Studies have shown evidence for long-term effects of psychedelics on personality, but comprehensive models of psychedelic-mediated personality changes have yet to be explored.
The present study aims to investigate (1) perceptions of personality change in the general population, (2) moderators of perceived personality change including setting and drug type, and (3) whether personality predisposes individuals to use psychedelics.
Paid participants with experience using psychedelic (N = 218), non-users with interest in using psychedelics (N = 104), and non-users without interest in using psychedelic (N = 104) completed an online survey following recruitment from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Psychedelic users were asked to complete written open-ended accounts of perceived personality changes that they attribute to their most intense psychedelic experience. Thematic and factor analyses were undertaken to identify themes of perceived psychedelic change and their organizational structure.
Thematic analyses resulted in 52 unique personality change themes, and exploratory factor analyses yielded eight thematic factors (Unitive Spiritual, Gratitude Absorption, Purpose Freedom, Compassion Understanding, Emotional Stability, Openness Perspective, Connection to Self, and Neuroticism Caution). Interest in psychedelic use among non-users was associated with higher openness and neuroticism. Psychedelic users tended to be more open and extraverted, and less neurotic than non-users, and interested non-users tended to be higher in openness than uninterested non-users.
The present results inform a tentative model of how personality leads to psychedelic use, how psychedelic use leads to changes in personality, and how setting and drug moderate different types of changes in personality. Research and clinical implications are discussed, including (1) hypotheses for future prospective and experimental research, (2) the value of creating multi-faceted, holistic measures that reflect the diversity and organizational structure of possible psychedelic changes, and (3) the value of allowing such evidence to guide novel psychedelic-assisted therapeutics.
Time perception is a cognitive process involving both the ability to estimate the duration of an event (time estimation, TE) and the subjective perception of its passage (time passage, TP). Studies show that alteration in TE/TP is associated with substance use disorders. However, little is known about the impact of these alterations in potentially problematic online behaviors. We explore TE and TP while participants were exposed to cues related to videogames, pornography, and TV series, and the relationship of TE and TP with scores from instruments that measure problematic gaming (PG), problematic pornography use (PPU), and problematic binge-watching (BW).
Participants from three independent samples (40 men from Luxembourg; 99 Spanish men, 111 Spanish women) completed an experimental task designed to assess TE and TP while they were exposed to short clips related to videogames, pornography, TV series, and documentaries (control condition). Participants also completed different self-reports.
Whereas men underestimated the time that they were exposed to pornography and TV series, women overestimated it. For videogames, we showed a consistent pattern of overestimation of time duration. Time was systematically perceived as passing faster while participants were presented with TV series and pornography. Regarding the association between time perception and PG, PPU, and BW, TE did not correlate with any of the indicators of problematic engagement assessed; but TP correlated with several of these indicators.
Discussion and conclusions
The present preliminary results showed mixed evidence regarding the involvement of time perception in gaming, pornography use, and binge-watching.
The intertemporal and risk decision-making impairments are vital cognitive mechanisms in internet use disorder (IUD). However, the underlying neural mechanisms for these two decision-making dysfunctions in individuals with IUD remain unclear.
This study employed Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record changes in blood oxygen concentration in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with IUD during intertemporal and risk decision-making tasks.
The findings revealed that the intertemporal decision-making deficits in IUD group were primarily associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and FC from the left dlPFC to the right dlPFC. On the other hand, risk decision-making impairments were linked to decreased OFC activation and weakened functional connectivity from the left dlPFC to the right dlPFC and OFC.
Discussions and Conslusions
These results suggested that while there were common neural mechanisms underlying intertemporal and risk decision-making impairments in individuals with IUD, specific neural foundations existed for each type of dysfunction.
Gaming disorder (GD) screening often involves self-report survey measures to detect the presence of symptoms. Studies have shown that gamers' responses vary greatly across survey items. Some symptoms, such as preoccupation and tolerance, are frequently reported by highly engaged but non-problematic gamers, and therefore these symptoms are thought to lack specificity and are suggested to be less important in classification decisions. We argue that the influence of response categories (e.g., dichotomous responses, such as ‘yes’ or ‘no’; or frequency categories, such as ‘rarely’ and ‘often’) on item responses has been relatively underexplored despite potentially contributing significantly to the psychometric performance of items and scales. In short, the type of item response may be just as important to symptom reporting as the content of survey questions. We propose some practical alternatives to currently used item categories across GD tools. Research should examine the performance of different response categories, including whether certain response categories aid respondents' comprehension and insight, and better capture pathological behaviours and harms.
This analysis of current and historical research and clinical reports observes that the relationship between psychedelics and schizophrenia is complex and there are reports of psychedelics benefiting this population. Specifically, lower doses of psychedelics (mostly LSD) appear to have a potential beneficial impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Simulated gambling products, like loot boxes and social casino games, contain gambling elements, but are not classified as gambling. They are available to minors, raising concerns about a “gateway effect” into gambling. This study examined the time course of young people's engagement in simulated and monetary gambling, and associations between simulated gambling and gambling problems and harm. A necessary, although not sufficient, condition for simulated games leading to real money gambling is that simulated play must come first.
Participants were 1,026 young adults (aged 18–25 years) who played video games in the last year. They reported the age at which they first took part in seven simulated and twelve monetary gambling products, and current gambling problems and harm.
First use of loot boxes and video games with gambling content tended to precede monetary gambling. Forms where gambling is a core gameplay element, such as social casino and demonstration games, tended to follow some monetary gambling forms. Engagement in most simulated gambling products was associated with greater harm from monetary gambling.
The findings leave open the possibility of a catalyst pathway from youth engagement in loot boxes and games with gambling content to later monetary gambling, but causal psychosocial mechanisms remain unclear. However, a pathway from social casino and demonstration games to monetary gambling appears less likely, which may instead reflect containment or substitution effects. Simulated gambling disproportionately attracts youth who are vulnerable to gambling problems and harm, indicating the need for consumer protection measures.
The Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius) is the only vertebrate known to produce the powerful psychedelic, 5-MeO-DMT, which is easily-accessible form the animal's exterior glands. This paper seeks to present the biocultural (ecological and cultural) history, and conservation concerns of I. alvarius. Discovery of 5-MeO-DMT in I. alvarius was first reported in 1965 and 1967 (Erspamer et al.), and eventually led to the popular psychedelic use of this species after a pamphlet was published in 1984 (Most). Its mostly unmitigated use in for-profit spirituality, wellness, and adventurism has driven erroneous, coerced, and exploitive narratives of ancient Indigenous use – increasing: exploitation of I. alvarius, biocultural erosion, and malpractice of 5-MeO-DMT. Reconciliation of diverse needs is intellectually and financially challenging. It must be careful of approaches that are implicitly biased by a demand that extracts, appropriates, and trades in Indigenous and wellness motifs – but can be reached from the reconciliation and intersection of Indigenous and Western science and priorities. Few conservation-oriented studies and outreach elements concerning I. alvarius exist, and most have been supported by crowdfunding.
Background and goals: In our research, we examined infant observation protocols with a psychoanalytical approach made for professional training purposes. Considering their original purpose, the observations focused on mother-infant interactions, the development of the baby, and the experiences by the observer, however, we were looking for the answer to what specific experiences this information is fed from, and what sociophysical aspects of these can be seen in action. We were, therefore, curious to see whether, even though this was not the goal, environmental psychological/socio-physical factors appeared in the aspects of the observation and, if so, how they were articulated. Method: Students participating in the Ego Clinic's method-specific child therapist training provided data for the research as observers. We performed an analysis of ten protocols containing the notes of weekly infant observations made between 2006 and 2016 for one to one and a half years. The qualitative research was conducted with content analysis, using the Grounded Theory (GT) method developed by Corbin and Strauss (2015). Results: According to our content analysis, three important key categories emerged, which displayed the socio-physical aspect of the observations, these bear the category names “movement in space”, “experience of place” and “cover-ups”. In addition, categories with a non-directly sociophysical aspect emerged (called “imprints of the past”, “emotions”, and “adaptations”), which can be interpreted as an important contextual background. Conclusions: Our research revealed that the environmental psychological socio-physical context, as an unconscious but still strongly present factor, lies in the background of the phenomena to be observed, even though the observation task did not include the observation of physical aspects. The socio-physical factors clearly outlined in the records presumably influenced the observer's thoughts and methods of interpretation and seem to have served as an important source of information, in many cases as the cornerstones of their interpretation framework. This feature also raises the possibility that the study of socio-physical environmental conditions can be included in the analysis of observation records.
This scoping review employed a multifaceted conceptualization of well-being to examine how psilocybin use affects well-being and related sub-concepts in healthy individuals. It investigated which factors influence the relationship between psilocybin use and well-being, what research protocols have been employed, and what underlying mechanisms have been proposed in existing studies.
A comprehensive literature search in line with the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. Scopus, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed articles about psilocybin and well-being in healthy populations.
Studies were heterogeneous in regard to study objectives, study design, study procedure, sample size and psilocybin dosage. In all studies, psilocybin use led to positive well-being-related outcomes for the majority of participants. Facets of well-being positively affected by psilocybin use in this review were self-acceptance, positive relationships, and meaning/purpose in life.
This scoping review provided preliminary evidence for the beneficial effects of psilocybin on well-being and related sub-concepts such as self-acceptance, positive relationships, and meaning/purpose in life in healthy individuals. Ego-dissolution, unity, connectedness, and mystical-type experiences are interrelated concepts that seem to be crucial for explaining such positive well-being-related effects of psilocybin. Under conducive conditions, the use of psilocybin may contribute to healthy functioning, through broad and sustained improvements in a variety of well-being concepts. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the studies, more definite conclusions require further research with a rigorous and homogeneous design.
Background and Objectives: Marketing communication about eco-friendly products is gaining importance on social media. Two main aspects of influencer marketing are the product-influencer fit, which positively affects persuasion effectiveness and the sponsorship disclosure, which negatively affects the persuasion outcomes. The present study examines the simultaneous effect of product-influencer fit and the presence of sponsorship disclosure on the effectiveness of a sponsored post promoting an environmentally conscious detergent. We hypothesized that in the case of a high product-influencer fit, the sponsorship disclosure would have a less negative effect on the evaluation of the post. Method: To answer our hypotheses, we performed a between-subject online experiment with 2 (control versus environmentally conscious profile) × 2 (control versus sponsored content disclosure) experimental groups. We recruited our participants from a university course (N = 430, M = 22.1 years, SD = 4.22 years). The authors generated the stimuli set by creating fictitious influencer profiles and posts. Hypotheses were tested using two-way analyses of variance. Results: According to our results, neither the advertising nor the brand attitude was affected by the interaction effect of the product-influencer fit and the sponsorship disclosure; thus, we did not prove our first two hypotheses. However, high product-influencer fit positively impacted advertising and brand attitudes. Regarding the purchase intention, we found that although the interaction of the two independent variables affected the purchase intention, contrary to hypothesized, the sponsorship disclosure in the high product-influencer post had a more negative effect on the purchase intention. Conclusions: The positive effect of high product-influencer fit on advertising and brand attitudes is in line with previous results presented in the literature. Regarding the intention to purchase, our results may be explained by the topic of the sponsored post, methodological differences, and different psychological mechanisms underlying the evaluation of the post. Future research should consider examining consumer perceptions regarding the influencer's ulterior motives to publish an eco-friendly product recommendation.