Authors:Rasmus G. Bandick, Soraya Mousavi, Stefan Bereswill and Markus M. Heimesaat
Infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria including carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are emerging worldwide but are difficult to treat with the currently available antibiotic compounds and therefore constitute serious threats to human health. This prompted us to perform a literature survey applying the MEDLINE database and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials including clinical trials comparing different treatment regimens for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae. Our survey revealed that a combined application of antibiotic compounds such as meropenem plus vaborbactam, meropenem plus colistin and carbapenem plus carbapenem, resulted in significantly increased clinical cure and decreased mortality rates as compared to respective control treatment. However, further research on novel antibiotic compounds, but also on antibiotic-independent molecules providing synergistic or at least resistance-modifying properties needs to be undertaken in vitro as well as in large clinical trials to provide future options in the combat of emerging life-threatening infections caused by MDR bacteria.
Authors:Dorothea Wiemer, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Gerd-Dieter Burchard, Hagen Frickmann, Ulrike Loderstaedt and Ralf-Matthias Hagen
Diarrhoea is a frequent symptom associated with travelling to tropical regions, but the cause is often not found. Epidemiology was assessed including up-to-date real-time PCR approaches.
We analysed datasets of 528 patients who presented at the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg, Germany, between 2006 and 2010 for screening purposes or because of diarrhoea. Stool samples were obtained and investigated by microscopy, bacterial culture, two PCR assays targeting Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia duodenalis, and Cryptosporidium parvum, or Salmonella spp., Shigella/EIEC spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Yersinia spp.
Among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 51% tested positive for bacteria or parasites, of which 66% had a known enteropathogenic potential. In patients without diarrhoea, 53% (n = 80) were positive, and 33% of these cases harboured agents of pathogenic potential. Association with clinical symptoms was primarily found for bacterial infections. Blastocystis hominis, however, was more frequent in asymptomatic than in symptomatic travellers.
In conclusion, the study stresses the etiological relevance of bacterial gastroenteritis in travellers returning from the tropics, the need for molecular approaches to increase diagnostic sensitivity and demonstrates that asymptomatic carriage of enteropathogens after prolonged stays in the tropics is similarly frequent compared with symptomatic infections in travellers.
Authors:Sz. Szanyi, I. Szarukán, A. Nagy, J. Jósvai, Z. Imrei, Z. Varga and M. Tóth
The performance of a semisynthetic bisexual lure (SBL, containing isoamyl alcohol, acetic acid and red wine) previously found attractive for a number of noctuids was compared with that of the respective synthetic sex attractants of Orthosia cerasi (=stabilis), O. cruda, O. gothica, O. incerta, Anorthoa munda and Conistra vaccini. The respective sex attractants performed significantly better in the Orthosia spp. than the SBL lure, which, although regularly catching low numbers of both females and males, did not differ significantly from zero catch in unbaited control traps. On the other hand, the SBL lure performed as well as the sex attractant in C. vaccini. Sizeable catches of C. rubiginea, C. rubiginosa and C. erythrocephala were also recorded in traps with the SBL lure. The SBL lure can prove to be a useful tool in ecological and faunistical studies of Conistra and related hibernating Xylenini species.
Authors:G. Ripka, E. Kiss, J. Kontschán, A. Neményi and Á. Szabó
Aceria bambusae ChannaBasavanna, 1966 is reported from Hungary for the first time. The species was collected from the leaf sheaths of the introduced bamboo species, Phyllostachys rubromarginata McClure and Phyllostachys tianmuensis Z.P. Wang et N.X. Ma (both Poaceae) in Hungary. Morphological differences distinguishing this species from other bambusoid inhabiting congeners are discussed. In addition, new date-locality-host records for 3 eriophyoid species collected from 7 bamboo species are given.
Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has three distinctive reproductive modes: arrhenotokous, thelytokous and deuterotokous. This experiment was focused on the arrhenotokous leek-(L1) and tobacco-associated (T) T. tabaci lineages. These two lineages are distinctively varied genetically and in host adaptations. L1 and T lineages perform better on leek and tobacco plants, respectively. Fighting occurs between males when they compete for food, mating, and oviposition sites. The aim of this research was to examine the fighting behaviour and characterize the fighting elements of males in L1 and T lineages. The experiment was performed in the laboratory by using a Euromex VC.3036 video camera and each experiment was recorded for a duration of 10 minutes. Transparent PCR tube caps formed the arena to observe the fighting interactions in both lineages. A total of 40 video recordings have been observed and each recording had a different arena. The fighting performance was observed at 2, 5, 8, 10, 12 days old specimens in four replications. This result has shown L1 lineage had better fighting performance and a more aggressive fighting ability than T lineage. Antennal bouts, jumping, flipping, stabbing and pitching are the most commonly observed fighting elements.
Aculus epiphyllus (Nalepa, 1892) is reported from green ash in Europe for the first time. Ash rust mite has never been found on green ash, and we therefore re-describe and illustrate the female and male, and describe the nymph. The species was collected from the underside of the leaflets of the introduced ash species, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae) in Hungary.
Authors:M. Tóth, A. Nagy, I. Szarukán, K. Ary, A. Cserenyec, B. Fenyődi, D. Gombás, T. Lajkó, L. Merva, J. Szabó, P. Winkler and J. K. Jósvai
The addition of synthetic (E)-anethol to the known attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, the blend invariably catching 4 to 6 times more than phenylacetaldehyde on its own. Highest catches were recorded by the 1:1-3:1 blends. The addition of salicyl aldehyde, ±linalool, (R)-(+)-limonene, 2-methoxybenzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (compounds described earlier in the literature as co-attractants for H. armigera), increased catches when added to phenylacetaldehyde. However, the addition of these compounds did not increase catches of the (E)-anethol+pheny- lacetaldehyde blend. When directly compared with performance of the synthetic pheromone, the (E)-anethol +phenylacetaldehyde blend caught an average of 27% of the catch in pheromone baited traps. On an average 79% of moths caught in traps with the (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend were females, while traps with pheromone caught only males. The (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend described in this study may form the basis for the development of an efficient bisexual lure for H. armigera AFTER further optimization.
The pine pest, Cenopalpus lineola (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1876) was discovered after 45 years again in Hungary. Proto-, deutonymphs, male and female specimens were collected, therefore a new and detailed re-description are presented with description of the leg chaetotaxy of the immature stages.
Authors:Ingrid E. Pereira, Kyssia P. Silva, Laura M. Menegati, Aimara C. Pinheiro, Elaine A. O. Assunção, Maria de Lourdes P. Araújo, Elfadil Abass, Malcolm S. Duthie, Ulrich Steinhoff and Henrique C. Teixeira
Control of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), a major zoonotic disease in Brazil and many other tropical and subtropical countries, remains difficult as an accurate and reliable diagnosis is still missing. In endemic regions, infected dogs are the main parasitic reservoir host of human Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection. Vaccination of dogs against Leishmania infection constitutes an important strategy to prevent or to better control CVL, thus, a serological test that can discriminate between antibodies induced by immunization versus infection is highly desirable in order to improve and simplify diagnosis. Here, four recombinant proteins were evaluated for their ability to detect and differentiate between dogs that are infected with Leishmania or have been immunized with the anti-Leishmania vaccine Leish-Tec®. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the four Leishmania-specific IgG ELISA revealed superior performance of rK28, followed by rKLO8, rK39 and rLb6H. The rK28-based ELISA revealed not only the best accuracy against CVL, but also the lowest cross-reactivity with sera from Leish-Tec® immunized dogs. Our data show that the rK28-based ELISA is highly suitable for CVL screening as it shows high sensitivity with simultaneous low cross-reactivity. Further, the high specificity of the rKLO8 indicates its suitability for the confirmation of CVL diagnosis.
Authors:Konstantin Tanida, Lars Koste, Christian Koenig, Werner Wenzel, Andreas Fritsch and Hagen Frickmann
To evaluate the automated cartridge-based PCR approach ARIES SARS-CoV-2 Assay targeting the ORF-sequence and the N-gene of SARS-CoV-2.
In line with the suggestions by Rabenau and colleagues, the automated ARIES SARS-CoV-2 Assay was challenged with strongly positive samples, weakly positive samples and negative samples. Further, intra-assay and inter-assay precision as well as the limit-of-detection (lod) were defined with quantified target RNA and DNA. The Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-Cov-2 Assay was used as gold standard.
Concordance between the ARIES assay and the Cepheid assay was 100% for strongly positive samples and for negative samples, respectively. For weakly positive samples as confirmed applying the Cepheid assay, a relevant minority of 4 out of 15 samples (26.7%) went undetected by the ARIES assay. Intra- and inter-assay precision were satisfactory, while the lod was in the 103 DNA copies/reaction-range, in the 103 virus copies/reaction-range, or in the 103–104 free RNA copies/reaction-range in our hands.
The automated ARIES assay shows comparable test characteristics as the Cepheid assay focusing on strongly positive and negative samples but a slightly reduced sensitivity with weakly positive samples. Decisions on diagnostic use should include considerations on the lod.