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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of various mash acidification techniques in alcoholic fermentation for the production of apple spirit. Lachancea thermotolerans and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains were selected to conduct pre-fermentative acidification of the mash alongside a conventional chemical acidification approach. The results confirm that L. thermotolerans and L. plantarum possess acidifying potential and can serve as effective biotools for the protection of apple mash during fermentation. Through their outstanding lactic acid production (1.05–1.26 g L−1), they were able to reduce the pH of the mash by 0.29–0.40 pH units. Moreover, the sequential fermentation of these strains with Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful strategy to modulate the aroma profile of apple spirits. Spirits were characterised by an enhanced ester profile with particularly increased ethyl lactate concentrations.

Open access

Az erdőállományok talajvíz utánpótlódásra gyakorolt hatásának vizsgálata kecskemét-ménteleki mintaterületen

Investigation of the impact of forest stands on groundwater recharge in the Kecskemét-Méntelek study area

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
András Szabó
,
Zoltán Gribovszki
,
Péter Kalicz
,
Ján Szolgay
,
Zsolt Gácsi
, and
Bence Bolla

Az Alföldet, azon belül is különösen a Homokhátságot érintő talajvízszint süllyedés, súlyos ökológiai és gazdasági következményekkel is járó problémakör. A jelenség hátterében álló lehetséges okokkal kapcsolatban több évtizede zajlik kutatómunka, ugyanakkor ezek relatív súlyának meghatározása a mai napig tudományos vita tárgyát képezi.

Több szerző is kiemeli az erdőtelepítések talajvízszint csökkentő hatásának fontosságát. Ez a hatás két módon, a vegetáció vízfelvétele, illetve a csapadékból történő utánpótlódás csökkentése (intercepció, talajnedvesség felvétel) által jelentkezhet. Ezen mechanizmusok működését vizsgáltuk meg egy akác (Robinia pseudoacacia) és egy fekete fenyő (Pinus nigra) állomány esetében a Homokhátságon, Kecskemét-Ménteleken kialakított mintaterületünkön, 90, 150 és 200 cm-es mélységben, nagy időbeli felbontással mért talajnedvesség, illetve talajvíz adatokra alapozva.

Az adatok alapján feltételezhető, hogy a talajvízből nem történik közvetlen, vagy közvetett vízfelvétel, aminek oka vélhetően a gyökérzóna és a talajvíz közti igen jelentős horizontális távolság. A talajnedvesség esetében a sekélyebb rétegekben egyértelműen jelentkezik az erdőállományok szezonális szárító hatása. Ugyanakkor a mélyebb rétegek talajnedvesség adatai alapján kijelenthető, hogy a csapadékból történő talajvíz visszatöltődésre leginkább az akác állomány alatt van elméleti lehetőség. A látszólagos ellentmondás feltételezhetően a gyökérzet által kialakított makropórusok hatásával magyarázható. Ezt támasztja alá az akác és fekete fenyő állományok közti igen jelentős eltérés is.

Következtetésünk, hogy az erdőállományok lokálisan jelentősen eltérő hatást gyakorolhatnak a talajvízszintre. Ezért a lezajló folyamatok hátterét, általános jellegű megállapítások helyett, az adott hidrológiai rendszer több elemét vizsgáló monitoring adataira alapozva lehetséges csak felderíteni.

Open access

Abstract

Changes in RNase activities were investigated in extracts from barley near isogenic lines without or with various powdery mildew resistance genes and were compared to changes in wheat and Brachypodium distachyon leaves after powdery mildew infections. In barley, the compatible interaction with powdery mildew induced the highest increase in RNase activity as measured spectrophotometrically. The incompatible interaction that accompanied with hypersensitive reaction in Mla leaves gave less increase, whereas incompatible interactions in Mlg and mlo barley leaves without visible symptoms gave the least increase of RNase activity. In wheat, the largest RNase activity was found in leaves infected with the compatible wheat powdery mildew or wheat stem and leaf rusts. RNase activity in B. distachyon was higher than that in healthy wheat and especially barley leaves. The electrophoretic RNase enzyme activity patterns were different in barley, wheat and B. distachyon plants, but showed similar activities as determined spectrophotometrically. Barley genes encoding endonuclease 2 and ribonuclease 3-like protein X3 showed the highest expression in the compatible barley - barley powdery mildew interaction as measured by RT-qPCR. This correlated with RNase activities in leaf extracts suggesting that RNases in barley and wheat may act as susceptibility factors of powdery mildew and rust diseases.

Open access

Abstract

The study aims to investigate how the transfer of matrix materials from eroded asbestos cement products induces stress responses in plants. The paper evaluates the exposure and risk factors of plants, water, and soil to asbestos cement materials. Additionally, the experimental results provide empirical evidence for plant stress responses based on physiological and germination parameters. Contamination of irrigation water with asbestos cement raises environmental concerns due to its potential toxicity to plants and soil quality. Asbestos in irrigation water can lead to toxic stress for plants, affecting germination processes and growth. The paper analyzes the effects of preset doses of irrigation water containing asbestos cement matrix on the germination process and physiological parameters of Solanum lycopersicum in a controlled experiment setting. This research proposes methodological developments that could be valuable for environmental plant protection professionals.

Open access

Abstract

Microencapsulation of flaxseed oil (FO) has received lots of attention in the food and biopharmaceutical industries. To produce FO microcapsules, aqueous emulsions of FO with polymeric carbohydrates (maltodextrin (MD) with dextrose equivalent (DE) 19, gum Arabic (GA) and modified starch (MS)) were prepared by a rotor stator homogenization and subsequently, dehydration of emulsions were performed by spray drying (SD). The objective of this research was to study the effects of different combinations of polymeric carbohydrates with FO in emulsion to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency (EE). A 3 factorials–3 levels Box–Behnken design was used for the optimization purpose. The maximum EE was achieved using 0.79 MD-GA ratio, 20.23% MS and 24.62% FO in emulsion. Microcapsules obtained by optimum condition had EE 77.68%, particle size (D 32) 120.0 ± 0.43 μm, moisture content1.6 ± 0.13%, wettability 192 ± 5.5 s, solubility 75.49 ± 1.3%, bulk density 0.31 ± 0.025 g mL−1, tapped density 0.36 ± 0.01 g mL−1, Carr's Index 13.88 ± 0.01% and Hausner Ratio 1.16 ± 0.01.

Open access

Abstract

Cell cultures are models in biological and medical research to understand physiological and pathological processes. Cell lines are not always available depending on cell type and required species. In addition, the immortalization process often affects cell biology. Primary cells generally maintain a greater degree of similarity in short-term culture to the cells in tissue. Goal of this study was to verify the suitability of chicken primary epithelial caecal cells (PECCs) for in vitro investigations of host‒pathogen interactions. Epithelial nature of PECCs was confirmed by detection of tight and adherens junctions and cobblestone-like cell morphology. Sialic acids distribution was similar to that in caecal cyrosections. To understand the capacity of PECCs to respond to microbial challenges, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) repertoire was determined. Exposure of PECCs to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to upregulation of type I and III interferon (IFN) as well as interleukin (IL-) 1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. Overall, the PECCs showed properties of polarized epithelial cells. The presence of TLRs, their differential expression, as well as pattern recognition receptor dependent immune responses enable PECCs to act as suitable in vitro model for host‒pathogen interaction studies, which are difficult to conduct under in vivo conditions.

Open access

This study assesses the elemental composition of Egyptian glauconite sediments, focusing on potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and macronutrients. The primary aim is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing these sediments as a natural source of potassium for agricultural purposes, besides conventional chemical fertilizers like potassium sulfate. To quantify elemental content, chemical analysis was employed across five distinct grain size fractions after grinding glauconite rock. The assessment included potassium, calcium, sodium, and PTE concentrations, utilizing potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium acetate lactate (AL Solution) as single extractants, and the BCR extraction protocol, in addition to measuring the pseudo-total content of these elements. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) facilitated a comparative analysis of elemental concentrations. Results indicate PTE concentrations within European Union regulations, with an absence of cadmium. Glauconite samples contain approximately 3–3.3% potassium by weight, alongside significant amounts of essential macronutrients (calcium, magnesium) and micronutrients (copper, nickel, zinc) crucial for agriculture. BCR sequential extraction protocol results closely align with or slightly surpass pseudo-total content results. Notably, the AL Solution demonstrates high efficiency compared to KCl or acetic acid in the first step of the BCR method. BCR sequential protocol provides valuable insights into various elemental forms and potential mobility. Overall, this study reveals that glauconite has the potential to serve as a promising alternative potassium fertilizer without causing adverse environmental impacts.

Open access

Abstract

Elderberry pomace, a by-product generated by elderberry processing industries, may be a favourable resource for further utilisation due to its components of high nutritional quality. In our research, elderberry pomace extract (EP) was added to apple juice as natural food additive for controlling microbial spoilage and enriching antioxidant components.

During the 8-week storage period of enriched apple juice (EPA) and control apple juice samples antioxidant properties were evaluated using the FRAP assay, Folin–Ciocalteu method, and pH differentiation method. The amount of polyphenols components was quantified using an RP-HPLC method. The microbiological status of samples was studied by determining the total viable and yeast/mould counts. The EPA is an important source of polyphenol components and other bioactive compounds, and the results suggest that extract of elderberry pomace could be a promising natural preservative to improve microbiological stability during refrigerated storage and increase the quality of apple juice.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Z.Z. Yang
,
J.Q. Zhang
,
B.B. Shi
,
J.Q. Qian
, and
H. Guo

Abstract

Myricetin has been reported to have a wide variety of beneficial physiological functions. The present study investigated the antihyperlipidaemic activity of myricetin against hyperlipidaemia of high-fat diet-fed obese rats. The four-week antihyperlipidaemic activity was assayed by giving different doses of myricetin to hyperlipidaemic rats. Results showed that myricetin could reduce the harm caused by oxidative stress, decrease thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value, and decrease total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels of hyperlipidaemic rats. Quantitative analysis of gene expression showed that myricetin's lipid-lowering activity can be activated by downregulating gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) with upregulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA level. Thus, myricetin had significant health benefits and could be explored as a potentially promising dietary supplement for treating hyperlipidaemia.

Open access