A rare painting with unique subject matter among extant Tangut cultural heritage, the so-called astral maṇḍala (more accurately, Grahamātṛkā-maṇḍala) from Khara-khoto deserves focused academic attention. Now in the collection of Hermitage, this painting broadens the horizons of research from multiple perspectives, including the history of astrology, Tangut culture, Esoteric Buddhism, and ritual studies. Introduced into Tangut Buddhism likely via Tibet, the Grahamātṛka-maṇḍala contributed to the construction of both a new iconographical system and a new pantheon of astral deities. The painting provides important visual details that gradually reveal a complete series of liturgies based on the Tangut astral cult, from the maṇḍala construction to fire ritual with offerings and visualization. Therefore, it helps to demonstrate astrological knowledge and religious practices prevalent in the Tangut period but previously overlooked by modern researchers. The Tangut people learned with an encompassing mind and became skilled at new teachings, methods, and practices through transcultural communications with India and Tibet. They actively combined this learning with the existing Chinese astrological and religious traditions in the Héxī region.
The paper offers a sample of a Khitan–English–Chinese Wordlist in preparation by scholars from the People’s Republic of China and Hungary. After a preface on general questions, it deals with the glyphs beginning with a- and b- in the Khitan Small Script. This is followed by Khitan words beginning with the first two letters of the Latin alphabet. The aim of the paper is to open a discussion on a future Khitan Etymological Dictionary.
In the evidential system of Uzbek, the speaker has different grammatical options in marking the source of information, such as -ibdi, ekan, emish, etc., although it is not compulsory to mark this category in the utterance. In addition to these established markers, new markers have developed into evidentials, and they encode specific sub-categories of evidentiality. In this study, after a brief overview of grammatical markers of evidentiality in Uzbek, the marker chog‘i is examined with a syntactic and semantic approach based on a corpus of selected texts. Its development into an inferential marker is evaluated with special attention to sources of evidentials.
Manner/Result Complementarity (Rappaport Hovav & Levin 2010) has been argued to have consequences for argument realization: only manner verbs permit object deletion and non-selected objects. In contrast, result verbs always co-appear with their object, because they are required to express the undergoer of the change that they entail. We discuss new data involving result verbs in constructions where the undergoer of the change encoded by the result verb is not realized as the object of the predicate. We argue these data display result verbs whose root is integrated into the argument structure of the predicate in such a way that it is interpreted as specifying a co-event of the main event denoted by the predicate, whereby the result entailed by the root is not necessarily intended to hold of the direct object. This follows if verb roots do not come with a syntactically relevant specification for manner or result from the lexicon, but acquire it on the basis of their association with the syntactic structure.
Neuere Überlegungen zu Hypereides' Rede gegen Demosthenes im Spiegel der Textkritik •
Ein philologisches „Wiederaufnahmeverfahren“ über col. XXVIII sqq.
This paper analyses and interprets three passages in Hyperides' speech against Demosthenes and suggests a textual correction. The statements in columns XXIX–XXX become more comprehensible based on the relevant passages in the speech against Diondas. In line 21 of columna XXVIII, αὐτῷ (pronomen personale – Jensen and all the editors) should be replaced by αὑτῷ (pronomen reflexivum), which reconstructs the proper meaning of the text. After Chaeronea it was not the people who were grateful to Demosthenes, but quite the opposite: the people expected that Demosthenes and his companions would be grateful to them. Thus, the name lost in the lacuna is not Lycurgus, but Demosthenes.
This paper deals with the textual tradition of the Florilegium Vindobonense (14th century). According to the current state of research, only one manuscript of this alphabetical anthology is known, which can be found in Codex Philologicus Graecus 169 (Austrian National Library). In preparing the text for edition, however, I found another manuscript that contains the anthology in its entirety. Codex Vaticanus Graecus 895 also dates from the beginning of the 14th century. This article examines the relationship between the two text variants in light of the provenience of the manuscripts and textual criticism.
The manuscript Iviron 463 contains the Greek version of the Barlaam and Joasaph Romance. Apart from the beautiful miniatures in the codex, it is also special because of a complete, heretofore not transcribed Old French translation running through the margin of the manuscript. The uncommon bilingual manuscript is of significant importance not only from the perspective of Old French philology but also from the perspective of linguistic and literary interactions between cultures. This paper examines the circumstances of the creation of the manuscript and the questions related to the commissioner in more detail.
The life and work of Karl Emil Franzos is considered to be well researched, but if you look at him as an Austrian writer and journalist, the remark is only applicable to his career and his belletristic work, his activities as publicist still require more detailed analysis. The present study sees itself as a contribution in this direction, an attempt is made to trace Hungarian German-language press. The investigation is based on the autopsy of the following newspapers: Pester Lloyd (years 1854–1904), Ungarischer Lloyd (1867–1876), and two magazines: Ungarische Illustrirte Zeitung (1871–1872), Neue Illustrirte Zeitung (1872–1886).