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A COVID–19 járvány hatása a leghátrányosabb helyzetű településeken élők mindennapjaira: ahogy a hátrányos helyzetűek és a szociális szolgáltatásokat nyújtók látják

The effects of Covid-19 on the everyday life of people living in the most disadvantaged areas: as they and professionals in the social service sector see

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Beáta Dávid, Tünde Szabó, Éva Huszti, and István Bukovics

Összefoglaló. Jelen tanulmányunk a biztonság társadalmi aspektusait egy speciális csoport, a mélyszegénységben élő családok és az őket segítő szakemberek körében vizsgálja a COVID–19 idején. Kvalitatív módszerrel (csoportos és egyéni interjúk) a makro- (szociális támogatórendszer) és a mikrotársadalmi biztonság dimenziók összefüggését, valamint a mikroszintű biztonság dimenziók közti viszonyokat elemezzük. Ez utóbbi dimenziók leírásánál a kisgyermekes családok munkaerőpiaci és ezzel együtt anyagi helyzetére, mentális egészségi állapotukra, valamint az oktatási helyzet bemutatására koncentrálunk. Az egyes témák leírásánál az érintett családok és az őket segítő szakemberek helyzetértékelése is megjelenik a velük készített interjúk elemzése alapján.

Summary. This study examines the social aspects of security among a specific group of families living in extreme poverty and the professionals helping them during Covid-19. Using a qualitative method (group and individual interviews), we analyse the relationship between macro (social support system) and micro social dimensions of security, as well as the linkages between micro-level dimensions of security. In describing the latter dimensions, we will focus on the labour market situation of families with young children, and hence on their financial situation, their mental health situation and their educational situation. The description of each theme also includes an assessment of the situation of the families concerned and the professionals who help them, based on an analysis of the interviews conducted with them. In the first phase of the study, social problems were identified on the basis of interviews with experts. In the second phase, individual interviews were conducted with the people concerned, the disadvantaged. 11 interviews were conducted with experts: 5 individual and 6 group interviews. In the second phase, 50 disadvantaged people were interviewed individually.

In general, it can be concluded that the daily life of people living in disadvantaged areas has been further affected by the pandemic. The labour market situation has changed and, in this context, the financial situation of the interviewees has further deteriorated. Single-parent families were particularly affected by these problems. The transition to online education has created difficulties for families, children, and teachers and additional tasks for social workers. In many places, the lack of accessible services, the low availability of equipment and low level of digital literacy have prevented distance learning from taking place, and the negative consequences for the population under study can only be predicted. The epidemic has affected the population not only financially but also mentally. The reduction in social life has led to an increase in domestic violence. In some areas, the number of births in disadvantaged families has increased, especially among minors. In fact, the epidemic has brought to the surface the problems that disadvantaged people face on a daily basis: unemployment and deprivation, compounded by educational underachievement. The workload of those working in the social field has also become more visible: a shortage of staff and a lack of resources. At the same time, the enormous potential and flexibility of the current human resources have been revealed.

Open access

A globális, az európai uniós vírusválság határpolitikai hatásai.

Államhatárok régi-új szerepben a Kárpát-medencében, 2020–2021

The border policy effects of the global and EU virus crises.

State borders in old and new role in the Carpathian Basin, 2020–2021
Scientia et Securitas
Author: Zoltán Hajdú

Összefoglaló. Az elmúlt mintegy másfél év alatt a COVID–19 vírus valójában több struktúrában megrengette a világot, az Európai Uniót és egyes országokat is. A világ államai rövid idő alatt bezárkóztak, az Európai Unió 30 napra lezárta külső határait, az egyes tagállamok pedig az uniós belső határokat is lezárták. Veszélybe került a schengeni rendszer. A Kárpát-medence államai az elsők között reagáltak a határok lezárásával. Az egyéni döntések kritikája erőteljesen megjelent az Európai Bizottság részéről. A globális, az európai és a szomszédállami folyamatok összefüggtek. A határok lezárása feltehetően hozzájárult a vírus terjedésének a korlátozásához. (Ausztrália példája ezt erősíti.) A határzárak a nemzetközi tranzitforgalomban, a határ menti területeken élők és az ingázók között okozták a legnagyobb bizonytalanságot, több esetben zűrzavart.

Summary. According to the first ‘official announcement’ in December of 2019 the Covid-19 virus is reported to have emerged in China. The global spread of the virus was extremely fast. On 11 March 2020, the WHO declared Covid-19 to be a global pandemic. As of 31 March 2020 about 91% of the world population lived in countries with border and travel restrictions (border-closed world). The brief analysis reviews the main processes affecting EU and Member States borders, with a special regard to Hungary and its neighbours in the Carpathian Basin. On 17 March 2020, the EU closed its external borders for 30 days.to non-EU citizens. In parallel, a number of Member States decided to close their borders to both Schengen Zone members and third countries. As a response to border closures, the EU Commission and some states organized the repatriation of about 600,000 EU citizens. On 4 March, virus was officially reported to have been detected in Hungary. On 11 March the Hungarian Government declared a national state of emergency. On 15 March the first coronavirus-related death was announced. On 16 March the Government ordered the complete closure of Hungarian borders. After a border ‘traffic chaos’ along the Austrian-Hungarian border, the Hungarian Government – with collaborations with Romania – opened humanitarian corridors for foreign citizens. The possibilities of border crossings of citizens of seven neighbours of Hungary were formed not just by Hungary. In 2020 because of different changes (modifications, opening and closing) we could form at least three categories: open borders, partly open borders, closed borders. In the neighbouring countries (Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia) the progression of the epidemic followed the same pattern. Over the past year and a half the virus crisis has actually shaken many structures of the globalized world, the European Union and many countries in the Carpathian Basin. The virus crises has disrupted intensive connections between Hungary and neighbouring countries. Neither Hungary nor its neighbours were able to insulate themselves from the epidemic waves. The border restrictions primarily affected the movements of persons. Because of ‘permanent uncertainty’ commuters were the losers of the crisis.

Open access

Iparági sérülékenység a pandémia tükrében

Industrial vulnerability in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Zsuzsanna Hauck, Tamás Vasvári, and József Vörös

Összefoglaló. Jelen tanulmányban a termelési folyamatokat, valamint statisztikai adatokat elemezve azt vizsgáljuk, hogy a pandémia során milyen hatások érték az inputokat, magát a termelést, az outputokat, illetve hogyan változtak meg olyan versenyprioritási tényezők, mint az idő, a minőség vagy a rugalmasság. Mivel a rövidebb, a kevésbé komplex és rugalmasabb értékláncok válságállóbbnak tűnnek, ez felgyorsíthatja az ellátási láncok regionalizációját, amit tovább fokoz, hogy a termelőszektor gyors visszarendeződésével szemben a szolgáltató ágazatoknak elhúzódó kilábalással kell szembenézniük. Ezért azt is megvizsgáltuk, hogy az egyes országok ellenálló képessége függ-e a termelő szektor méretétől. Eredményeink alapján, ahol nagyobb az ipar aránya, ott gyorsabban képes a gazdaság talpra állni, ami újabb lökést adhat a fejlett államok iparfejlesztési törekvéseinek.

Summary. The coronavirus epidemic posed challenges to all. However, with proper discipline, increased efficiency and adaptability, companies and economies can emerge stronger from this situation. In this study, we examine vulnerability of industries along three dimensions according to the general model of production complemented by aggregate statistics from Eurostat.

In terms of procurement, shorter value chains seem more resilient than complex and long supply chains. Supplier risks may be also mitigated by increasing the number of suppliers of critical inputs. The costs and risks of transporting goods are also increasing. 90% of industrial products are involved in international trade, mostly transported through maritime shipping that faces significant increase in tariffs, and the difficulty of replacing crews could lead to further disruptions to the operation of maritime routes. Thus, it is not surprising that the pandemic has increased the issue of supply chain flexibility and simplification, and has drawn attention to the importance of inventories and input replacement. Companies may consider to diversify production sites or even reshore or nearshore their production.

The rate of recovery varies in each sector: in services requiring a personal presence, such as tourism, the sudden economic downturn is followed by a slow growth, contrary to the rapid rebound of industrial production. Therefore, countries with significant manufacturing will witness V-shaped recovery, while higher reliance on services is characterized by slower and longer L-shaped scenario. Thus, the pandemic also pointed out that industrial production is key in a national economy: besides that industrial innovations increase productivity (and living standards) and manufacturing functions also have a significant multiplier effect on the service sector, manufacturing also has significant resistance against a pandemic. This could give a further push to the ongoing industrial development programs of developed economies such as Germany, the United States, or the European Union. At the same time, services that are able to move online show no decline, while service requiring a personal presence may struggle in the long run. Overall, structural changes are inevitable and companies have to adapt to the novel consuming and working preferences.

Open access

Környezetbiztonság – jövő nemzedékek védelme – elővigyázatosság

Environmental security – protection of future generations – precaution

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Gyula Bándi

Összefoglaló. A biztonságpolitika és a környezetvédelem egyre fontosabbá váló közös kérdése a környezetbiztonság, a környezettel összefüggésben jelentkező veszélyhelyzetek, konfliktusok, válságok kezelése, lehetőség szerint megelőzése, hiszen azok a környezeti, társadalmi, gazdasági rendszerek stabilitását súlyosan megzavarják. Környezetbiztonságról akkor kerül szó, amikor a környezet terhelése, erőforrások felhasználása az elfogadhatónak tartott mértéket meghaladja. Erre példa, amikor ez környezeti migrációt vált ki vagy közreműködik vírusok terjedésében. Kiemelt kérdéseink egyike a jövő nemzedékek biztonságának veszélyeztetése, akiknek sorsa a mai generációk kezében van, számunkra jelent tehát kötelezettségeket. Az egyre szélesebb értelmet nyerő fenntartható fejlődés gondolata is e köré épül, erkölcsi értéket is megjelenítve egyben. A környezetvédelem és egyidejűleg a környezetbiztonság rendelkezésére álló számos eszköz, intézmény sorában – második részletesebben vizsgált kérdésként – előkelő helye van az elővigyázatosság elvének, hozzásegítve, hogy a lehető legkorábban próbáljuk kezelni a kockázatot jelentő helyzeteket, nem várva a teljes tudományos bizonyosságra azok létét illetően. Kiemelt témáink révén képet kapunk a kérdéskör komplexitásáról, sajátos összefüggéseinek rendszeréről, elhelyezve mindezt a környezetbiztonság egészében.

Summary. Environmental security is unquestionably a vital element of both security and environmental policy, having a growing importance. This covers the management of conflicts, connected with environmental problems, the prevention and managing of crisis situations, which might seriously threaten the stability of environmental, social and economic systems in local, regional, national and global level. We may even assume that the effects of environmental degradation might always lead to possible conflicts, but the major delimitation is the extent. For example, one may mention environmental migration or the environmental implications of the current pandemic, due to the uncontrolled interaction between mankind and the natural environment. Environmental protection is a part of sustainable development, having ecological orientation. The most important constituents of sustainable development are inter- and intragenerational equity, both having a fundamental moral value. Environmental security is not only the enigma of the current generation but is connected to a great extent with the interests of future generations, who have no real influence on their own situation, as their destiny is in the hands of the current generation. The most suitable response should be to indicate the obligations of the current generation to protect the rights of the next ones. The Fundamental Law of Hungary is clear in this respect, placing future generations in the centre, among others in Article P). The substance of these references is clarified in the decisions of the Constitutional Court, using among others non-retrogression principle as a starting point. The latest decisions also refer to the precautionary principle as a major point of reference, which is a rational tool for both environmental security issues and for the protection of the rights of future generations. The precautionary principle means that we should control risky situations at the earliest possible stage, preceding the duty of prevention, not waiting till the full scientific certainty becomes reality. This requirement should form the basis of any activity having the chance for significant pollution, degradation, or generating a crisis situation. According to the Constitutional Court even the state – which has a primary responsibility in this respect – must take special care for the careful assessment of risks and should take all the available measures to avoid negative consequences. The Court also underlined that the precautionary principle has a constitutional character, based upon the rights of future generations.

Open access

A leprától a spanyolnátháig.

Szemelvények a medicina egyetemes és magyar vonatkozásaiból, kitekintéssel annak hadtörténeti vonatkozásaira az első világháborúig

Leprosy to Spanish Fever.

Excerpts of the Universal and Hungarian Aspects of Medicine with a View to their Military-Historical Aspects
Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Katalin Mária Kincses and Sándor Szakály

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány az egyetemes és magyar medicina járványtörténeti és hadtörténeti összefüggéseit vizsgálja történeti példák alapján, a kérdés fontosabb vonatkozásainak vázlatát igyekszik megrajzolni. A szerzők megállapítják, hogy a járványtörténet az orvostörténetnek egyik azon fejezete, amelyik a hadtörténelemhez is szorosan kapcsolódik, ily módon a téma a tágabb értelemben vett, korszakokon átívelő védelempolitika tárgykörébe is illeszkedik. A felsorakoztatott példák rávilágítanak, hogy a járványok természetszerűleg a háborúk kísérői voltak, ugyanakkor azok terjedéséhez is hozzájárultak. Az európai társadalmak a történeti korokban a legnagyobb járványokat intézményi szinten csak a katonaság bevonásával, valamint már a középkortól kezdve egészen a legutóbbi időkig csak katonai szigorúságú intézkedésekkel voltak képes megfékezni.

Summary. The foundations of modern medicine were formed during the Enlightenment. Medical treatment in Europe took its present form in the second half of the 19th century, when healing based on observations, experience, idealistic philosophical theories and beliefs were supplanted by medicine based on scientific empiricism due to the turbulent development and specialization of natural sciences. Today, healing is based on basic laboratory research. Hygiene, supported by bacteriological research, has come to the fore in clinical practice. The healing network (hospitals, medical institutions and healing society in general, from doctors to caregivers) and the public health insurance system have been established.

The history of human conflicts coincides with the history of medicine. The history of war and the epidemics that have plagued humanity are an extreme form of both of these. A common feature between ancient and modern societies is that their greatest public health challenge is/was caused by infectious and epidemic diseases, which are/were the leading cause of mortality from time to time. The authors cite examples from epidemiological history and solution strategies in Europe and Hungary. The history of epidemics in the Middle Ages, Early Modern and Modern Ages is one of the chapters of medical history closely related to military history. In this way, the topic naturally fits into the scope of defense policy (military) in a broader sense, spanning the epochs. The examples show that epidemics not only accompanied the wars, but that the movement of soldiers also caused large-scale epidemics in Europe to a large extent or facilitated their spread. At the same time, the solution was in the hands of the armies, the military administration. In the Middle and Early Modern Ages, the only effective way to deal with epidemics, i.e., quarantine, could be implemented and maintained only with the participation of military forces.

In Europe, epidemic management has been changing since the 18th century. At the same time, the greatest epidemics from the 18th century until the end of the First World War could only be curbed at the institutional level with the broad involvement of the army. Military mentality and rigor have been reflected (in a good sense) in effective epidemic management in European culture. From the Middle Ages to the present day, the management and possible curbing of major epidemics, in addition to extensive vaccination efforts, could have been maintained only with the participation of the military.

Open access

A magyar állampénzügyi rendszer rezilienciája a COVID–19 járvány kapcsán

Resilience of the Hungarian public finance system in relation to the COVID-19 epidemic

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Csaba Lentner

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19 járvány a magyar gazdaság teljesítményeit és pénzügyi egyensúlyát is gyengítette, ám a korábbról stabil államháztartási alapok következtében a negatív hatások csak átmenetinek vélelmezhetők. Magyarország 2010–2019 között egy sikeres állampénzügyi reformot hajtott végre, amely jó alapot ad a válság elleni védekezéshez. Ugyanakkor a járványválság még erősebben ráirányítja a figyelmet a magyar nemzetgazdaság versenyképességének erősebb javítására, az infláció fékezésére, a költségvetési egyensúly megfelelő keretek között tartására, és a kis- és középvállalati szektor mérethatékonyságának növelésére. A tanulmány bemutatja a válság alatti fiskális és jegybanki intézkedések vázát, és egyúttal utal a válság utáni időszak kihívásaira, amelyek a nemzetközi térből, s különösen a jegybanki politika megváltozásából fakadnak.

Summary. The COVID-19 epidemic hit the position of the otherwise strong Hungarian economy. We could see an economic downturn and financial imbalance developed in the last one and half years. As in the recovery (post-crisis) period of the 2010 decade, the crisis is being addressed with the active involvement of the state and the central bank. However, in the course of managing the crisis, it arises that on the new growth trajectory to be built after the recovery period, the competitiveness aspects, especially in the small and medium-sized enterprise category, which plays a major role in Hungary, should be more efficient than in the previous decade. It is necessary to improve the size efficiency, liquidity and capital efficiency of the SME sector by means of fiscal regulation, and the allocation of state resources should be more strongly linked to the requirements of export capacity and innovative business conduct.

The decade after the 2007–2008 crisis – the previous recovery period – was characterized by the weak enforcement of fiscal policies in regulating and improving competitiveness, especially in Hungary, where change is essential. After 2013, Hungarian monetary policy also caught up with the international practice of quantitative easing, achieving significant results in improving both the financial balance and economic growth. However, the previous quantitative easing of the central bank, as well as the increase of budget expenditures on epidemiological expenditures, investments, normative budget annual subsidies from the European Union and subsidies from the European Reconstruction Fund, and even investment loans from our Eastern economic partners, generates an overheated economy, inflationary pressures, and external and balance of payments deficits. Added to this is the wage dynamics of the population, and the permanent and even increasing disbursement of family benefits during the crisis.

All in all, in the 2020s we will face a new financial-debt crisis, unemployment and labor shortage problems, the competitiveness problems of the small business sector, culminating in the reorganization of the world economy, new competitiveness aspects, it will be a rather complex task. Thus, the turn of competitiveness that has essentially failed in the context of an abundance of resources and consolidated macroeconomic conditions (2010-2019) must be implemented “uphill”, it is only the time, will and opportunity to take its first steps. But the main lesson of the crises caused by the epidemics (also) is that the remaining economic entities have become stronger. And perhaps there is a chance to avoid falling into the trap of medium development through a new central bank policy that moderates inflation and truly enforces modernization considerations, as well as improving financial positions and improving economic positions (competitiveness).

Open access

Önkormányzati kommunikáció a COVID-19 világjárvány okozta krízishelyzetben

Local government communication in a crisis situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Nóra Baranyai, Boglárka Barsi, and Márta Nárai

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-járvány kezelésében az önkormányzatok kiemelkedő szerepet kaptak. Tanulmányunkban azt kívánjuk bemutatni, hogy ebben a krízishelyzetben, a járvány magyarországi három hulláma során az önkormányzatok milyen módon kommunikáltak különböző online felületeken (települési honlapok, települési és polgármesteri Facebook-oldalak) a lakossággal. A változó járványhelyzet, a reagálás gyorsaságának szükségessége felhívta a figyelmet arra, hogy milyen fontos az önkormányzatok és a lakosok közötti kommunikáció, illetve az új kommunikációs csatornák alkalmazása. A településtípusok között nem mutatkozott nagy különbség a kommunikáció mikéntjére, jellegzetességeire vonatkozóan, bár a feladatmennyiséget tekintve nyilván más-más kihívásokkal kellett az eltérő méretű önkormányzatoknak szembenézniük.

Summary. Local governments had a key and prominent role in tackling COVID-19 pandemic. Their task was to take short-term measures quickly, to organize protection and care for those in need. The main objective of our paper is to present, how local governments communicated with their inhabitants on various online interfaces in this crisis situation. Our analysis covers 54 settlements representing all the different levels of the settlement network from large cities to small villages. We examined the webpages and Facebook pages of local governments and mayors, firstly during the first wave, then during the second and the third waves of the pandemic.

Recognizing their responsibility, local governments clearly tried to provide all the information to the inhabitants as quickly as possible. They considered the online interfaces the most effective, but the online communication had typically been complemented by information published on more traditional channels as well. There were no significant difference in terms of the way and characteristics of communication among the different types of settlements, although local governments of different sizes obviously had to face different challenges in terms of the amount of tasks they had to tackle.

The communication process was a very difficult task because of the lack of information and the not entirely transparent data provision. Even on the Facebook pages especially suitable for this purpose, interactivity rumbled, and in many cases the questions and suggestions of the inhabitants remained unanswered. It is instructive that, with few exceptions, local authorities do not place emphasis on surveying local needs and opinions.

The full range of measures and contact with the public cannot be evaluated from local governmental online communication, but it can be said that the publication of information has changed thematically and has significantly declined in volume and frequency since the first month of the epidemic in March 2020. There were local governments that performed excellently in online communication, i.e. they published regular and relevant information, but there were also some (mainly small settlements) that did not use these channels at all or after a while. The latter may be explained by the fact that the population of the settlement – due to its age composition or the characteristics of Internet use – can be effectively informed mainly through other, traditional channels. There is little doubt that the lack of information available to local governments, declining local empowerment, and growing central management in epidemic management may also have resulted in less and less communication at the local level.

Open access

A pandémia hatása a személyes kapcsolathálózati struktúrára.

Otthoni munkavégzés: védelem a vírustól vagy társas izoláltság?

Effect of Covid-19 on personal network structures

Home office: virus protection or social isolation?
Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Beáta Dávid, Boglárka Herke, Éva Huszti, Gergely Tóth, Emese Túry-Angyal, and Fruzsina Albert

Összefoglaló. Jelen írásban a biztonság három dimenziójának (egészség, munka, emberi kapcsolatok) összefüggésében a home office pozitív és negatív jellemzőit vizsgáljuk meg a pandémiás időszakban. Tanulmányunk egy 2020 májusában, reprezentatív mintán lekérdezett felmérés adataira épül, mely a vírushelyzetre vonatkozó kérdéseket és egy kapcsolati naplót tartalmazott. Az eredmények alapján a home office-ban dolgozók kevésbé voltak kitéve a fertőzésveszélynek: kevesebb időt töltöttek saját otthonukon kívül és tömegközlekedést is kevésbé használtak. Másrészt az otthonról dolgozók átlagosan kevesebb emberrel is találkoztak személyesen. A találkozásokban mutatkozó különbséget ugyanakkor kifejezetten a munkatársi kapcsolatok magyarázzák, míg a családi és baráti kapcsolataik megvédték az otthonról dolgozókat a társas izoláció veszélyétől.

Summary. The emergence of the Covid-19 virus in spring 2020 has significantly transformed the daily lives of the population. One of the major changes affecting the world of work is that many people have been able to work remotely from home. In this paper, we focus on the home office phenomenon with regard to the three dimensions of security (health, work and human relations) and examine its positive and negative impacts in the context of human relations during the pandemic. It is assumed that home office is more secure against the virus, as those working from home may choose not to leave their homes at all and thus protect themselves from the virus by being physically isolated. On the other hand, it is also assumed that home office workers encounter fewer people than non-home office workers and are therefore more vulnerable to social isolation.

In our study, we compare the characteristics of these two groups using descriptive statistics based on data from a national representative sample of 1,001 people contacted by telephone in May 2020. The survey included questions on the pandemic situation on the one hand, and a so-called contact diary on the other hand, in which respondents were asked to name all persons (and their characteristics) with whom they had spoken on that day beyond saying hello. First, the results show that home office workers were indeed less exposed to the risk of infection, as they spent significantly less time away from home, used public transport less, and none of them were abroad. Second, our data also show that there is a significant difference in the number of face-to-face encounters between home and non-home workers. Home office workers met on average two people face-to-face on the day of the survey, while non-home office workers met on average five people. While no significant difference was found in the number of relatives – whether or not they lived under the same roof as the respondent – between home office workers and those who went to work, the number of encounters with non-relatives was significantly higher among non-home office workers. The difference was mainly due to workplace contacts. This suggests that those working from home were protected from the risk of social isolation by their emotionally and physically close relationships. These results further support the finding that, in a crisis situation, the security provided by family ties is particularly valued and strong bonds are essential for the individual.

Open access

A politikai filozófia a világjárványról

The Pandemic, from the Perspective of Political Philosophy

Scientia et Securitas
Author: Ferenc Hörcher

Összefoglaló. Ez a filozófiai esszé arra tesz kísérletet, hogy megpróbálja nyomon követni a világjárvány kibontakozását, a változatos védelmi stratégiákat, valamint a mégiscsak bekövetkező tragédiákat a politikai filozófia perspektívájából. Mégpedig valós időben. Az esszé abból a hipotézisből indul ki, hogy az emberiséget váratlanul érte ugyan a járvány, mégis igen gyorsan tudott reagálni (lásd az oltóanyag előállításának gyorsaságát), az egyes emberek azonban nem tudtak kilépni saját természetük korlátai közül. Ennek megfelelően a hatalom ismét elkövette a szokásos hibákat, a lázadók lázadtak, és a politika továbbra is a konfliktusok kezelésének művészete maradt. A politikával foglalkozóknak azonban kincsesbánya ez a korszak a politika természetének elemzéséhez.

Summary. This paper, written in the genre of the literary essay, tries to keep track of the birth and development of the pandemic, the various defence strategies and the tragedies that took place anyhow, from the perspective of the discipline of political philosophy.

Now political philosophy is not characteristically ready to react promptly to the events of the day. It has got a long term perspective, and therefore has no intention to keep an eye on the headlines of the online news portals. It has got long term debits, which cannot be easily paid back in cash.

And yet the claim of the paper is that in fact we are confronted by a state of affairs when political philosophy is obliged to take note of contemporary events. And it has to try to respond to those events almost “real time” or directly. We are aware of 4 million dead, by now, which is an unacceptable number.

To tackle states of emergency parliaments are usually ready to offer exceptional measures for government action, even in parliamentary democracies. Yet politicians do not necessarily want to take on board the struggle with the virus – they can easily drop it out from the issues of the day –, claiming that public health should not be politicized. Yet by leaving the stage to let professional experts make the decisions, they give up their chance to unite the camp. Statesmen can only unite their camp behind them, if they make use of the window of opportunity opened by an emergency situation, and if they are able to make use of the phobias and anxieties of everyday people, in the fashionable populist, plebeian manner.

The essay analyses two basic relationships influenced by the pandemic. One is claimed to be the intergovernmental, or global scene. Here, the great and developing powers are competing with each other, through the still mostly acceptable international norms of taking advantage of inequality. The other is the inner political scene, where there is a growing distrust between the authorities and the ordinary people, fuelled by restrictions, fake news, and forms either of controlling society by illegal means, or of influencing leaders by indirect means.

The last part of the essay presents three major aspects from where one can analyse the happenings: a social, a communicational and an economic perspective on its effects.

The essay finishes with some cautionary, sceptical notes on human nature, in order to keep vigilance in emergency situations on the loss of balance, either internal or external, to avoid the major dangers.

Open access

Stílusváltozatok a világ rendészeti járványkezelésében

Varieties of Style in Law Enforcement Dealing with the Pandemic

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Géza Finszter and Péter Cieleszky

Összefoglaló. A világjárvány a Föld minden országát fenyegeti. Az ellene folytatott küzdelem eredményeit és kudarcait akkor lehet felmérni, ha a veszély elmúlt. Addig csak a vírus támadásának a más társadalmi kockázatoktól eltérő egyedi tulajdonságai tárhatóak fel. Tanulmányozásra várnak az egyes országokban bevezetett rendkívüli intézkedések és az Egészségügyi Világszervezet (WHO) globális védekezésre tett kezdeményezései.

Summary. The time has not yet come for a comprehensive assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic situation. At this stage, it is possible to collect information, formulate incomplete hypotheses, and define possible research directions and methodology. With this in mind, our paper will focus primarily on domestic practices. We will study the legislation, the constitutional basis of the special legal order, the functioning of public administration organisation, the reactions of criminal substantive and procedural law and, finally, the changed tasks and functions of law enforcement administration in the emergency situation.

On the basis of the information available to us, we are seeking answers to three questions.

Firstly, can the pandemic be considered a global threat to societies, one with specific characteristics that are different from all other threats?

Secondly, what role do the state, government in general, and public administration authorities and law enforcement in particular, have to play in combating the pandemic?

Thirdly, can international cooperation achieve such a level of global capacity for action that is needed to tackle the global threat?

In response to the first question, the study describes the specificities that justify the uniqueness of the pandemic in nine points:

  • the classification as the highest risk,

  • the three hazards theory,

  • the incomparable nature of the consequences of pandemics and natural disasters,

  • the exclusion of any prior consideration of risk-taking,

  • the application of the tolerable and intolerable distinction,

  • the inconsistency of the typology of internal and external risks,

  • a characteristic that cannot be predicted by legislation,

  • the mathematical measurability of consequences, and

  • the impact on the world economy.

Our second aim was to present the domestic practice of combating the epidemic through the special legal order, drawing on the evaluations of legal scholars on the subject published since 2020. We have reviewed the constitutionality of the special legal order, its impact on central state and municipal administration, on substantive and procedural criminal law, and on law enforcement administration. Attention was paid to a specific institution dictated by the exceptional situation: the hospital command system. The police officers temporarily appointed to this post are responsible for supporting the organisational work in health institutions, which cannot include medical activities requiring medical training.

The third theme focused on the World Health Organisation’s response to the epidemic from a global perspective. We recalled that the idea of an international treaty was first raised by the President of the European Council, Charles Michel, at the Paris Peace Forum in November 2020 and subsequently endorsed by the G7 leaders on 19 February 2021. EU leaders then expressed their commitment to start work on the preparation of an international treaty on pandemics in the framework of the World Health Organisation.

We are convinced that this threefold approach will be worth pursuing when the opportunity arises to assess good and bad practices in epidemic management. However, this will be a task for the post-COVID era.

Open access