp logic system. The expert system is trained using a data set developed by finite element analysis of sandy soil subjected to contamination materials.

Open access

Abstract

The mining industry, currently undergoing profound changes, is destined to play an increasingly important economic role in the province of Quebec, Canada. Activity in this sector, its real net impact on government tax revenue, the economy, society, and the creation of wealth, is the subject of much discussion. Occupational health and safety is a major preoccupation in the mining sector, in which considerable numbers of workers suffer workplace accidents or occupational diseases due to the use of industrial chemicals, compounding the problem of exposure to noxious substances that exist naturally in mines or are produced inevitably in the course of normal mining operations. Air in mines thus can become laden with a wide variety of chemical agents, in the form of suspended solids, liquid droplets, and vapors and gases. Long-term exposure to most of these agents can seriously harm the health of mineworkers. Prevention remains the key to avoiding the social and economic consequences of these hazards and will make mining a more attractive sector for investment and employment in Canada.

The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of mineworkers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.

This research was conducted in four phases. The first article presented a review of the literature [1] on the chemical aspects of health and safety in mining in the province of Quebec. In the present article, the findings on the recurrence of health problems attributable to chemicals encountered in mines and how these effects should therefore be ranked from an occupational health and safety perspective are presented. The results show that various forms of dermatitis are the most recurrent health and safety risk.

Open access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
Ammar Al-Jodah
,
Saad Jabbar Abbas
,
Alaq F. Hasan
,
Amjad J. Humaidi
,
Abdulkareem Sh. Mahdi Al-Obaidi
,
Arif A. AL-Qassar
, and
Raaed F. Hassan

Abstract

The demand for automation using mobile robots has been increased dramatically in the last decade. Nowadays, mobile robots are used for various applications that are not attainable to humans. Omnidirectional mobile robots are one particular type of these mobile robots, which has been the center of attention for their maneuverability and ability to track complex trajectories with ease, unlike their differential type counterparts. However, one of the disadvantages of these robots is their complex dynamical model, which poses several challenges to their control approach. In this work, the modeling of a four-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot is developed. Moreover, an intelligent Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) neural network control methodology is developed for trajectory tracking tasks, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is utilized to find optimized controller's weights. The simulation study is conducted using Simulink and Matlab package, and the results confirmed the accuracy of the proposed intelligent control method to perform trajectory tracking tasks.

Open access

Abstract

An enterprise framework based on the philosophy research approach to Information System (IS) features a holistic view in an industry that allows room for technological advancement, an industry with increasing expectations and demands for IS drives towards a more integrated framework and rethinking of the concept of delivering insightful outcomes. The specific features of IS in this study focus on the information criteria for the daily assignment of the railway industry operations through an industry enterprise framework. The study objective is to provide a comprehensive understanding of emerging knowledge from structuring IS and enterprise framework stages and their mashup characteristics in designing a model-driven development framework. The outcome will be a design of a strategic performance framework for a typical strategic performance application as the most vital outcome indicators, to focus on understanding the baseline of technology revolution (Industry Revolution 5.0) achievement to measure the transformation expected and the railway industry evaluation, based on the year-on-year target will be established. The usage of decision-making systems and strategic applications has increased massively to fulfill various kinds of purposes for organizations, businesses, and individuals. In this case, a high-quality decision-making system and strategic application are required to ensure it provides the intended functionalities.

Open access

Abstract

A heat pipe is a heat conduction program that utilizes both heat permeability and regime shift concepts to transport heat effectively between 2 different lines. A heat pipe is made up of a pipe or tube and a base fluid. In practice, the heat pipe is poured into a mould that is compatible with the cooling media. These devices have found uses in a variety of fields, including space apparatus, solar energy systems, electronic equipment, and air conditioning systems, due to their simplicity of design and ease of manufacture and maintenance. Thermal performance improvement being the major concern in our project we researched different techniques. The heating surface area has a direct impact on heat transfer. Therefore, we have focused on heat enhancement by introducing grooves. Alongside we also considered using different materials for the pipe. At the end of our research, we are going to produce groove structure models with different materials and analyze them using ANSYS software and propose the best structures with highest thermal efficiency for different applications of heat pipes. This is an attempt to increase heat transmission in response to various material and structural changes. Heat transmission is improved with grooved heat pipes as well as heat transmission various with different types materials used in heat pipe.

Open access

Abstract

This paper compared the performance between Integer Order Fuzzy PID (IOFPID) and Fractional Order Fuzzy PID (FOFPID) controllers for inverted pendulum system as a controlling plant. The parameters of each controller were tuned with four evolutionary optimization algorithms (Social Spider Optimization (SSO), Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Particle Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)). The comparisons were carried out between the two controllers IOFPID and FOFPID, as well as among the four optimization algorithms for the two controllers. The results of comparisons proved that the FOFPID controller with SSO has achieved the best time response characteristics and the least tuning time.

Open access

Abstract

As of 2020, the mining industry in the province of Quebec (Canada) has been providing 16,000 jobs, the majority of these in the north part of the province and in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region. From the exploration phase to the mining site rehabilitation phase, numerous chemical processes are used, often involving some of the most dangerous substances used on industrial scales.

The hazards associated with many of these substances are in some cases not obvious, and symptoms of exposure may take years to appear. The risks associated with the industrial use of chemicals in Canada and abroad has long preoccupied health authorities, given the severity of the diseases that can occur. In Quebec, occupational diseases associated with exposure to industrial chemicals are reaching 1,500 cases per year.

The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of workers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.

This research was conducted in four phases. The present article contains the results of the first two stages, that is, a review of the literature to catalog the industrial chemicals used in mines and to list the potential effects of exposure to them, based on Safety Data Sheets. Eighty-five (85) chemicals used in at least one mining project phase and dozens of potential effects on worker health were identified. The rest of the study is presented in a second article [1]

Open access

Mennyit ér a biztonság? Biztonság mint a Magyarországra érkező német szenior turisták költését befolyásoló tényező

How much does security worth? Security, as a component for the tourism spending of German senior travellers

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Csaba Bíró

Összefoglalás. A biztonságra evidenciaként tekint az utazó a desztinációválasztás során. Annak tartalma erősen szubjektív, egyénenként eltérő szintet képvisel. A COVID–19-járvány időszakában megvalósult kutatásunk válasszal kívánt szolgálni többek között arra, hogy az időskorú német utazók esetében mely faktorok határozzák meg leginkább a desztináció preferenciát, és ez hogyan tükröződik a költésükben. 2021. július–október között megvalósításra került személyes megkérdezés végső mintáját 347 fő (55+ éves) német szenior utazó adta. Az eredmények rámutattak, hogy a marketingtudomány által, általánosan homogénként kezelt fogyasztói szegmens további alszegmensekre bontható, tipizálható, továbbá a desztináció preferenciát esetükben leginkább az infrastruktúra minősége és a biztonság határozza meg.

Summary. Introduction: Tourism does not exist without security. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, security is the second most determinant aspect after physiological concerns. We consider that as an evident fact, thus the secure nature of a destination is an obvious expectation regarding travelling aspects. The measure and actual meaning of this latter component is quite subjective, thus it varies person by person. Security can be investigated from several aspects, so it is important to highlight that our sample was analysed in relation to health security concerns.

Investigation materials and methods: In our research, conducted during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic, we pursued to outline the role of security, as well as the so-called Corona-Protocol, which was established for prevention purposes regarding the chosen destinations in the case of elderly travellers, and to find out how it is reflected in their touristic spending. We conducted personal interviews (PAPI) between July and October 2021 with the participation of 419 people, whose final sample – after being filtered regarding age and nationality aspects – consisted of 347 German senior (age group: 55+) travellers. The survey was carried out on three locations within Hungary (Pécs, Kalocsa, Budapest) with the participation of coordinators.

Research outcomes: The received replies were analysed – at first, the 48 touristic variables were submitted to factor analysis, which helped in the allocation of main components. By the use of these main components, we identified further sub-segments (traveller types) within the segments, which gave a superb illustration about the inaccurate nature of the practice, when senior travellers are considered as a homogenous group. In the case of five clusters – despite similar age averages – we identified distinct characteristics concerning the aspects of qualifications, incomes and the measure of touristic expenses, while the priorities regarding destination expectations, security, infrastructure and pricing were also different. Despite their relatively weak explanation capacities, our outcomes – received by regression modelling – pointed out that regarding our sample, the measure of touristic expenses was mostly determined by the infrastructural quality of destination and security. Thereby we can answer the question how much the cost of security for German senior travellers is. Furthermore, another outcome was the realisation that different habitat locations within the same home country have significant impact on the spending of German senior travellers. Our research could constitute an appropriate basis for further research regarding the investigated subject and traveller segment.

Open access

A rendészeti felsőoktatás hallgatóinak dohányzási szokásai

Smoking habits of law enforcement college students

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Ákos Erdős

Összefoglalás. Egyes korcsoportokban (pl. fiatal felnőttek) és szakmákban (pl. rendőrök) az átlagosnál magasabb a dohányzók aránya. A tanulmány célja a rendészeti felsőoktatási hallgatók dohányzási szokásainak és nikotinfüggőségük súlyosságának vizsgálata. Keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves vizsgálatot végeztünk az NKE RTK rendészeti hallgatói körében (n = 180). A nikotinfüggőség súlyosságát a Fagerström Nikotinfüggőségi Teszttel (FTND) és a Dohányzás Súlyossága Indexszel (DSI) vizsgáltuk. A válaszadók körében 81,1% a dohányzás életprevalenciája, 24,4% jelenleg dohányzó, 14,4% naponta dohányzik. Az FTND alapján a naponta dohányzók 96,1% enyhe/nagyon enyhe nikotinfüggő, míg a DSI alapján 73,1%-nak alacsony a nikotinfüggősége. A rendészeti felsőoktatás hallgatóinak dohányzása nem elhanyagolható probléma, ráadásul jelentős közegészségügyi és biztonsági aspektusai is vannak.

Summary. In some age groups (e.g. students) and professions (e.g. police officers), the proportion of smokers is higher than in the general population. The aim of this study is to assess the smoking habits and heaviness of nicotine dependence of Hungarian law enforcement students. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted among law enforcement students at the Faculty of Law Enforcement of the University of Public Service (n = 180). The heaviness of nicotine dependence was measured by the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI). Respondents reported 81.1% lifetime prevalence of smoking, 24.4% were current smokers, and 14.4% were daily smokers. Based on the FTND, 96.1% of daily smokers had low/very low nicotine dependence, while based on the HSI, 73.1% of daily smokers had low nicotine dependence. Smoking among law enforcement students is not a negligible problem, and it also has significant public health and security aspects.

Open access

A többműszakos munkavégzés biztonsági kihívásai a rend- és honvédelmi szerveknél

Security challenges of multi-shift work in the police and military

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Zoltán Szakács

Összefoglalás. A krónikus napközbeni aluszékonyság és a vele járó figyelemzavar igen gyakori panasz, amely jelentősen rontja a munkavégzés teljesítményét, az életminőséget, összetett mechanizmus révén gátolja a mentális funkciókat, gyakran vezethet – munkahelyi és közlekedési balesetek okozójaként – fatális következményhez is. A krónikus napközbeni aluszékonyság mint panasz mögött a krónikus alvás depriváció mellett az elsődleges alvászavarokat kell keresnünk.

Summary. Police and military service, at the appropriate level of care, require neuropsychological functions from the service provider such as constant vigilance, sustained attention and concentration, and the compulsion to make quick, responsible decisions. However, the service is often accompanied by difficult external conditions, such as monotony, harsh weather factors, or shift work, which place a heavy burden on the service provider.

In both police and military service, in addition to a varied shift schedule, we often expect special mental and physical performance from those serving. However, a multi-shift schedule breaks the circadian rhythm of service, causing metabolic and hormonal changes, and can have a profound effect on one’s behavior and one can remain deeply inferior to oneself during a given performance. Not everyone is adaptable to such conditions, especially those with primary sleep disorders. Therefore, it is particularly important to recognize those suffering from primary sleep disorders among multi-shift workers. People with severe obstructive sleep apnea have an abnormally high degree of daytime sleep and their attention, concentration, vigilance, work and cognitive performance decline significantly compared to their peers in multi-shift work conditions.

Much of the experience gained in the field of sleep disorders becomes a practice in the field of occupational health. One of our main goals was to make the diagnosis, treatment and screening of diseases belonging to this professional and scientific topic.

The Military Health Sleep Diagnostic Laboratory is tasked with screening out dyssomnia sufferers from performing under special multi-shift conditions.

During military service, in modern warfare, the importance of multi-shift work schedules, the continuous standby system, and work periods of different than usual duration and content have increased.

All of this has significantly changed the demands on human performance during waking hours and the role of sleep in regeneration, restoration, preparation. In parallel with these requirements, unwanted drowsiness and exhaustion also increased in everyday work, and manifested itself in errors and accidents during operational actions.

Sleep deprivation fundamentally affects cognitive areas such as speed of thinking, decision making, divergent thinking, executive functions, emotions, understanding humor, memory, morality, risk taking, and alertness. A number of special functions are associated with the prefrontal cortex. Judgment, decision making, impulse control, attention, and visual association are related to this part of the cerebral cortex. This area of the cortex is very vulnerable and, as a result of sleep deprivation, a disturbance of the functions represented here can be observed.

Sleep disorders severely and often unexpectedly limit mental and physical performance. They can cause serious confusion during training, exercise, and tactical and operational activities, so knowledge of them is important for prevention, interpretation, and effective therapy. Sleep disorders can occur in greater numbers due to the special conditions of police and military service.

Open access