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Prostorne modulacije i dezeni materija •

Prilozi za tumačenje poezije Janoša Siverija

Studia Slavica
Author: Zoltán Virág

In this paper, János Sziveri’s poetry is studied from the perspective of associative plays based on matter-grouping and landscape visions. There was a productive correspondence, as the poet himself underlined it, between him and Vasko Popa’s works. The consonance between the book plans and the cycles of poems by Vasko Popa dedicated to the decom- position and recomposition of different matters and remains and the series of Sziveri’s texts are secured by the stock of biological limitations and tactile sensations. The processes of focusing on different bodies and moving from body to body and the excess of neuro- transmission as well as the desire for gratification are most efficiently distributed by the singular or plural first person. The Vasko Popa-esque radiation of life conditions extending beyond instrumentalized functioning and existence based on imitation echoes in Sziveri’s landscape descriptions by intensifying the creative potential of fixed stance and mobility.

The antipoetics and the cyclical planning of the texts of the Serbian author with some Ro- manian ancestors in his family tree were properly cultivated and elevated by his Hungarian- speaking companion.

Francis Ponge’s art can be considered as their literary precursor. Almost anything that can be told about water, fauna, flora, and the natural cycle, about the sea, shells, snails, pebbles, bones, and oranges, is told in Le parti pris des choses (1942), Ponge’s prose-poem cycle, which prevailed in the works of the well-informed Vasko Popa and, through Popa, in Sziveri’s texts as well.

Sziveri’s criticism of targeting the patterns of social viability of South-Eastern Euro- pean repressive practices and collective false consciousness drowning in platitudes is ac- companied by topographic scenery and ethnic diversity which accumulated landscape sur- faces, fragments, and neighbourhoods framed by the Danube, Tisza, and Bega rivers as the scenes of geospecific identity. Comparing existential calculations, describing the shrinking of an ill body – these can be considered as a perceptual Pannonism of a subject observing and recording its direct impressions precisely and accurately.

Clinging onto the love of life, self-defence supplied by background knowledge about the countryside – as if all these were representing the escapist way of hiding, disguise, and diversion. Being doomed to live as an outcast, as a result of the status quo of regional co- existence officially prescribing homogeneity and of institutionalized incitement of feud, seems to be a dead certain conditioning of life. His attitude against any kind of quailing, his manner of shrugging off or making fun of regional fixed ideas and minority melodramas, bodily and linguistic ‘Babylonization’ coalesce into a polyphonic credo of a poet standing in the shade of wrecking and falling apart.

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In the focus of the comparative study are four autobiographical works of Yugoslav female writers. The book Moja pota [My Way, 1933] by Marija Kmet (1891–1974) is written in Slovenian; Ein Mensch wird [By Myself] by Alma Karlin (1889–1950) was created in 1931 in German and published only in 2010 in the Slovenian translation Sama. The autobiogra- phical novel Kamen na cesti [A Stone on the Road, 1937] by the Croatian writer Marija Jurić Zagorka (1873–1957) and the autobiographical novel Moja prijateljica [My Friend, 1920] by the Slovenian author Zofka Kveder (1878–1926) are also explored.

The study of autobiographical texts inevitably turns to the so-called extratextual real- ity, to writers’ biographies. The lives of these four authors born in Austria–Hungary were different. The German-speaking Slovene Alma Karlin became a traveller around the world. The first female professional Slovenian writer Zofka Kveder worked as a magazine editor, lived in different cities, wrote in three languages (Slovenian, Croatian, and German). The Slovene Maria Kmet worked as a teacher all her life. Maria Jurić Zagorka was the most widely read writer of her time in the Croatian lands and became the first Croatian female journalist. At the same time, their autobiographical experience reflected in the texts reveals much in common. The writers often changed their place of residence. The subject of the research is the spatial structures of four texts.

In autobiographical works, there are specific spatiotemporal relations: the history of the formation of personality (the biographical time) is often connected with the expansion of space. First, an autobiographical character perceives only the space of a room (for ex- ample, a nursery), then the whole house. He or she makes various trips; often in the auto- biographies the spaces of educational institutions are described. As the characters mature, spaces expand and multiply.

The autobiographical mode of narration of the four works under consideration deter- mined the spatial structures of texts, in which an individual–collective dichotomy is pre- sent. With the uniqueness of each human biography, all life paths reveal similar stages, which were reflected in the category of space. On the one hand, in many autobiographies, there are the so-called locus communis (the space of one’s home, the school, places for children’s games and walks, and a workplace). On the other hand, the geography of move- ments across different spaces is always unique.

The similarity of some spatial motifs in the texts by Kmet, Karlin, Kveder, and Za- gorka can be explained by genre topics and general historical events (World War I, the collapse of Austria–Hungary) as well as the gender specificity of the texts (a big city gives a woman at the beginning of the 20th century the possibilities of self-realization, expands her social sphere but at the same time it is a dangerous space for her, full of temptations).

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The Ukrainian literary critic Yuriy Boyko stated that Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky (1811–1848), the famous Russian literary critic harshly criticized Ukrainian writers who wrote in Ukrainian. In fact, he tried to persuade those who wrote not only in Ukrainian but also in Russian to use only the latter. Belinsky often referred to contemporary Ukrainian literature in his writings. His attitude towards Ukrainian literature and Ukrainian language was rather ambiguous. It was the manifestation of the interest in Ukraine and Ukrainian culture that existed in Russia at that time and also the continuation of the polemics about the existence of the Ukrainian language, which was quite vivid in the first half of the 19th century. The critic believed that the Little Russian language did exist but only in folk poetry of value. Since the time of Peter I, according to Belinsky, due to the separation of estates, noblemen began to speak Russian and at the same time, the Little Russian language spoken by people began to deteriorate. His categorical and unfair conclusion is that there is no Little Russian language but there is a regional Little Russian dialect, such as Belarusian, Siberian, and other similar regional dialects.

The paper is devoted to Belinsky’s evaluation of the oeuvre of Hryhory Kvitka-Os- novyanenko (1778–1843), the Ukrainian writer and playwright. In his writings from 1839 to 1846, Belinsky analyzed and sometimes only mentioned Kvitka’s prosaic and dramatic works written in Russian or translated from Ukrainian into Russian. On the one hand, Be- linsky characterized Kvitka as a “wonderful talent” and “an excellent master” but, on the other hand, he called him ironically “the first Russian writer”, mentioning his “mediocrity” and “bad taste”. On the one hand, Belinsky spoke about witty, fascinating, and original works but, on the other, he called Kvitka’s writings artificial or late imitations.

The reasons for such ambiguous attitude of Belinsky towards the Ukrainian language and literature, and in particular to Kvitka’s works, are the above-mentioned polemics about the Ukrainian language and literature, the juxtaposition of the patriarchal Ukrainian village subjected to the “disastrous” influence of Russia, and the fact that most Ukrainian writers grouped around the retrograde Mayak, an ardent opponent of Otechestvennye zapiski. The whole problem was not sufficiently explored theoretically, thus Belinsky had no opportu- nity to rely on authoritative research. The level of development of the so-called new Ukrai- nian literature also influenced the critic’s opinion.

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The two characteristics of the passive voice found in the North Russian dialect and in other Circum-Baltic languages, the accusative case of the patient or theme as an argument of a verb with passive morphology and intransitive verbs passivized raise a number of related questions. The author of the present paper explores the issues under discussion from an areal-historical perspective, concluding that the aforementioned languages have a tendency for the agent to be the same element as the subject and the patient or theme to be the same element as the (direct) object of the sentence. In the North Russian dialect, we can see an example where the above fact holds true irrespective of whether the verb has an active or a passive morphology as the theme of the sentence assumes the accusative case regardless of whether it is an argument of a verb in the active or in the passive voice.

The question as to what lexical elements can function as subjects is itself interesting. Moreover, there seems to be a correlation between what level of abstraction the syntactic category of subject has reached in a language and the existence of a pure passive mean- ing. The less abstract the category of subject is, as in case of Circum-Baltic languages, the farther structures with a passive morphology seem to be from a pure passive meaning. In languages such as English, however, where virtually any noun can function as a subject, there seems to be a pure passive meaning and there is only one morphological way of form- ing passive sentences.

The nature of linguistic similarities found in genetically less related languages spoken in the same area has been given a number of varied accounts. The most salient of them ap- pears to be B. Drinka’s explanation based on the influence of Western European languages on ones spoken in the East of the area where once the Hanseatic League existed in the middle ages and I. Seržant’s theory concerning the foregrounding of the agent as passive structures with a stative interpretation gradually assumed a dynamic one.

In fact, participles in the North Russian dialect ending in -n / -t can express a dynam- ic, that is, eventive interpretation with a perfect meaning and can even co-occur with the -sja / -s’ postfix, the latter phenomenon being absolutely unimaginable in Standard Russian, where the two affixes are in complementary distribution. The author assumes that the topic should be studied from the perspective of sociology and cultural anthropology as well since linguistic similarities and differences often reflect similarities and differences in thinking beyond the realm of linguistics.

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The paper intends to present the general tendency of lexical change in Russian lyrical po- etry during the last two hundred years on some arbitrarily selected examples. The odes of Lomonosov were accomplished in the lofty style based on Slavonic, rhetorical, and other “poetical” devices. In Derzhavin’s ode Felica, enthusiastic and ironical elements, pathos and everyday talk are combined. In Zhukovski’s romantic poetry the objective sense of words is overshadowed by their emotive overtones. In avoiding the grandiloquent romantic lexis, Nekrasov describes the hopeless hard life of Russian peasantry with deep sympathy, and reliably reproduces the popular speech. In the cited poem of Akhmatova, the psychic drama of the heroine is expressed by a peculiar connection of words belonging to different stylistic layers. The entirely prosaic lexis and syntax of Blok’s short poem suggests the poet’s feeling about the hopeless immobility of life in a condensed metaphoric shape. Vino- kurov’s poem relates an imagined accidental meeting of former lovers after thirty years of their separating in an entirely colloquial style. Since a poem of genuine aesthetic value appears as a complex artistic work, its components mutually strengthen, supplement, or compensate each other. Thus, the increase of colloquial elements in the poetic vocabulary does not necessarily indicate a process of “depoetization”.

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Тематика типологии славянских языков была многократно затронута в разнообразных исследованиях, начиная, по-видимому, со второй половины XIX века. Первой значительной попыткой можно считать негенетическую классификацию славянских языков, сделанную Иваном Александровичем Бодуэном де Куртенэ.

С тех пор, естественно, появились более новые работы, но нельзя ска- зать, что их было очень много. Поэтому цель настоящего краткого обзора – обратить внимание не столько на богатство теорий, а скорее на своеобраз- ность подходов к данной проблематике на разных уровнях изучения языка. Таким образом, целесообразно рассмотреть попытки фонологической, мор- фологической и синтаксической типологии славянских языков отдельно. Та- кое решение подтверждается и тем, что общей типологии, соблюдающей все названные уровни вместе, пока не существует.

The typology of Slavic languages has been frequently dealt with in different publications since the late 19th century. In this paper, the author reviews some of the most significant attempts aimed at the phonological, morphological, and syntactic levels of this typological research. It appears that the phonological classification first elaborated by Baudouin de Courtenay has remained reliable to this day. In morphology, however, the only method for categorization seems to be the identification of certain grammatical markers. Syntactic ty- pology is still a young field of linguistics; nevertheless, there exist promising ventures in it, too. It is remarkable that the typological findings for the modern Slavic languages to a large extent coincide with the results of areal studies.

Based on the information presented in the paper, the following implications can be made with reference to the typology of the specific linguistic levels in the Slavic languages. The most uniform level is that of phonological typology because in all the models presented here, a key role is played by two prosodic features: the opposition of long and short vowels, on the one hand, and the character of word stress, on the other. Thus, the pho- nological typology first elaborated by Baudouin de Courtenay has proved to be reliable up to the present. At least no competing theories in this field can be seen for the time being.

As to morphological typology, it is not possible to identify features or criteria similar to the phonological models which could be applied for the differentiation of whatever mor- phological types. The Slavic languages, even Bulgarian and Macedonian, which have no nominal declension, have remained fusional (inflectional) languages, within which it is not easy to delineate further subtypes. So far, the only way of morphological categorization seems to be the identification and comparison of individual grammatical features of the different Slavic languages, as it is illustrated tentatively in Section 2.

The syntactic typology of the Slavic languages is still a very young field of typologi- cal research. Therefore, it is impossible to arrive at any general conclusions on this matter (besides the ones mentioned in Section 3). The model offered by Haspelmath for the Euro- pean languages looks quite promising but it is necessary to work out further details and spe- cific methods so that it could be successfully applied specifically for the Slavic languages.

One cannot fail to notice that the typological regularities specified by way of the mor- phological and syntactic observations in Sections 2 and 3, to a marked extent coincide with the facts of the areal (geographical) classification of the Slavic languages, as it was sharply noticed by Bogoroditsky, Janda, Tommola, and other researchers.

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In her interviews and essays, Ulitskaya has often alluded to the great effect that Pasternak’s poetry, and especially Doctor Zhivago, has had on her. In one of the episodes of her novel The Big Green Tent, she describes a first encounter with Pasternak’s novel; the teacher of literature who plays a decisive role in the lives of the main characters reads a manuscript copy of the novel and describes it as a worthy continuation of 19th-century Russian prose.

The parallels between the novels The Big Green Tent and Doctor Zhivago have al- ready been the subject of scholarly attention but the connection between Jacobs Ladder and the Pasternak novel has not been studied so far. In this study, I examine this connec- tion: on the one hand, at the level of macrostructures, the chronotope, the patterns of the heroes’ fates and the principal thematic elements, and on the other hand, at the level of cer- tain microstructures.

The latter are linked to the present-day plot of Ulitskaya’s novel and, more specifi- cally, Nora’s life. Nora reads the correspondence and notes that her grandfather left for her as well as the KGB documents about Yakov Osetsky towards the end of her life (and the plot itself). As a result of this, she wishes to write the novel that her grandfather Yakov could not due to the historical situation.

The process of Nora’s confrontation with the past and her becoming a writer are coded in Ulitskaya’s text by two of the poems of the Zhivago cycle Winter Night and August and also in the related episodes of Pasternak’s novel. All of these have biographical relevance and present creation as a fundamental element of life, which is closely linked to love and death as well as metaphysical experience. The symbolic parallel of this in Zhivago’s August is the transfiguration of Jesus and “the light without a flame” that blinds the disciples. This symbolism appears in Jacobs Ladder on two levels: first, in the stage set that Nora creates for King Lear, and second, as a concomitant of her confrontation with the past and her becoming a writer.

It is in this way that the fundamental elements of Pasternak’s life and poetry play a crucial role at the level of microstructures: they provide the context and symbolism of the central question of Ulitskaya’s novel, the nature of “the essence” of the human.

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Abstract

This paper provides a detailed description and analysis of the clausal organization of Tuparí, a Tupían language that is spoken by approximately 350 people in the Brazilian state of Rondônia. The paper focuses on several interrelated issues that have broader comparative and typological importance, including (a) the distribution of head-initial and head-final phrase structure, (b) the diverse surface realizations of the Tense Phrase, and (c) the distinction between true pronouns and pronoun-like agreement enclitics. Data are drawn from an in-progress corpus of native language texts, everyday conversations and elicited utterances. Differences between Tuparí and the other languages belonging to the Tupían family's Tuparían branch are highlighted at various points for comparative purposes.

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