Crash tests of vehicles are specified by government programs. This laws are includes only minimum requirements for individual components. Therefore additional consumer protection load cases have been developed by independent private institutes. Finite element method simulations can reduce development periods and the number of cost-intensive real crash tests. The goals of the calculations are that the early detection of component failure, the protection of occupants or pedestrians. The biggest challenge of the future, in the field of vehicle occupant safety is the interaction of the airbags and belt system with dummy by the electric vehicles, which have the concept of autonomous driving function. The aim of the research is to investigate this area using a simulation model.
Authors:Husam Rajab, Mussa Ebrahim, and Tibor Cinkler
Recently, one of the most common needs of people are to be connected to the Internet anytime, anywhere, anyhow. The Internet of Things is a materialized paradigm in which everyday objects are implemented with Internet connectivity, enabling them to collect and interchange information. As energy is expected to be more expensive, the energy supply is often not available for IoT devices, the low power wide area networks attempt to be the solution to this problem. LoRaWAN provides radio coverage over long distances by enhancing the reach of the base stations via adapting transmission rates, transmission power, modulation, duty cycles, etc. This paper aims to decrease the power consumption using machine learning and deep neural network by applying support vector regression and deep neural network algorithms, which can support to extend the battery lifetime.
Authors:Messaouda Rais, Adel Boumerzoug, and Balint Baranyai
As it is clear, worldwide buildings are the largest consumer of the final energy consumption. In Algeria, it has been reported that 33% of the overall energy consumption was attributed to buildings. This is due to the design and constructional techniques of the residential buildings, which do not address the local climatic condition. To assess this situation, the study is focused on analyzing the existing residential buildings in Algeria, in terms of energy, thermal, daylight, and indoor air quality performance, using a dynamic simulation software. Typical building design in a hot and dry climate was selected. The results revealed that the existing residential buildings do not comply with the energy-efficient design standards. It was concluded that further strategies should be applied in this sector, in terms of building design, materials, and façade configuration.
The urban story of the Ex European city in Biskra presents an inevitable impact on the perceptive images of the Algerian cities. The examination of the building’s condition in the historical center indicates a deteriorated state in most of the structure caused by various degradations. The field study aims to classify the French quarter’s constructions according to multiple criteria, based on the identifications of related conservation statuses. Thus the census data contributes to the regeneration of the checkerboard condition while proceeding with the resolution of the threatening mutations - amplifying the qualities and potentials for a sustainable renewal of this built heritage.
Authors:Shaymaa Alsamia, Dhorgham S. Ibrahim, and Hazim N. Ghafil
The most crucial function in drilling wells is the rate of penetration, which is modeled by many researchers, and the best one is Young-Bourgyen model, which is used in this study. Eight factors affecting rate of penetration have been studied and approved in developing a mathematical equation that shows the combined effects of these variables on rate of penetration optimization. This paper presents an efficient way to find the optimum values for parameters of the Young-Bourgyen model using metaheuristic algorithms. An actual drilling data was used from Khangiran field to calculate the difference between the actual penetration rate and the predicted one by different optimization algorithms. Particle swarm optimization, dynamic differential annealing optimization, artificial bee colony, gray wolf optimization, Harris hawk's optimization, flower pollination algorithm, firefly algorithm, whale optimization algorithm, and sine cosine algorithm are used to find best possible solution.
Authors:Mohammad Reza Ganjali Bonjar, Bálint Baranyai, Kristóf Roland Horváth, and István Kistelegdi
The aim of this paper is to present a solution for optimizing the operation of the Szentágothai Research Center. This building has several different functions at a high degree, so it can represent most of the difficulties in achieving an ideal level of operation energy consumption while assuring an adequate comfort level.
As a first stage of a generic office building optimization research, a monitored reference building of common type was chosen. Various active operation optimization experiments were carried out. The successive reduction of operation intensity and schedules resulted in 63.3% operation energy savings. The results provide considerable potential in generic office design applications.
Authors:István Bodnár, Dávid Matusz-Kalász, and Dániel Koós
Many factors determine the efficient operation of a photovoltaic cell. These factors can be the intensity and spectral composition of illumination, the surface temperature, the ambient temperature, and the amount contaminations in the air and on the surface of the cells. The aim of the present study is to describe the effect of temperature gradient on the voltage and amperage changes, as well as the power output of a commercial solar cell through experimental methods and numerical simulations performed in MATLAB. The transient temperature investigations have allowed better understanding the time-dependent behavior of a solar cell under constant intensity illumination. Measurements prove that an increase in the surface temperature of the solar cell significantly reduces its performance. Measurements performed with the solar simulator show good conformity with simulated results.
Authors:Olivér Rák, Ágnes Borsos, and Péter Iványi
The increasing interest in large-panel building apartment renovation has heightened the need for a method-based examination. This research provides support to owners, investors, designers and habitants during decisions taking. The study covers the requirements, renovation trend, and cost evaluation. These criteria were defined by using general findings as the base of optimal renovations, which allows utilizing the results for wider areas. Renovations can be established to maintain or increase the value of apartments and the success of the investments depending on the optimal planning. The comfort needs, material selection, and the way of budget distribution are the main parameters of successful improvements. The analysis covers common quality renovation possibilities.
Authors:Mengyang Wu, Honghao He, and Bálint Bachmann
The development of the social economy has led to the reorganization of the original layout structure and spatial functions of the city. Based on the development background of the Petite Ceinture railway space, this article conceives the attribute transformation and activation method of this industrial heritage. The proposed methodology, applied to the leftover spaces in Paris: integrating the biodiversity; softening the boundary; setting up installations. This paper investigates the relationship between the vitality of leftover space and the texture of the cities. It is proposed to try to reconnect the leftover space with the city through a multi-dimensional system corresponding to the diversified space and make good use of its unique location and internal potential.
Sequencing batch reactor systems in wastewater treatment is widely applied activated sludge technology. The system performance is not only dependent on the raw sewage quality and biochemical processes, but the flow pattern within the reactor has a significant impact on the treatment itself. The varying stages of the operation require different fluid flow conditions; biological stage shall be appropriately mixed, whereas low velocity zones favor the phase separation. The aim of this study was to improve sequencing batch reactor operation in order to optimize the treatment efficiency. Numerical fluid dynamic simulations were performed to determine the substrate and biomass homogeneity inside the reactor at the biological phase and the rate of the decantation was estimated at the sedimentation phase. The settling model was calibrated by field measurements. The results revealed that the hydraulic efficiency of the reactor was 87% and the achievable settled solid content was 0.9%.