Authors:Dániel Csala, Bence Márk Kovács, Péter Bali, Gábor Reha, and Gergely Pánics
The aim of the present study was to analyse the relationships between creatine kinase (CK) concentration, an indirect marker of muscle damage, and global positioning system (GPS)-derived metrics of a continuous two-week-long preseason training period in elite football.
Twenty-one elite male professional soccer players were assessed during a 14-day preseason preparatory period. CK concentrations were determined each morning, and a GPS system was used to quantify the external load. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was established to determine the extent to which the external load parameter explained post-training CK levels.
The GEE model found that higher numbers of decelerations (χ2 = 7.83, P = 0.005) were most strongly associated with the post-training CK level. Decelerations and accelerations accounted for 62% and 11% of the post-training CK level, respectively, and considerable interindividual variability existed in the data.
The use of GPS to predict muscle damage could be of use to coaches and practitioners in prescribing recovery practices. Based on GPS data, more individualized strategies could be devised and could potentially result in better subsequent performance.
Authors:Beáta Bőthe, Mónika Koós, Léna Nagy, Shane W. Kraus, Marc N. Potenza, and Zsolt Demetrovics
Background and aims
Limitations of research into sexuality and compulsive sexual behavior disorder (CSBD) include the use of simplistic methodological designs and the absence of quality and unified measurements, empirically supported theoretical models, and large, collaborative studies between laboratories. We aim to fill these gaps with the International Sex Survey (ISS, http://internationalsexsurvey.org/).
The ISS is a large-scale, international, multi-lab, multi-language study using cross-sectional survey methods, involving more than 40 countries. Participants responding to advertisements complete a self-report, anonymous survey on a secure online platform. Collaborators from each country collect a community sample of adults with a minimum sample size of 2,000 participants with a gender ratio of approximately 50–50% men and women, including diverse individuals with respect to sexuality and gender. The ISS includes a wide range of sociodemographic questions and scales assessing a diverse set of sexual behaviors, pornography use, psychological characteristics, and potential comorbid disorders. Analyses are conducted within a structural equation modeling framework, including variable (e.g., measurement invariance tests) and person-centered approaches (e.g., latent profile analysis).
Discussion and conclusions
The ISS will provide well-validated, publicly available screening tools, helping to eliminate significant measurement issues in the field of sexuality research and health care. It will provide important insights to improve the theoretical understanding of CSBD as well as help to identify empirically supported treatment targets for prevention and intervention programs. Following open-science practices and making study materials open-access, the ISS may serve as a blueprint for future large-scale research in addiction and sexuality research.
An increasing number of people experience negative consequences from the excessive use of different Internet applications or sites (e.g., Instagram, League of Legends, YouTube). These consequences have been referred to as specific Internet Use Disorders (IUDs). The present study aims to examine the Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) on rewarding experiences with respect to specific Internet activities. FoMO has been found to mediate the link between psychopathology and symptoms of Internet Communication Disorder (ICD). However, the role of FoMO in other IUDs is controversial.
The current study (N = 7,990) consecutively screened in vocational schools) analyzed the associations between online-specific state-FoMO, general trait-FoMO, mental health, and IUD symptoms in a structural equation model. After testing the model for the entire sample of Internet users, it was analyzed separately for the two main user groups: Social Networking Site (SNS) users and gamers.
The proposed model explained 42.0% of the variance in IUD symptoms in the total sample, 46.8% for SNS users, and 32.8% for gamers. Results suggest that impaired mental health and high trait-FoMO predict IUD symptoms. For both SNS users and gamers, trait-FoMO mediated the link between low mental health and IUD, whereas state-FoMO mediated the link between trait-FoMO and IUD in both user groups.
Our results partly support the theoretical model of specific IUDs, highlighting trait-FoMO as a predisposing fear of disconnection related to general mental health. Online-specific FoMO appears to contribute to problematic Internet use mainly because of its link to the general fear of disconnection. Moreover, the described mechanism seems to be comparable for both females and males.
FoMO is a multidimensional construct underlying IUD symptoms related to the use of socially gratifying, but distinct Internet applications. FoMO and psychopathology should be targeted together in prevention and treatment plans of IUDs.
Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is an emerging psychiatric treatment that is attracting significant scientific, medical, and public attention. Whilst preliminary results from empirical studies are promising, the medical use of these compounds is highly controversial. Surprisingly, and despite the current controversies caused by the re-medicalisation of psychedelics, bioethicists have remained mysteriously silent. This paper aims to stimulate further bioethical reflection regarding the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. The current paper aims to do this by applying a normative phenomenological lens of analysis. Namely, this paper applies Martin Heidegger's critique of modern technology, and Fredrik Svenaeus' extension of this critique, to the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. I argue that when this critique of modern technology is applied several normative issues become apparent. Specifically, it becomes apparent that the re-medicalisation of psychedelics risks turning the ecological sources, cultural contexts, and experiences induced by psychedelics into resources to be exploited for human goals; all of which risks endangering ecosystems, appropriating traditional knowledge, and reducing the therapeutic effects of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Furthermore, I suggest that preserving non-reductionist, non-instrumentalising traditional ways of understanding psychedelic compounds is essential in mitigating these consequences. More discussion by bioethicists is necessary as these consequences represent important global challenges for the psychedelic renaissance that require immediate addressing.
Authors:I-Hua Chen, Chao-Ying Chen, Chieh-hsiu Liu, Daniel Kwasi Ahorsu, Mark D. Griffiths, Yu-Pin Chen, Yi-Jie Kuo, Chung-Ying Lin, Amir H. Pakpour, and Shu-Mei Wang
Background and aims
The present longitudinal study examined the changes in problematic internet use (problematic smartphone use, problematic social media use, and problematic gaming) and changes in COVID-19-related psychological distress (fear of COVID-19 and worry concerning COVID-19) across three time-points (before the COVID-19 outbreak, during the initial stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, and during the COVID-19 outbreak recovery period).
A total of 504 Chinese schoolchildren completed measures concerning problematic internet use and psychological distress across three time-points. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify participants into three groups of problematic internet use comprising Group 1 (lowest level), Group 2 (moderate level), and Group 3 (highest level).
Statistical analyses showed that as problematic use of internet-related activities declined among Group 3 participants across the three time points, participants in Group 1 and Group 2 had increased problematic use of internet-related activities. Although there was no between-group difference in relation to worrying concerning COVID-19 infection, Groups 2 and 3 had significantly higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than Group 1 during the COVID-19 recovery period. Regression analysis showed that change in problematic internet use predicted fear of COVID-19 during the recovery period.
The varied levels of problematic internet use among schoolchildren reflect different changing trends of additive behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak and recovery periods.
Authors:Márió Gajdács, Krisztina Kárpáti, Ádám László Nagy, Máté Gugolya, Anette Stájer, and Katalin Burián
Bacteria can enhance their survival by attaching to inanimate surfaces or tissues, and presenting as multicellular communities encased in a protective extracellular matrix called biofilm. There has been pronounced interest in assessing the relationship between the antibiotic resistant phenotype and biofilm-production in clinically-relevant pathogens. The aim of the present paper was to provide additional experimental results on the topic, testing the biofilm-forming capacity of Escherichia coli isolates using in vitro methods in the context of their antibiotic resistance in the form of a laboratory case study, in addition to provide a comprehensive review of the subject. In our case study, a total of two hundred and fifty (n = 250) E. coli isolates, originating from either clean-catch urine samples (n = 125) or invasive samples (n = 125) were included. The colony morphology of isolates were recorded after 24h, while antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Biofilm-formation of the isolates was assessed with the crystal violet tube-adherence method. Altogether 57 isolates (22.8%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), 89 isolates (35.6%) produced large colonies (>3 mm), mucoid variant colonies were produced in 131 cases (52.4%), and 108 (43.2%) were positive for biofilm formation. Biofilm-producers were less common among isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P = 0.043 and P = 0.023, respectively). Biofilms facilitate a protective growth strategy in bacteria, ensuring safety against environmental stressors, components of the immune system and noxious chemical agents. Being an integral part of bacterial physiology, biofilm-formation is interdependent with the expression of other virulence factors (especially adhesins) and quorum sensing signal molecules. More research is required to allow for the full understanding of the interplay between the MDR phenotype and biofilm-production, which will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Authors:Jacob S. Dinardi, Alexei Y. Egorov, and Attila Szabo
Background and aims
Cited in over 100 articles, the interactional model of exercise addiction (Egorov & Szabo, 2013) forms the theoretical foundation of many studies on the risk of exercise addiction. Still, the inclusion of previously omitted determinants could make it more useful. Therefore, this review presents the expanded version of the original model.
We added ‘self-concept’ as another determinant in the ‘personal factors’ domain and ‘attractive alternatives’ to the ‘situational factors’ domain. Further, we doubled the reasons for exercise in the ‘incentives for exercise domain.’ Last, we added a new domain, the ‘exercise-related stressors,’ to illustrate that exercise itself might be a source of stress.
The expanded model is more inclusive and accounts for a greater combination of interactions playing roles in exercise addiction. Overlooking the eventuality that stress resulting from exercise might also fuel the dysfunction was a significant omission from the original model, rectified in the current update. Finally, the new expansions make the model more applicable to competitive situations too
The expanded interactional model of exercise addiction is more comprehensive than its original version. It also accounts for the exercise or sport-related stress as possible fuel in addictive exercise behavior.
The recently published Imperial College study of a Phase II, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing psilocybin-assisted therapy to a six-week titration of escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) should raise concerns for this illness category as a target of early psychedelic research given a goal of FDA approval. There are three reasons why MDD is the wrong target at this stage of research development. Firstly, the psychiatric category of MDD is heterogeneous, vaguely-defined, and overdiagnosed in a way that will problematize finding a reliable signal with psychedelic interventions (or any intervention), particularly within non-severe cases. Secondly, current rating scales for MDD (QIDS used in the Imperial College trial, but also HAM-D) are limited in approximating the kinds of things we ultimately care most about with depressive states, namely functional status, quality of life, and well-being: measures that seem more salient for psychedelic interventions and which are not adequately captured by these rating scales used in a majority of clinical trials. And thirdly, there are inherent conflicts between psychiatric conceptualizations of MDD (and its symptom amelioration) and the kinds of perspectives on one’s suffering often occasioned by psychedelic experiences themselves: while these kinds of psychedelic-catalyzed openings may lead to a form of acceptance or equanimity with regards to one’s life circumstances this could be in many ways orthogonal to reductions in HAM-D scores. We argue that for these reasons MDD is a non-ideal target at this stage of the science and propose alternative directions.
Összefoglaló.Bevezetés: A gyulladásos folyamatok és a tumorok kialakulása,
illetve progressziója közötti összetett kapcsolat ismert. Az interleukin-6 (IL6)
egy pleiotrop gyulladásos citokin, melynek tumorstimuláló és -gátló tulajdonsága
is van. Célkitűzés: Kutatásunk célja az IL6-expresszió
vizsgálata volt colorectalis adenocarcinoma miatt reszekción átesett betegek
szövettani metszetein. Módszer: Az Uzsoki Utcai Kórházban 2004
és 2011 között reszekált 64, colorectalis tumoros beteg demográfiai, sebészeti
és patológiai adatait gyűjtöttük össze. A betegek szövettani metszeteit
IL6-antitesttel festettük. A digitalizált metszeteket kvantitatív színelemzéssel
kiértékeltük, majd az eredményeket a betegek klinikai paramétereinek
függvényében elemeztük. Eredmények: Előrehaladott stádiumú
betegekben a tumorsejtek IL6-expressziója szignifikánsan magasabbnak bizonyult
lineáris regresszióval. A tumorsejtek IL6-expressziója azonban nem korrelált a
nemmel, az életkorral vagy a tumor differenciáltságával.
Megbeszélés: Különbségek mutatkoztak a tumorsejtek és a
stromasejtek IL6-kifejeződése között. Következtetés: Az IL6
hasznos marker és potenciális terápiás cél lehet az előrehaladottabb stádiumú
colorectalis tumoros betegeknél. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1502–1507.
Summary.Introduction: It is well known that there is a complex
correlation between inflammation and tumor development and tumor progression.
Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine with both tumor
stimulating and inhibiting effect. Objective: The goal of our
study was to evaluate the IL6 expression of histological slides from patients
after resection of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Method:
Demographical, surgical, and pathological findings of 64 patients with
colorectal cancer operated between 2004 and 2011 in Uzsoki Teaching Hospital
were evaluated. Histopathological slides were stained with IL6 antibody. The
digitalized slides were assessed with quantitative color analysis, and the
results were evaluated according to patients’ clinical parameters.
Results: Linear regression showed significantly higher IL6
expression in the tumor cells in patients with advanced stages. However, the IL6
expression of the tumor cells did not correlate with sex, age, or tumor grade.
Discussion: There were differences between the IL6
expression in tumor cells and stromal cells. Conclusion: IL6
may be a useful marker and potential therapeutic target in patients with
advanced colorectal cancer. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1502–1507.
Authors:Péter Tardi, Ildikó Kovács, Alexandra Makai, Brigitta Szilágyi, Márta Hock, and Melinda Járomi
Összefoglaló.Bevezetés: A nemzetközi szakirodalomban számos betegséget
illetően elérhető betegségspecifikus tudást és attitűdöt mérő kérdőív.
Magyarországon az osteoporosis témakörében validált kérdőívek tárháza
meglehetősen hiányos. Célkitűzés: Célunk volt a
csontritkulás-specifikus magatartás és attitűd vizsgálatára alkalmas
Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS-) kérdőív magyar nyelvre történő
validációja, melynek segítségével mérhetővé válna a magyar anyanyelvű nők
csontritkulással kapcsolatos attitűdje. Módszer: A kérdőív
magyar nyelvre validálása a 2000-ben megfogalmazott hatlépcsős irányelv szerint
történt. A külső validitás vizsgálatához az Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment
Tool (OKAT-) kérdőívet használtuk. Mintánkat 600 fő alkotta; statisztikai
számításaink során leíró statisztikát készítettünk, különbözőségi vizsgálatokat
végeztünk, a belső konzisztencia vizsgálatára Cronbach-alfa-értéket
számítottunk, a konvergens validitás és a teszt-reteszt mérések vizsgálatához
Spearman-féle korrelációs koefficienst számítottunk. A kérdőív belső
struktúrájának vizsgálatához faktorelemzést végeztünk. Ennek megfelelően
Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO)-tesztet és Bartlett-próbát számítottunk.
Eredmények: Mintánk (37,7 ± 13,15 életév) az OHBS (126,28 ±
14,85 pont) és az OKAT (8,78 ± 3,1) tekintetében egyaránt alacsony pontszámot
ért el. A teljes kérdőívre kivetített Cronbach-alfa-érték 0,802 volt. A
faktorelemzés (KMO = 0,886; Bartlett-próba p<0,001) 7 faktort különített el,
melyek megfeleltethetők az eredeti faktoroknak. A teszt-reteszt során a
Spearman-féle korrelációs koefficiens 0,921 és 1,000 közötti értéket mutatott.
Az OKAT- és az OHBS-dimenziók összevetésekor számos szignifikáns kapcsolatot
találtunk. Megbeszélés: A vizsgálati eredmények megfelelnek az
eredeti kérdőív szerinti, továbbá a más nyelvre történt validálás során kapott
eredményeknek. Következtetés: Eredményeink alapján a magyar
nyelvű OHBS csontritkulás-specifikus attitűdöt és magatartást vizsgáló kérdőívet
megbízható és valid kérdőívnek tartjuk. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1494–1501.
Summary.Introduction: In the international literature, several
disease-specific questionnaires are available for many diseases. The
opportunities of validated questionnaires are incomplete about osteoporosis in
Hungarian language. Objective: The aim of the study was to
validate the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) into Hungarian that would
make it possible to measure the osteoporosis-related attitude for
Hungarian-speaking women. Method: The questionnaire was
validated into Hungarian according to the six-step guideline outlined in 2000.
The Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) questionnaire was used to
examine external validity. Our sample consisted of 600 women. We performed
descriptive statistics; Cronbach’s alpha value was calculated for internal
consistency, we calculated Spearman’s correlation coefficient to examine
external validity. We carried out factor analysis (Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin [KMO]
test, Bartlett test) to examine whether the new questionnaire is suitable for
measurements in the given language the same way as the original questionnaire.
Results: Our sample (37.7 ± 13.15 years of age) achieved
low score for both OHBS (126.28 ± 14.85) and OKAT (8.78 ± 3.1). The Cronbach’s
alpha value was 0.802. Factor analysis (KMO = 0.886; Bartlett test p<0.001)
identified 7 factors that can be similar to the original factors. During the
test-retest, the Spearman correlation coefficient showed a value between 0.921
and 1.000. When comparing the OKAT and OHBS dimensions we found several
significant relationships. Discussion: The results of the study
are similar to the results of the original questionnaire validation as well as
to other OHBS validation studies. Conclusion: Based on the
results, we consider that the Hungarian form of the OHBS is a reliable and valid
questionnaire. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1494–1501.