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Abstract

The article evaluates how well the goals of the European Green Deal are justified, especially considering the risks to energy and food security arising from the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. We agree with the objectives of the European Green Agreement as a whole, but whether some of the objectives which feature in the EASAC study can be achieved by 2030 is questionable, and the description of the tools necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. Among other things, there is hardly any mention of the role played by precision farming with digitalization, which is a revolutionary change from an ecological and economic point of view, in reducing the use of synthetic inputs, in regenerating the original state of the soil, in reducing GHG emissions, thus in increasing biodiversity, and at the same time in intensifying production, and finally in expanding the application of biotechnology. We examine these areas in our analysis. Some of the objectives of the EASAC study to be achieved by 2030 are subject to debate, and the description of the information and communication conditions necessary to achieve the objectives is incomplete. The IoT (Internet of Things) responds to global and local challenges: it integrates the precision technologies, WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks), artificial intelligence, mobile field (Smart Small Robots) and remote data loggers (UAVs: Unmanned Air Vehicles and satellites), Big Data, and cloud computing. Consequently, decision support is increasingly developing into unmanned decision making. IoT (Internet of Things) is the basis of “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring approaches.

This article evaluates the implementation of European Green Agreement objectives in light of energy and food security risks arising from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. While overall support for the agreement exists, the feasibility of certain EASAC study objectives by 2030 is called into question due to insufficient tools specifications. Notably absent is the emphasis on precision farming with digitalization, which is a transformative ecological and economic practice. Our analyses look into its function in reducing synthetic inputs, soil regeneration, GHG emission reduction, biodiversity enhancement, production intensification, and biotechnology development. Debates surround EASAC study objectives for 2030, despite limited information and communication restrictions. The Internet of Things (IoT) arises as a solution, combining precision technology, WSNs (wireless sensor networks), AI (artificial intelligence), smart small robots, UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles), satellites, big data, and cloud computing. As a result, decision support turns toward unmanned decision-making, with IoT laying the groundwork for “Farm to Fork” and “Lab to Field” monitoring systems.

Open access

The use of organic fertilization is declining in Hungary due to the sharp fall of livestock stand since the middle of the 1980s. Most farmers are forced to use solely chemical crop enhancers. A bifactorial small plot experiment was carried out between 10 May 2023 and 19 October 2023 in Keszthely, in order to examine the effects of farmyard manure (M), green manure (GM) and stem residues (SR) on the nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiencies of maize at equidistantly increasing (0–70–140–210–280 kg N ha–1) nitrogen doses. The relationship between some vegetative traits (dry biomass weight, Leaf Area Index (LAI)) and yield, furthermore leaf relative water content (RWC) was also examined. According to the results, organic fertilizer substitution significantly increased the N content both in whole plant and grain samples of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR treatments, compared to the chemically fertilized control (NPK). In case of P and K only slight differences were observed. Whole plant K contents of NPK+M were significantly higher than in the other treatments (P = 0.045; P = 0,005), furthermore P contents in grain samples were significantly higher in NPK+M (P = 0.004) and NPK+GM+SR (P = 0.05) than in control. Harvest index (HI [%]) of NPK+M and NPK+GM+SR were 1.06 and 1.05 times higher than in NPK. Depending on the treatment, P0023 maize hybrid absorbed 58.7–74.64% of total N uptake in the grain (HIN%), and the utilization of 1 kg N fertilizer for the extra yield above the yield of the individual control was 0.39–1.38 kg (AREN). Significant positive correlations were observed between dry biomass weight and yield (NPK: r = 0.937, P = 0.019; NPK+M: r = 0.971, P = 0.006; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.88, P = 0.049), furthermore LAI and yield (NPK: r = 0.9, P = 0.037; NPK+M: r = 0.983, P = 0.003; NPK+GM+SR: r = 0.784, P = 0.117). Highest RWC values – which may be related to better soil aggregate stability – were measured in NPK+GM+SR treatment, therefore there may be a great potential in this treatment among drought conditions. The effect of organic amendments is particularly noticeable with smaller nitrogen doses so they should be used to reduce inorganic fertilizer application and the resulting environmental risks.

Open access

Pilóta nélküli légi járművek alkalmazása a vizes élőhelyek modern felmérésében

Application of unmanned aerial vehicles as modern tools for wetland monitoring

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Réka Döbröntey
,
János Grósz
,
Judit Rita Keleti
,
Tamás Szegi
,
Márta Fuchs
,
Erika Michéli
, and
Ádám Csorba

A vizes élőhelyek a vízi és a szárazföldi ökoszisztémák között elhelyezkedő, igen változatos, és általában nehezen lehatárolható területek. Kiemelt jelentőségük annak köszönhető, hogy bár csak a globális szárazföldi területek mintegy 6–7%-át borítják, kulcsfontosságú szerepet játszanak az éghajlat szabályozásában, a vizes ökoszisztémák biodiverzitásának és hidrológiai viszonyainak fenntartásában, valamint számos további ökológiai és társadalmi funkciót is szolgáltatnak, beleértve az árvízvédelmi, víztisztítási, szén-dioxid-tárolási, élőhelytámogatási és kulturális, rekreációs előnyöket. A vizes élőhelyek azonban mind természetes, mind antropogén hatások következtében térben és időben is dinamikusan változnak, ezért védelmük és megfigyelésük napjainkra igen fontos kutatási területté nőtte ki magát. A műholdas távérzékelés nagyobb területek egyidejű megfigyelését teszi lehetővé, azonban érzékeny a felhőzetre és a légköri hatásokra, bizonytalanságot okozva ezzel az eredményekben. A hagyományos monitoring technológiák mellett a pilóta nélküli légi járművek térnyerése egyre kifejezettebb, köszönhetően rugalmasságának, hatékonyságának és alacsony költségének, miközben nagy térbeli és időbeli felbontású, szisztematikus adatszolgáltatásra képes. Tanulmányunk a pilóta nélküli légi járművek alkalmazási lehetőségeibe nyújt betekintést a vizes élőhelyek felmérésében, valamint áttekinti és összehasonlítja az egyéb távérzékelés technológiák alkalmazhatóságát ezen területek megfigyelésében. Célja, hogy elősegítse a dróntechnológia további terjedését és széles körű alkalmazását a vizes élőhelyek monitorozásában.

Open access

Abstract

In this work, an assessment of effective solvents and extraction methods was carried out to recover the bioactive compounds from hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Extractions assisted by heat, microwave, and ultrasound were carried out using various organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol). pH differential, Folin–Ciocalteu's, and aluminum chloride methods were used to determine total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA), total phenolic compound (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC), consecutively. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Hydrate (DPPH), and 2,2′- azino- bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were used to measure the antioxidant activity (AA) of the extracts. The outputs revealed that extraction methods and solvents significantly affect anthocyanin concentration, TPC, TFC, AA, and color values of hawthorn fruit extracts. Due to the highest recovered TMA (0.152 ± 0.002 mg ECy3Gl/g of dry weight), TPC (49.14 ± 0.38 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight), and TFC (18.38 ± 0.19 mg quercetin equivalents/g of dry weight) contents, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction is superior to heat and microwave-assisted extractions. Accordingly, it was also observed that the methanol solvent is more profound than ethanol and isopropanol. Further, the bioactive compounds' content and the extracts' antioxidant activity are shown to be highly correlated. Thus, hawthorn extracts are considered to have antioxidant properties because of their concentrated bioactive compounds.

Open access

A talajspektrális könyvtárak nemzetközi jelentősége és hazai megalapozása

The international importance and national establishment of soil spectral libraries

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Ádám Csorba
,
Tamás Szegi
,
Gábor Várszegi
,
Gábor Nagy
, and
Erika Michéli

Napjainkban soha nem látott igény mutatkozik megfelelő mennyiségű és minőségű talajadatra és információra. Spektroszkópiai technológiák a hagyományos laboratóriumi módszerekkel együttesen, párhuzamosan alkalmazva lehetőséget kínálnak a talajfelvételezés idő- és költséghatékonyabbá, valamint környezetkímélőbbé tételére. Jelen munkában lokális, regionális és globális léptékű talajspektrális könyvtárak bemutatása mellett az első országos szintű, az Agrártechnológiai Nemzeti Laboratórium projekt keretében kidolgozásra kerülő, Magyarország talajtani változatosságát reprezentáló spektrális adatbázis létrehozásának koncepcióját mutatjuk be. A spektrális könyvtárak olyan speciális talajadatbázisoknak tekinthetőek, melyek tartalmazzák egy adott terület talajait reprezentáló talajminták hagyományos laboratóriumi módszerrel meghatározott paramétereit, valamint spektroszkópiai módszerrel rögzített spektrumait. A spektrális könyvtárakban tárolt adatok alapján elvégzett, spektroszkópiai kalibrációkra alapozott talajparaméter becslési eljárások lehetőséget kínálnak az adatbázisban szereplő talajminták fizikai-kémiai-ásványtani tulajdonságaihoz hasonló minták paramétereinek spektrális alapú megbízható megbecsléséhez. A hazai spektrális könyvtár alappillérét a Talajvédelmi Információs és Monitoring (TIM) rendszer mintavételezés kezdeti évében (1992-ben) gyűjtött, talajok genetikai szintjeiből vett talajmintákról felvett spektrumokra építjük. A spektrális adatbázist a középső-infravörös (middle-infrared, MIR), valamint a látható- és közeli infravörös (visible and near-infrared, VIS-NIR) tartományban, a Global Soil Laboratory Network (GLOSOLAN) iránymutatásai alapján rögzített spektrális adatokra építjük. A folyamatosan bővülő spektrális könyvtár, és az erre az adatbázisra épülő talajtulajdonság-becslő eljárás lehetőséget fog kínálni számos fizikai és kémiai paraméterének megbízható meghatározására, ezzel (számottevő többletköltség nélkül) nyújt lehetőséget a jelenlegi laboratóriumi kapacitás növelésére.

Open access

Abstract

“Feed the global population and regenerate the planet.”

The conditions necessary for the implementation of the above commonly used slogan did not exist 10–15 years ago. We did not have access to the information and databases that would have allowed us to increase yields for the purpose of feeding the growing population. While increasingly meeting sustainability requirements and regenerating the Earth. Anthropocentrism, the belief that humans are superior to everything else, benefits humans by exploiting human greed and ignorance, which is a dead end for both individuals and societies. Only humans can ignore the dynamic equilibrium processes of nature and disregard the consequences that adversely affect future generations. Ecocentric agricultural practices have several prerequisites. It is important for the academic sphere to recognize its significance. Another fundamental challenge is the continuous monitoring of the production unit and its close and distant environment for the purpose of decision preparation using Big Data. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a global infrastructure that represents the network of physical (sensors) and virtual (reality) “things” through interoperable communication protocols. This allows devices to connect and communicate using cloud computing and artificial intelligence, contributing to the integrated optimization of the production system and its environment, considering ecocentric perspectives. This brings us closer to the self-decision-making capability of artificial intelligence, the practice of machine-to-machine (M2M) interaction, where human involvement in decision-making is increasingly marginalized. The IoT enables the fusion of information provided by deployed wireless sensors, data-gathering mobile robots, drones, and satellites to explore complex ecological relationships in local and global dimensions. Its significance lies, for example, in the prediction of plant protection. The paper introduces small smart data logger robots, including the Unmanned Ground Vehicles (robots) developed by the research team. These can replace sensors deployed in the Wireless Sensor Net (WSN).

Open access

Abstract

Hungary is a Central European country that is rich in medicinal and aromatic wild plant species; in rural livelihoods, the collection, use, process, and trade of these plants are traditionally important contributors. However, due to several recent changes touching the sector, the natural ecosystems, biodiversity, and collectors - who generally belong to poorer social groups – are affected negatively.

The paper aims to introduce the Hungarian herbal sector from a holistic perspective, including its economic, environmental, and human dimensions, with a particular focus on sustainability. In this context, the purpose of the article is to discover this field as comprehensibly as possible and present it from both theoretical and practical aspects. Another objective is to collect the best practices and feasible solutions from the field in connection with promoting a harmonious, as well as economically prosperous relationship between nature and local people. This integrated approach helps show the industry's strengths and advantages, as well as its weaknesses and challenges. Based on the findings, the paper attempts also to propose some recommendations for the future.

Open access

A talaj katabolikus aktivitás mintázatának elemzése mikrorespirációs (MicroResp) módszerrel

Analysis of soil catabolic activity patterns by micro-respiration (MicroResp)

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Tibor Szili-Kovács
,
Márton Mucsi
,
Anna Füzy
,
Tünde Takács
, and
Andrea K. Borsodi

A talaj mikrobiális közösségének funkcionális diverzitása a talaj ökoszisztéma szolgáltatások jelentős részéhez hozzájárul, sok esetben meghatározó jelentőségű. Többféle kísérleti és elméleti megközelítés közül a katabolikus aktivitás-mintázat mikrorespirációs – MicroResp™ – módszerrel történő megközelítését mutatjuk be. A módszer a régebbről ismert szubsztrát-indukált respiráció több-szubsztrátos, mikrotiter lemez alapú kiterjesztése, amivel a talaj mikroba-közösség in-situ közösségi-szintű fiziológiai mintázata határozható meg. Mivel az egyes mikroorganizmusok szubsztrát-hasznosítása eltérő, a mikroba-közösség aktuális összetételétől, abundanciájától függően változó a szubsztrát hasznosítási mintázat egy-egy talajminta esetében. Az alkalmazott szubsztrátok köre tetszőleges, rendszerint egyszerű cukrok, aminosavak, aminok, karbonsavak. A módszer gyors, érzékeny, megbízható, ezért alkalmazása tervezett kísérletekben és talajmonitoring programokban egyaránt javasolható.

Open access

Abstract

The soaking step of dry pulse products' – e.g. chickpeas' – food processing is a time consuming process. Soaking time can be significantly reduced by ultrasonic treatment or using higher processing temperatures. The effect of ultrasonic treatment can be investigated by examining the soaking water characteristics. Ultrasound-assisted soaking of chickpeas was performed at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. Additionally, control samples were also prepared without ultrasonic treatment at the same temperatures. The dynamics of the fitted curve clearly shows the relationship namely the higher the treatment temperature, the faster the hydration of the raw material for both untreated and treated groups. In contrast to control group, swelling rate of 2.00 – except the group 45 °C – is not achieved during ultrasound-assisted soaking. In case of treated group, the swelling rate was about 1.90 for all temperatures applied. The ANOVA test shows that the color of the ultrasonically treated samples was significantly different compared to the control (F (5;12) = 207.86; P < 0.001). Average dry matter content and °Brix value were significantly higher in the ultrasound treated group compared to the control in case of all temperatures. This may indicate the destructive effect of ultrasound, which may cause more components to dissolve out of the raw material by the end of the soaking process.

Open access

Abstract

The objective of our work was to analyze the differences between four nut pastes, which were the following: walnut, peanut, pistachio, and tahini (sesame). The process technology of them is unknown, however, all the products contain 100% nut without any additives or flavoring.

The paste samples were measured at 25 ± 0.2 °C. The apparent viscosity at a 10 1/s shear rate during flow curve recording, and the dynamic viscosity at a constant 20 1/s shear rate was determined by viscosity measurement with the use of the MCR302 modular compact rheometer. The L*a*b* color components were determined by ColorLite sph850 spectrometer, finally, the particle sizes and shapes of the samples were analyzed by the high-speed image analysis instrument QICPIC.

The apparent viscosity and the average dynamic viscosity values of the four nut pastes were significantly different from each other. Differences were found between each paste according to the L*a*b* parameters. The complex structures of the particles are detailed and measurable, whereby the lengths and diameters of the particles can reliably be determined and fine deviations between the samples are detected. The sphericity decreases slightly with increasing particle size which means that bigger particles are more irregularly shaped.

Open access