Authors:Ayad Q. Al-Dujaili, Amjad J. Humaidi, Daniel Augusto Pereira, and Ibraheem Kasim Ibraheem
Ball and Beam system is one of the most popular and important laboratory models for teaching control systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy to the position control for the ball and beam system. Firstly, a nonlinear controller is proposed based on the backstepping approach. Secondly, in order to adapt online the dynamic control law, adaptive laws are developed to estimate the uncertain parameters. The stability of the proposed adaptive backstepping controller is proved based on the Lyapunov theorem. Simulated results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach.
Cyclodextrins are widely used in various fields including food industry. In this review, their role in high carbohydrate-containing, starchy foods are reviewed and discussed. Both the effects as functional ingredients affecting the structural properties of starch and as active ingredients slowing down starch digestion and, as a consequence, decreasing the glycaemic index of starchy foods are overviewed without considering the traditional applications as carriers and stabilisers of aroma and flavour, essential oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other bioactive components to enrich foods, even if they are carbohydrate foods. The effect on starch metabolism is explained by the structural transformations caused by cyclodextrins on starch amylose and amylopectin. Several examples are shown how the technological and sensorial properties of bread, rice products, pasta, and other starchy foods are modified by cyclodextrin supplementation, and how the digestibility is changed resulting in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic effects.
Location specific services are widely used in outdoor environment and their indoor counterpart is gaining more popularity as well. There is no standardized technology exists for indoor localization, usually smart phone is used as a localization platform and the field strength of an existing radio frequency infrastructure is used as the location specific information. Smart devices are also equipped with several sensors capable of capturing the motion data of the device. Detecting the walking step, turn, stairs motion type can refine the indoor position using digital indoor map as a reference. The real-time recognition of the motion type is possible with a precisely constructed and trained convolutional neural network and therefore it can improve the stability of the localization.
Brigittaplatz located in the 20th district of Vienna, which is a mixed culture residential community with various issues. This paper attempts to uncover the existing problems, weaknesses, potential opportunities of the site and explore a set of local interventions to accomplish site regeneration through architectural and landscape measures. Study utilizes two axes to improve and reconnect the public service, green corridor as well as the interactive relationship. All the proposed interventions are not merely public facility renewal but a new functional and social design, which is trying to reactivate the various relationships in the site that can enhance the quality of life and carry over the impact to larger scales. Authors seek a holistic approach to regenerate Brigittaplatz.
This paper studies the two widely used material models for predicting the dynamic behavior of soils, the Ramberg-Osgood and Hadrin-Drnevich models. Resonant column and torsional simple shear test results on dry sand were used to calibrate and evaluate the model built in the finite element software Midas GTS NX. Both material models are already implemented by the software. This study estimates the ability and efficiency of both soil models coupled with the Masing criteria to predict the behavior of soil when subjected to irregular loading patterns, (e.g., earthquakes), and measure the two most important dynamic properties, the dynamic shear modulus, and the damping ratio.
Authors:Flóra Hajdu, Gabriella Lászlo, and Rajmund Kuti
In recent years, in order to increase the energy efficiency of older buildings in Hungary, several tenders have supported the modernization of the thermal insulation. Various thermal insulation materials have been installed on walls, on slab and on floor. Unfortunately there are cases where thermal insulation materials are not installed in accordance with the construction permit or the manufacturer’s instructions, which poses a serious danger in case of a fire. During the research the effects of heat on the behavior of Expanded PolyStyrene, a thermal insulation material often used in Hungary is examined. Laboratory tests and computer simulations were carried out, which are presented in detail in this paper. The aim of the research is to contribute to increase the fire safety of buildings.
With the rapid economic development, the original layout structure and spatial functions of the city have been affected. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate the potential and vitality of space through social interaction based on the analysis of activity behavior and traffic travel. Through communication in the existing leftover space, a living community with the purpose of spatial emotional connection is established or reconstructed. The social habits of residents have also undergone many adjustments and reorganizations. In this way, the degree of connection between people and space is deepened, to guide the public to actively participate in the adjustment of the characteristics of leftover space and space optimization, broaden the application boundary of space.
During the following research project, the effects of an electrically heated window on the thermal comfort parameters of permanently occupied spaces were examined. A thermal manikin and a Testo 400 comfort-meter were used for the tests. To characterize the space, the predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dis-satisfied method was applied. The examination of the comfort indices took place in the vicinity of an electrically heated window glass. During the measurements the surface temperature of the glazing was changed, alongside the distance from the glazing at which the measuring instruments were set up. The project aimed to assess the results measured by the thermal manikin and assess the usability of heated window glazing, taking thermal comfort into account.
A calculation system has been developed to determine the optimum dimensions of asymmetric I-beams for minimum shrinkage. The objective function is the minimum mass; the unknowns are the I-beam dimensions; the constraints are the stress, local buckling, and deflection. Different steel grades have been considered (235, 355, 460 (MPa) yield stress) and other aluminum alloys (90, 155, 230 (MPa) yield stress). The material, the span length, the loading, and the applied heat input have been changed. It is shown, that using optimum design; the welding shrinkage can be reduced with prebending and can save material cost as well.
Nowadays, self-driving cars have a wide reputation among people that is constantly increasing, many manufacturers are developing their own autonomous vehicles. These vehicles are equipped with various sensors that are placed at several points in the car. These sensors provide information to control the vehicle (partially or completely, depending on the automation level). Sight distances on roads are defined according to various traffic situations (stopping, overtaking, crossing, etc.). Safety reasons require these sight distances, which are calculated from human factors (e.g., reaction time), vehicle characteristics (e.g., eye position, brakes), road surface properties, and other factors. Autodesk Civil 3D is a widely used tool in the field of road design, the software however was developed based on the characteristics of the human drivers and conventional vehicles.