Authors:T Téglás, R.G. Shoemaker, G. Dörnyei, P.G.M. Luiten, and C Nyakas
Low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in rat has positive effects on neuronal processes in vitro. Moreover, EMF improves learning-memory and psychomotor activity during advanced ageing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known in the brain. In the present study we aimed to investigate the molecular effects of chronic EMF stimulation in the hippocampus of senescent rats in vivo.
Thirty months old rats were treated for six weeks with different EMF doses of 45, 95, and 1,250 µT. After sacrifice the levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and activated ribosomal protein S6 as measures for protein synthesis intensity in the hippocampus were determined by Western blot analysis.
The results showed that chronic EMF exposure dose dependently increased BDNF and the amount of phosphorylated S6 protein at the highest dose. The effects on the two proteins positively correlated at individual level. The results indicate that EMF exposure may enhance neurotrophic processes indicated by increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus of senescent rats. Increased phosphorylated S6 protein suggests coupling to support molecular regulation of protein synthesis.
In a broader perspective, these findings may support EMF as a beneficial alternative form of passive exercise in active, exercise-limited, aged individuals.
The checklist includes tree, shrub, dwarf shrub, woody liana and epiphyte species that occur or have occurred in Hungary except the settlements and other intensively utilised objects. 437 dendrotaxa were included and evaluated in this list. This means 281 species, 22 subspecies, 128 nothospecies and 6 nothosubspecies. Based on the indigenat, 260 native, 92 alien and 9 cryptogenic dendrotaxa live in Hungary, furthermore 54 cultivated dendrotaxa and 22 dendrotaxa with questionable occurrence. Analysing the invasive status of alien species, 19 invasive or being in the early stages of invasion, 12 naturalised and 61 casual dendrotaxa can be distinguished. According to residence time status, the number of archaeophytes is 16 and that of neophytes is 76. Of the 260 native dendrotaxa, 9 were extinct or presumably extinct. 44 dendrotaxa are considered to be proven endemic, and there are 8 subendemic. Of the 134 nothotaxa on the list, 14 are artificial and 120 are of natural origin.
The telicity behavior of degree achievements has been a puzzling problem to many linguists. The most successful and currently standard theory (Kennedy & Levin 2008) treats them as degree expressions lexicalizing different types of scales, which in turn influence the resulting evaluative or non-evaluative interpretation. While it may account for English, this theory does not hold up cross-linguistically. We challenge the scalar theory with new Slavic data and show that verbal prefixes influence the (non-)evaluative interpretation of degree achievements more than their underlying scales do. This proposal is formalised as an addition of two type shifters, morphosyntactically realised as prefixes, which, in result, have an evaluative/non-evaluative effect on the given degree achievement.
The paper aims at providing an overview of hate crimes through an interdisciplinary lens based not only on theories but also empirical research results. The paper first deals with the central components of hate crimes: prejudice and aggression. Not only the classical social-psychological theories of these phenomena are discussed but also some newer ones. As hate crimes do not occur in a vacuum, the next chapter of the paper deals with the social, political, cultural context and factors that facilitate or impede the occurrence of hate crimes. Community disorganization, urban ecology, racial balance, residential stability, economic conditions, and the role of the media and the internet are discussed in detail. The last chapter of the paper deals with the perpetrators of hate crimes, let them be lonely ones or members of organized hate groups. The paper demonstrates that the investigation of hate crimes can only occur in an interdisciplinary setting that can simultaneously take into account legal, social, cultural, and political factors.
The genus Diplasiolejeunea is added to the liverwort flora of India from the Kerala part of the Western Ghats reporting two species: Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia Steph. and D. cobrensis Gottsche ex Steph. The genus is known from tropical Asia with eight species. Among them Diplasiolejeunea cavifolia is widespread, but still the genus was not yet recorded from India.
A liverwort collection by Bence Pócs from the Venezuelan Guayana resulted in 31 species of liverworts, including Cololejeunea bencei new to science and C. cardiocarpa, C. obliqua, C. platyneura, C. schusteri, C. verwimpii, Lejeunea pulchra and Plagiochila crispabilis new to Venezuela. The distribution and differentiation of C. schusteri is discussed.
This paper reports on a two-part research project, conducted in order to see how Hungarian learners with at least vantage level of Spanish realize melodic peaks in their Spanish utterances. First, we are focusing on the tonal and distributional characteristics of melodic peaks, taking into consideration the proportion of the rise in f0 with respect to the previous syllable and examining if the affected syllable is lexically stressed. Second, the range of the tonal rise until the first peak of the utterance is analyzed. The method applied in both cases is Cantero Serena’s Prosodic Analysis of Speech (2019), which represents intonation by objectively comparable standardized melodic curves. The differences found in the speech of Hungarian learners as compared to native Spanish speakers have not proved to be significant in the aspects analyzed here. The main finding of the research is that native Spanish speakers tend to realize the first peak of their declarative sentences as the highest f0 point of the utterance, whereas this is less typical in the oral production of Hungarian learners of Spanish.
This paper seeks to compare the academic model of ‘militant democracy’ advocated in 1937 by Karl Loewenstein with the real political developments that had taken place only a few years before in Austria, under the responsibility of Engelbert Dollfuß. It further aims to to reveal the ‘missing link' between the actions (mere plans included) of - in particular - Catholic political leaders in Germany 1931/1933 (Heinrich Brüning, Franz v. Papen, Heinrich Held), directed at least from 1932 onwards in particular against the rise of the National Socialist movement, well-known both to Loewenstein and Dollfuß. It is argued that Loewenstein's model contains serious theoretical flaws and paves, at least when taken literally, the way to dangerous exaggerations, while the approach of the Dollfuß government was far more balanced. Any assessment of Dollfuß’ measures that – as is still the case in Austria – only focuses on the breach of the constitution then in force (the main document being the Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz, B-VG) as such, without offering a better alternative to prevent the National Socialist danger is unconvincing, not only from a moral, but also, and in particular, from a legal perspective.
The profound changes in both everyday life and the legal system over the last hundred years have transformed civil law as well. While the notion that civil law concerns relationships of private persons still prevails, the traditional public law–civil law division now seems questionable. This paper points out some of the key changes in civil law within the framework of the transformation of the legal system as a whole, and seeks to outline a different approach that may help better to understand the present situation.
Authors:Dávid Papp, Krisztina Győri, Karolina Eszter Kovács, and Csilla Csukonyi
The pandemic caused a new digital scheme of work to be implemented in higher educational institutes to avoid physical contact, which is referred to as emergency remote teaching in the literature (Hodges, Moore, Lockee, Trust, & Bond, 2020). The inevitable consequence of emergency remote teaching (later on ERT) was that the students’ inter-and extra organisational relationships decreased significantly (Pusztai & Győri, 2021). Based on the results of previous studies, we know that the lack of student relationships is strongly related to ineffectiveness (Astin, 1993; Pusztai, 2015; Tinto, 1975), which was also identified during the period of ERT (Pusztai & Győri, 2021). In the current study, firstly, we hypothesised that the students’ social interactions, which were accomplished by video gaming, could compensate for isolation (Pisan, 2007) and improve their effectiveness. Secondly, we hypothesised that video gaming might prove ineffective due to stressful and uncertain periods as well as avoidance of activity. In our study, we applied database analysis (Learning Alone database, N = 677) and half-structured interviews (N = 19). In the quantitative sample, we identified that increased gaming time (compared to the time spent before the pandemic) was related to persistence reduction, whereas similar results were obtained with the reduced playing time. In addition, the interview participants reinforced that they used video gaming as a tool to maintain their relationships during ERT, and they tended to do so in their relationships with other students as well. Thus it can be said that video gaming is an extracurricular activity that could affect academic effectiveness positively and negatively at the same time.