In this paper, advanced DC-Link (DCL) based reversing voltage type Multilevel Inverter (MLI) topologies by compensating the difficulties in the conventional MLIs are reviewed. These topologies consist of less switching components and driver circuits when compared with conventional MLIs predominantly in higher levels. Consequently, installation area, total cost and hardware difficulties are reduced by increasing the voltage levels. The unipolar based Pulse Width Modulation Schemes (PWMS) will improve DCL inverters performance. This paper presents unipolar Multi-Reference (MR) based sine and space vector PWMS with single triangular carrier wave for generating required levels in output voltage. Comparison between UMR sine and space vector PWMS for DCL inverter topologies is presented in terms of Fundamental Output Voltage (FOV) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The research tries to establish the survey analysis for single-phase 7-level DCL based reversing voltage type MLI topologies with UMR based sine and space vector PWMs. Finally, to confirm the feasibility of proposed DCL-MLIs in terms of FOV and THD the simulation results are incorporated. Further, the prototype model is developed for single-phase 7-level DCL inverter with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based UMR sine and space vector PWMS to authenticate simulation results. The efficiency of the proposed cascaded MLI achieves the value of 99.003%.
Public green spaces are very important in the urban structure, both on environmental and social level. Renovation may be necessary, but the process must involve complexity.
The objective of this research is to define the main criteria of a successful renovation process, using two case studies - the Lucius-Burckhardt-Platz in Kassel, Germany, and the ‘Parku i lodrave’ in the city of Peja, Kosovo, where the recent intervention had rather negative effects. The paper considered aspects as community activity, key functions, visual elements, accessibility, safety, well-being and maintenance.
The transformation of these spontaneously developed, liveable spaces into renewed but abandoned parks was explained by the lack of correlation between the analysis of function, public needs, and the dominance of aesthetics.
Carbon-dioxide-based trans-critical power cycle is a novel technology for waste heat recovery. This technology can handle the high-temperature exhaust gas and can be built in a compact size, which is an important feature for the auxiliary equipment for an internal combustion engine. To obtain the best output, four configurations were constructed: the basic system; one with preheater, another with regenerator and a fourth with preheater and regenerator. Special features of supercritical CO2 make these cycles able to recover more energy than the traditional organic Rankine cycle. According to this study, heat regeneration increases thermal efficiency while preheating influences the net power output. Thus, it is beneficial to add both regenerator and preheater to the basic cycle.
This work aims to highlight gravity segmental retaining walls with their varied advantages. The paper investigates the dynamic behavior analysis of segmental retaining walls. The stability analysis is conducted on the basis of a pseudo-static Mononobe-Okabe theory that provides safety factors against sliding and overturning failure. The results demonstrate that the crucial safety factor of internal stability is the safety factor against overturning. Moreover, the positive wall inclination angle contributes to an improvement in the stability of the segmental retaining walls and the effect of the vertical seismic coefficient on the stability can be disregarding. Finally, a new equation is proposed for the elementary design of the segmental retaining walls.
This study focuses on exploring the impact of urban forms and vegetation combination patterns on the microclimate in a complex urban environment. Results shown that the closed urban form has higher air temperature resulting in pedestrians are easier to feel heat stress; instead, the open urban form usually has higher wind speed. Vegetation can effectively reduce wind speed while reducing the change rate of the mean radiant temperature. However, the effect on air temperature and humidity are most distinct in the morning. Trees and shrubs could improve the surrounding thermal comfort conditions by reducing heat stress, but this effect depends on the density of the leaf area. More importantly, study has not found that the ground cover plants contribute to the improvement of thermal comfort.
This paper classifies the architecture, engineering, and construction enterprises in the South Transdanubia Region, Hungary, according to the size and function of the firms. It is a primary step for later investigation about the implementation of building information modeling in small and medium-sized enterprises within the region. It introduces digital construction in the sector, includes most construction firms based in the region, and systematically gathers data. It analyzes the data to introduce a new sorting method based on the local construction market, unlike the international classification, which leans on the global perspective.
This paper focuses on the relationship between the composition of foam glass and its thermal conductivity and density. In this experimental research, three levels of glass particle size and foaming agent (SiC) quantity were tested. The results showed that the thermal conductivity increased by increasing the ratio of fine glass particles. On the contrary, the thermal conductivity was not affected by changing the foaming agent weight ratio. The density of foam glass increased by decreasing the foaming agent ratio, and there was no linear relation between the size of glass particles and the density of foam glass.
Scour is the leading cause of bridge collapse beneath any bridge pier located within the waterway. A numerical-based hydraulic model named the Hydrologic Engineering Centre River Analysis System and a mathematical model of the Florida Department of Transport were implemented to investigate their performance and accuracy in estimating the maximum scour depth beneath bridge piers where large and small-scale physical prototypes are used as a benchmark. The main findings are that a hydraulic model is an effective tool when employing the Colorado State University equation, which compares well with physical prototypes irrespective of the variation in piers' size and shape. Also, it has achieved more consistent results than the Froehlich and the Florida Department of Transport methodologies.
One of the most expensive components of constructing a cellular network is frequency planning. The cost of building and maintaining a network will be reduced if a set of base stations can be established with minimal service and preparation. Planning and optimization are carried out to guarantee that the scarce frequency is used to its maximum capability. The goal of this paper is to provide an autonomous method for planning and optimizing frequency in cellular networks. The method substitutes the inefficient, inaccurate, and time-consuming manual method. The automatic technique makes work easier for radio frequency (RF) engineers and lowers operating costs. Also, this article provides an autonomous planning and optimization technique that reduces intra-system interference levels to acceptable levels within the key performance indicators (KPIs) set for any suitable cellular network.
A mathematical model is developed to determine the steady-state electric current flow through in non-homogeneous isotropic conductor whose shape has a three-dimensional hollow body. The equations of the Maxwell's theory of electric current flow in a non-homogeneous isotropic solid conductor body are used to formulate the corresponding electric boundary value problem. The determination of the steady motion of charges is based on the concept of the electrical conductance. The derivation of the upper and lower bound formulae for the electrical conductance is based on Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Two numerical examples illustrate the applications of the derived upper and lower bound formulae.
Based on the theory of space syntax, this study quantitatively analyzes the landscape space of Baosteel Zhanjiang Steel Co. Ltd., which is constrained by epidemic preventive measures and steel plant safety production requirements in the post-epidemic age. Space syntax has the benefits of decreasing research expenses, boosting analytical efficiency, assessing space use efficiency, minimizing environmental interference, and addressing epidemic prevention demands.
In this manuscript, the combination of IoT and Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model for waste image categorization is proposed to categorize the wastes as bio waste and non-bio waste. The input captured images are pre-processed and remove noises in the captured images. Under this approach, a Nature inspired Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model is proposed. Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model is the consolidation of deep convolutional neural network and Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier. Here, deep convolutional neural network is used for feature extraction and Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier for categorizing the waste images. To improve the classification accurateness, Horse herd optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameter of the Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier. The objective function is to maximize the accuracy by minimize the computational complexity. The simulation is executed in MATLAB. The proposed Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model and Horse herd optimization algorithm attains higher accuracy 39.56% and 42.46%, higher Precision 48.74% and 34.56%, higher F-Score 32.5% and 45.34%, higher Sensitivity 24.45% and 34.23%, higher Specificity 31.43% and 21.45%, lower execution time 0.019(s) and 0.014(s) compared with existing waste management and classification using convolutional neural network with hyper parameter of random search optimization algorithm waste management and classification using clustering approach with Ant colony optimization algorithm. Finally, the proposed method categorizes the waste image accurately.
Due to some failure during the flying of drone systems, it is necessary to design and analyse compact and changeble muti rotor drone systems by using softwares. Multi-engine aircrafts are the mechatronic systems consisting of body frame, electronic control systems, rotors and blades. In the simulations realized in this work special focus has been given to the body frame due to the presence of mechanical and electronic components inside. Analysis of different vibration and force effects occurring on the whole system during the flight with high accuracy is vital for the design process of multi-engine aircrafts. In this work, a novel design procedure has been applied for the multi-engine aircraft structures including 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 rotors and then the vibration and force effects occurring during the flight have been analyzed. As a result of detailed modal analysis carried out for different vibration frequencies, it has been observed that the vibration frequencies occurring during the flight vary between 7 and 10 Hz. Moreover, from the results obtained, it has been observed that the vibration frequency decreases while the number of rotors increased. As a result of these decreases in the vibration frequency, it has also been observed that the deformations in the body frame increased.
The optimized chord and twist angle of the preliminary blade design through Blade Element Momentum theory are non-linear distributions, which adds to the complexity of blade manufacture and does not always guarantee the best aerodynamic performance. In this paper, the effect of the linearization on aerodynamic performance using Prandtl-Glauert correction model was investigated through four cases: case 1 and case 2 and case 3, where the chord and the twist angle are linearized and case 4, where sole chord is linearized. The effect of the linearization using Shen correction model while making a comparison to the linearization using Prandtl-Glauert correction model was also studied. The simulation is conducted for S809 wind turbine blade profile. The results show that case 4 using Shen correction model represents the best technique of linearization in terms of higher aerodynamic performance and easy manufacturing process.
The water issue has become a frontier of public debate globally due to public awareness of sustainable development. Nigeria's water resources are under serious threat from inadequate catchment management that includes widespread pollution from indiscriminate waste disposal. Stormwater is now recognized as a valuable resource rather than a nuisance, especially in large urban centers. Growing demand for water has exerted pressure on groundwater via dug well and boreholes scattered virtually in every dwelling in Nigeria. This challenge motivated this investigation of the feasibility of harvesting stormwater for due purposes of supplementing water supply and flash flood management. This study aims at quantification of harvestable stormwater and identification of potential capturing sites using Spatial Hydrological Analysis of GIS model and Synthetic Hydrograph. The result indicated total harvestable stormwater for 24-hr rainfall of 161.3 Mm3 and three available capturing sites of eight depressions identified. This volume is a good incentive to incorporate storm harvesting in overall water resources sustainable management.
As a result of rainfall in large quantities, the leachate generated under the municipal solid waste (MSW) is increased, which leaks to the groundwater aquifers and pollutes it. Accurate evaluation of leachate leaks levels has long been regarded as a problem in Iraq due to a lack of reliable data and costly measuring costs. This work proposes a novel fuzzy expert system to predict the pollution status of the underground water in sandy soils. The expert system consists of two subsystems; fuzzy logic system and crisp logic system. The expert system is trained using a data set developed by finite element analysis of sandy soil subjected to contamination materials.
The mining industry, currently undergoing profound changes, is destined to play an increasingly important economic role in the province of Quebec, Canada. Activity in this sector, its real net impact on government tax revenue, the economy, society, and the creation of wealth, is the subject of much discussion. Occupational health and safety is a major preoccupation in the mining sector, in which considerable numbers of workers suffer workplace accidents or occupational diseases due to the use of industrial chemicals, compounding the problem of exposure to noxious substances that exist naturally in mines or are produced inevitably in the course of normal mining operations. Air in mines thus can become laden with a wide variety of chemical agents, in the form of suspended solids, liquid droplets, and vapors and gases. Long-term exposure to most of these agents can seriously harm the health of mineworkers. Prevention remains the key to avoiding the social and economic consequences of these hazards and will make mining a more attractive sector for investment and employment in Canada.
The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of mineworkers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.
This research was conducted in four phases. The first article presented a review of the literature  on the chemical aspects of health and safety in mining in the province of Quebec. In the present article, the findings on the recurrence of health problems attributable to chemicals encountered in mines and how these effects should therefore be ranked from an occupational health and safety perspective are presented. The results show that various forms of dermatitis are the most recurrent health and safety risk.
Iranians invented squinches to cover a square-plan space with a dome. Filposh, a type of squinch first found in Sasanian architecture, is a conical vault constructed in the transition zone’s corners to transmit the dome’s forces and weight. This technique can be seen in three halls of the Sasanian palace of Ardeshir. In this paper, the geometry of the transition zone using filposh squinches between a spherical dome and the square supporting walls in Ardeshir Palace was re-examined. A historical descriptive method was employed to analyse the main drawings of the halls from the nineteenth century to the present, and two hypotheses concerning the geometry of the transition zone were modelled and evaluated. As a result, the hypothesis that the dome’s cross-section intersects the chamber’s square plan is rejected. Furthermore, the claim that the transition zone’s square plan circumscribes the dome’s cross-section was discussed and proven.
The demand for automation using mobile robots has been increased dramatically in the last decade. Nowadays, mobile robots are used for various applications that are not attainable to humans. Omnidirectional mobile robots are one particular type of these mobile robots, which has been the center of attention for their maneuverability and ability to track complex trajectories with ease, unlike their differential type counterparts. However, one of the disadvantages of these robots is their complex dynamical model, which poses several challenges to their control approach. In this work, the modeling of a four-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot is developed. Moreover, an intelligent Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) neural network control methodology is developed for trajectory tracking tasks, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is utilized to find optimized controller's weights. The simulation study is conducted using Simulink and Matlab package, and the results confirmed the accuracy of the proposed intelligent control method to perform trajectory tracking tasks.
An enterprise framework based on the philosophy research approach to Information System (IS) features a holistic view in an industry that allows room for technological advancement, an industry with increasing expectations and demands for IS drives towards a more integrated framework and rethinking of the concept of delivering insightful outcomes. The specific features of IS in this study focus on the information criteria for the daily assignment of the railway industry operations through an industry enterprise framework. The study objective is to provide a comprehensive understanding of emerging knowledge from structuring IS and enterprise framework stages and their mashup characteristics in designing a model-driven development framework. The outcome will be a design of a strategic performance framework for a typical strategic performance application as the most vital outcome indicators, to focus on understanding the baseline of technology revolution (Industry Revolution 5.0) achievement to measure the transformation expected and the railway industry evaluation, based on the year-on-year target will be established. The usage of decision-making systems and strategic applications has increased massively to fulfill various kinds of purposes for organizations, businesses, and individuals. In this case, a high-quality decision-making system and strategic application are required to ensure it provides the intended functionalities.
A Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Építészeti Tudományos Bizottsága az Építészettörténeti, Építészetelméleti és Műemléki Állandó Bizottsággal együttműködve szervezte a 2022. május 12-én az Országos Levéltárban tartott tudományos konferenciáját a budai Várnegyed történetéről. A budai Vár területén zajló építkezések és bontások adták a tanácskozás aktualitását, melynek fő célja az volt, hogy a legavatottabb szakemberek – építészek, régészek, művészettörténészek – révén bemutassa a budai polgárváros fejlődését a 13. századtól a rendszerváltozásig. Az új kutatási eredmények ismertetésén túl, az előadók arra is felkérést kaptak, hogy tegyék mérlegre az egyes korszakok hozzájárulását a Várnegyed karakterének alakulásához: milyen értékeket hoztak létre, milyen hibákat követtek el, hogyan befolyásolták e zárt települési egység funkcióit, a benne zajló élet minőségét. Mindez hozzájárulhat ahhoz, hogy tárgyilagosabban ítélhessük meg, mi számít műemléki, építészeti vagy település léptékű értéknek, és hogyan kellene viselkednünk e területen, hogy ezen értékekből – és a Várnegyed karakteréből – minél többet megőrizzünk a jövő generációi számára.
A budai Várnegyed rekonstrukciója a második világháború után visszaadta a Polgárváros középkori és barokk léptékét és értékeit, ezeket kulturális, lakó és turisztikai funkciókkal töltve meg. A magyar főváros egyetlen integráns történelmi negyedeként őrzi történelmünk és építészetünk lenyomatai mellett a városépítő polgárság emlékét is. Ebből a történelmileg predesztinált szerepéből a századforduló dualizmusában tapasztalt hatalmi központ építések hasonlóan próbálták kimozdítani, mint korunk hatalmi törekvései, léptékben és jelentésben egy nagyobb szerepet megpróbálva ráerőltetni a budai polgárvárosra. A kis léptékű mozgásokat kiszolgáló középkori eredetű morfológia terhelhetőségének objektív szempontjai mellett számos nemzetközi példa is bizonyítja, hogy csakis olyan kulturális és lakó funkciók tehetik megélhető és sikeres városrésszé a budai Várnegyedet, amelyek képesek együtt élni az értékes történeti rétegekkel és azok léptékével. Ez a tanulmány a háború utáni rekonstrukció és a Nemzeti Hauszmann Terv által ma véghez vitt rekonstrukciókat nem egymással, hanem más európai történelmi városközpontok morfológiai adottságaival és rekonstrukciós folyamataival veti össze. A Space Syntax analízisek kimutatták, hogy a középkori eredetű városszövetek minden európai városban a 19. századi szövet mellett izolált, ám gyalogos szempontból integráns térrendszerrel bírnak, amely nem alkalmas a modern városok igazgatási és termelési funkcióit befogadni, ám megfelel a kortárs 15 perces élhető város fogalmának és a turisztikai térhasználatnak is. Az ilyen városközpontok közül a második világháborúban megsérült városszövetek rekonstrukciói közül a budai Várnegyed háború utáni rekonstrukciója nem lóg ki, sőt, megelőzte korát. A mai vári rekonstrukciós beavatkozások az újjáépítések módszerében nem lóg ki más európai folyamatok közül, de funkcióiban, a rekonstrukció által megcélzott történelmi kor kiválasztásában, valamint a társadalmi igények figyelembevétele terén nem követi a mai trendeket.
In the present study, we analysed the exact, laser-scanned geometry of the apse vault of the catholic church of Andocs. The written sources about this vault are very limited, however, the point cloud-based research could provide new details about the history of the building, along with the formerly used building techniques. For the analysis, we worked based on our three-step analysis process, established for net vaults. During the studying of the rib system, we reconstructed the probable original construction and building method, as well as the temporary supporting structures of the early 16th-century vault. The analysis of the individual ribs led us to conclusions about this vault, in the mirror of the widespread ideas of the topic’s technical literature, such as the “Prinzipalbogen” theory (all the ribs of a given net vault have the same curvature), or the principle of the longest route (the cumulated length of the ribs’ plan, which led from the impost to the crown with the longest possible route equals to the radius of the ribs’ curvature). Regarding the curvilinear rib elements, we presumed a likely fabrication method, based on contemporary research results. Mapping the webbing and the ribs, we concluded their building order, as well as the plausible masonry technique of the webs.
A heat pipe is a heat conduction program that utilizes both heat permeability and regime shift concepts to transport heat effectively between 2 different lines. A heat pipe is made up of a pipe or tube and a base fluid. In practice, the heat pipe is poured into a mould that is compatible with the cooling media. These devices have found uses in a variety of fields, including space apparatus, solar energy systems, electronic equipment, and air conditioning systems, due to their simplicity of design and ease of manufacture and maintenance. Thermal performance improvement being the major concern in our project we researched different techniques. The heating surface area has a direct impact on heat transfer. Therefore, we have focused on heat enhancement by introducing grooves. Alongside we also considered using different materials for the pipe. At the end of our research, we are going to produce groove structure models with different materials and analyze them using ANSYS software and propose the best structures with highest thermal efficiency for different applications of heat pipes. This is an attempt to increase heat transmission in response to various material and structural changes. Heat transmission is improved with grooved heat pipes as well as heat transmission various with different types materials used in heat pipe.
This paper compared the performance between Integer Order Fuzzy PID (IOFPID) and Fractional Order Fuzzy PID (FOFPID) controllers for inverted pendulum system as a controlling plant. The parameters of each controller were tuned with four evolutionary optimization algorithms (Social Spider Optimization (SSO), Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Particle Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)). The comparisons were carried out between the two controllers IOFPID and FOFPID, as well as among the four optimization algorithms for the two controllers. The results of comparisons proved that the FOFPID controller with SSO has achieved the best time response characteristics and the least tuning time.
1686. évi visszavívása után a romokból és az eleinte még falusias viszonyokból lassan, majd egyre gyorsuló ütemben született újjá Buda városa. Az Udvari Kamara idegenből jött, főleg német anyanyelvű, katolikus lakosokat kezdett betelepíteni, a mestereket kedvező feltételekkel csábítva Pest-Budára.
I. Lipót Venerio Ceresola császári építőmestert nevezte ki a budai erődítési munkálatok irányítására, aki már 1686 októberében belekezdett az újjáépítés megszervezésébe. Az ország különböző részeiből érkeztek építőmunkások, akik a kőfaragókkal társulva céhbe szerveződtek Ceresola vezetésével. A budai kőműves és kőfaragó céh 1690-ben jött létre, és működött a céhek 1872-es feloszlatásáig. E mesterek polgári kőművesmester megjelölése még más értelemmel bírt, ugyanis az építész szakmán belül ekkor a legmagasabb megszerezhető képesítés a kőművesmesterség volt, s ezt csak céhen belül és csak mestervizsgával lehetett elérni. A kőművesmester a tervezéstől a kivitelezésig jogosult volt az építés teljes folyamatának elvégzésére. Az építész vagy építőmester elnevezés csak címet jelentett, azaz hivatal- vagy rangjelző volt, mint pl. az uradalmi vagy kamarai építész címe.
Ceresola háztulajdonos is volt Budán, ő kezdte építeni a budai városházát, melyet később a 18. század folyamán a céh több tagja is bővített vagy átépített, köztük Hölbling János, Vogl Konrád, Nöpauer Mátyás. A céh tagjai közül kiemelkedik Hölbling János, aki Ceresolához hasonlóan császári építőmester is volt, az ő egyik munkája pl. a Zeughaus kivitelezése. Nöpauer Mátyás tervezte és építette az Erdődy-palotát, ill. az ő tulajdona volt a Hess András tér 3. sz. alatti Vörös Sün vendégfogadó is.
E céh tagjainak nevéhez az egyszerű barokk lakóépületektől kezdve templomok, kolostorok, középületek építése kötődik, nagyrészt ők építették újjá Buda városát, ami alatt nemcsak a felső város értendő, hanem a külvárosok is, ráadásul e céh mint főcéh tagjai jogosultak voltak az ország egész területén építkezni.
As of 2020, the mining industry in the province of Quebec (Canada) has been providing 16,000 jobs, the majority of these in the north part of the province and in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region. From the exploration phase to the mining site rehabilitation phase, numerous chemical processes are used, often involving some of the most dangerous substances used on industrial scales.
The hazards associated with many of these substances are in some cases not obvious, and symptoms of exposure may take years to appear. The risks associated with the industrial use of chemicals in Canada and abroad has long preoccupied health authorities, given the severity of the diseases that can occur. In Quebec, occupational diseases associated with exposure to industrial chemicals are reaching 1,500 cases per year.
The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of workers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.
This research was conducted in four phases. The present article contains the results of the first two stages, that is, a review of the literature to catalog the industrial chemicals used in mines and to list the potential effects of exposure to them, based on Safety Data Sheets. Eighty-five (85) chemicals used in at least one mining project phase and dozens of potential effects on worker health were identified. The rest of the study is presented in a second article 
This article deals with balancing an autonomous motorcycle model along a straight line and curve lines. The dynamic model of the motorcycle balancing is described with an inverted physical pendulum loaded with torque. The torque is provided by the inertia of a rotor driven by a direct current motor. The lean angle of the motorcycle is measured by a smart sensor, which is the feedback signal for the linear quadratic regulator control system. The main purpose of this study is to compensate the error of the smart sensor. Controlling the necessary lean angle of the motorcycle during cornering is also addressed.
Dynamic contact and impact problems are widely applicable. An accurate solution method for these kinds of problems can be used in many fields of mechanical engineering (e.g., cutting metalwork, cogwheel drives, etc.). However, the proper handling of the contact is problematic, as there emerges a substantial amount of nonlinearity in the displacement field. Therefore, a spurious high frequency oscillation is present in the solution. These oscillations must be avoided, as divergence can easily occur in the contact algorithm due to them. In order to eliminate this effect, the applied numerical method must be chosen and set properly. In this study, a comprehensive guide is provided for the appropriate selection of the proper numerical method and its parameters.
On the basis of elaborating the connotation of intensive city block, it is pointed out that the intensive structure organization is the key to realize intensive city block. The order complexity of the block structure is formed by the close connection, overlapping of elements, the depth difference and their compound association. This paper constructs the basic pedigree of block structure design from three levels of street configuration, plot organization and building layout, and forms the derivation and comprehensive application strategy of pedigree from the organic linkage and compound of each other.
Algae are an evolutionary model of success and colonize all suitable ecological niches including building material surfaces that have favorable characteristics. In the last 25 years, building physics measures were developed to reduce water availability, especially on external thermal insulation composite systems.
Investigations into the influence of coating formulations have so far primarily focused on binder systems, biocides and hygrothermal properties. Research on the algal susceptibility due to the fillers is not to be found, but these regularly constitute a large proportion of final coatings. The present work investigates the influence of magnesium-containing fillers in the process of algal colonization of free-weathered façade coatings and a defense-strategy by water-activated pigment composition.
Concrete-filled steel tube columns are widely used in civil engineering structures due to their excellent ductility, energy absorption capacity, ultimate load-bearing capacity, and seismic behavior. In this paper, a numerical study modeling of eight lightweight concrete and conventional concrete filled steel tubes was carried out using ABAQUS software, and the lateral load-carrying capacity of square and circular steel tubes under cyclic load was compared. The quarter and one-third height of the tubes was filled with concrete with respect to the pier's height, to improve the base performance of the piers. The results show that the capacity of steel tubes filled with lightweight concrete increased by 40%–70% regarding energy absorption. The square tubes showed better performance than the circular tubes in terms of yielding load, yielding displacement, and energy dissipation.
To estimate and model explosion pressure rise in closed volumes, industrial applications require a simple method. Ideal gas model is capable to assume pressure rise values to 10% above to initial pressure. However, most of the explosion venting devices opens higher than this pressure range.
Extension of ideal gas model was carried out in this paper. Authors made some experimental studies in 20 L explosion sphere at ambient temperature and atmospheric initial pressure, with propane-air mixtures at different concentrations between 2.8 and 6.3 vol%. They measured pressure values inside the chamber during explosion and recorded at 9,600 Hz. Based on experimental studies, authors extended ideal gas model application range to 1.5 barg.
Accessibility is known as the ease of reaching destinations. The accessibility is determined by the spatial distribution of potential destinations, and the magnitude, quality, and character of the activities found there. However, modernization and the fast expansion of urban development transform cities' local cultural life from walkable accessible places to just car places. This has encroached into every corner of our urban environment today. In addition, the available services and systems to manage the pedestrian movement in the historic core are inadequate and inefficient, posing risks to both the traffic and the pedestrians. That affects the walkability for cities gradually. Hence, this paper aims to explore the main physical elements that contribute toward accessibility under three main categories (pedestrians, vehicles and public transport) as one of the walkability characters in Salt City in Jordan. Historical review, site analysis, and survey were the main methodology used in this study.
Cracking in composite steel-concrete bridge decks is a common problem in civil engineering. Before, or shortly after, the bridge is subjected to live loads; various levels of cracking can appear, mostly due to plastic shrinkage and temperature effects.
This paper presents an investigation of the behavior of cracked concrete in a composite deck slab of a railway bridge supported by steel girders using the finite element method. Eurocode 4-2 proposes a few simplified methods for calculating shrinkage and cracking effects in concrete. Through the proposed methods of analysis, an analytical simulation of a continuous composite steel-concrete bridge deck is performed and some practical recommendations for analyzing beam girders of this type are given.
The focus of this study is how Xiazhuang Village with high quality resources can achieve sustainable development in the new era by protecting and transforming vernacular architecture. Based on the layout of village, the characteristics of vernacular architecture and the ecological advantages of construction technology, this study puts forward the classification renewal and optimization design based on different buildings to solve the problems of village. Try to find a way to continue the historical context of vernacular architecture and satisfy the development of rural tourism at the same time.
The urban structure of Dombóvár has been transformed in recent centuries, and the protected buildings that once defined the town center, have been relegated to the periphery. Today, despite its rich architectural heritage, the Kakasdomb district is an area at risk of segregation. The key to the integration of the district into the existing urban tissue is the utilization of the protected buildings of the area including the former synagogue building. This paper examines the possibilities for the reuse of the synagogue based on the town development strategy and the perceptions of the remaining Jewish community, and the systematic modification of the settlement structure, together with the possibilities for the integration of the neighborhood.
For the final quality of the part, metal forming trends are depending on improvements of friction and tribology. As a consequence, there is a trend in which tribology and friction are becoming increasingly important for correctly replicating the forming simulation of those parts. The objective of this work was to improve the forming simulation of an automotive shell part on AutoForm. The part was provided by a vehicle industry supplier. Enhanced Coulomb models consider a change on friction coefficient due to different factors, better approximating the description of friction to reality. For the current study, pressure and velocity dependent friction models were chosen as long as the combination of both. The virtual tribology was simulated using the software TriboForm. Velocity dependent friction model and the virtual tribology have shown similar results with expected lower coefficients of friction.
Vehicle manufacturing is an industry in which the technologies used by Industry 4.0 and their evolution can best be traced. Digitalization-robotization is paramount to the technical methods used in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The question is how close a correlation between productivity and digitalization robotics in vehicle production is in the Member States of the European Union. I perform the relationship between the two variables by correlation calculation. Then I classify the member states according to the closeness of the relationship between the two variables using the method of hierarchical cluster analysis. Empirical results show a robust relationship, with the highest per capita production value in those Member States with the highest degree of digitalization-robotization in vehicle production. In conclusion, the countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the end of the productivity rankings need to increase the degree of digitalization of their vehicle production to increase their productivity and competitiveness.
With the gradual improvement of urban construction, more and more experts and the public realized that the speed of urban development be reasonable, which caused urban regeneration to turn to a new-minded “urban micro-regeneration”. “Micro-regeneration” is an extension of the concept to the direction of urban construction. The concept of micro-regeneration was first applied to the regeneration of individual buildings in the old city. The research on the intervention of public art in urban micro-regeneration is still in its infancy in China. Based on practice, this paper explores the possibility of public art's intervention in urban micro-regeneration.
Tourism is one of the fastest-growing economic sectors in the world, and any settlement that can harness and promote its potential can benefit from it. It is not only the prerogative of cities but can also make a significant contribution to the survival and development of smaller settlements.
The development of tourism in a given area is not a sudden, rapid process, but usually takes place over several decades, through cyclical phases. Our research is based on the different hypothetical models of the stages of tourism developed by Noronha (1977) and , the applicability of which was examined in rural areas through the example of the Inner-Őrség. Nowadays Őrség (Guard’s Country) is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Hungary, where the small settlements of the area have built on their natural, architectural and cultural assets and they have been able to exploit their potential by using the right marketing techniques. The villages of the Inner-Őrség have developed at different rates since their discovery as tourist destinations, and depending on their role in the settlement network, their accessibility and tourist values, the different phases of tourism development took place at different speeds in their territory. Therefore, the intensity and impact of tourism varies in each village despite the strong interaction between them.
In the present study, we seek to identify the trends and characteristics of the development of tourism in the examined area by using the results of the available statistical data, in order to obtain a more accurate picture of the role of tourism in the settlements concerned.
Identification of online hate is the prime concern for natural language processing researchers; social media has augmented this menace by providing a virtual platform for online harassment. This study identifies online harassment using the trolling aggression and cyber-bullying dataset from shared tasks workshop. This work concentrates on extreme pre-processing and ensemble approach for model building; this study also considers the existing algorithms like the random forest, logistic regression, multinomial Naïve Bayes. Logistic regression proves to be more efficient with the highest accuracy of 57.91%. Ensemble bidirectional encoder representation from transformers showed promising results with 62% precision, which is better than most existing models.
Timber is a widely used material in construction. The moisture content has a significant impact on the mechanical and physical properties of it. This paper studies how the moisture content values are directly connected to the climate conditions, especially temperature and relative humidity, by measuring these factors for a non-renovated historical timber roof for a one-year period, combined with meteorological data for Pécs since 1901. The fluctuation in moisture content values created instability in the water content of the structural elements due to absorption and release of water in order to reach the equivalent moisture content point. This process led to continuous volume increase-decrease of the timber, thus to formation of cracks, discoloration and harmful fungi development.
The comparison of Mono and Multi Repository structures is a highly debated topic in the software development field. Despite the choice of repository structure is the first main step in development; so far, this comparison has only been made on a small or local scale. Here, Mono and Multi Repository structures have been compared from different aspects using thousands of projects.
First, an algorithm shared for collecting and identifying Mono and Multi Repository projects and save them into the database. Database was used for making different comparisons for example the usage intensity of both structure types over time, the developer's preference over structure type based on their country and so on. Also, all these comparisons have been made according to the team size and development period for each repository structure.
Two different tire configurations consisting of a dual tire and a super single wide tire having different range and distribution of contact pressures have been analyzed. Along with the effect of speed on development of pavement damage at speeds of 5, 50 and 80 km h−1 under zero and uniform wander modes. Results show that at super slow speeds of 5 km h−1, at dual wheel moving at zero wander mode, decrease in fatigue life of the pavement is 3.5 years, which is 1.45 times more than the dual wheel moving at uniform wander and 3.4 times more than wide tire moving at uniform wander mode. The difference between fatigue damage at different lateral wander modes is prominent at speeds greater than 50 km h−1. A wide tire performs better than the dual wheel under zero wander configurations.
The article examines the relationship between theory and practice through the history of architecture education, considering the possibilities of the 1950s from the perspective of teachers and students. This period may be the subject of separate research for two reasons. On the one hand, at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s, private offices were replaced by large state owned design institutes, and so professors could no longer pursue independent design activities in addition to education, although not long ago the two were even more physically intertwined as they could operate their offices within the university departments. The other that may have attracted interest in the early 1950s is the emergence of the socialist realist style dictatorship, to which education also had to adapt. The importance of practical experience for design instructors was recognized from all directions, so a solution was soon found: as a working community of design departments in the faculty of architecture they were invited to apply for large-scale design competitions or they were contacted directly. The study lists the departmental works published in the journal Magyar Építőművészet recently and presents the current architectural tendencies through them, which also had a clear effect on the education at the Technical University. In the following topic we deal with the possibilities of the students, since in the education system of architecture, in addition to the acquisition of theoretical knowledge, the widest possible expansion of practical knowledge has been of great importance – both in the past and today. Students could also take part in certain departmental tasks, or in design competitions, working with a special permit, and all of them were obliged to participate in the summer practical construction camps from 1951 onwards. With the help of personal recalls, we also look at how satisfied the teachers and students were with their tasks outside the university – so the archival and literature sources are supplemented with personal points of view.
The design of supported embankments on soft soil is a common challenge for civil engineers. This article aims to evaluate the performance of three advanced constitutive models for predicting the behavior of soft soils, i.e., hardening soil, hardening soil model with small-strain stiffness, and soft soil creep. A case study of a rigid inclusion-supported embankment is used for this purpose. Plaxis 3D program was adopted to predict the settlements in subsoil layers and vertical stresses in the load transfer platform. Comparison between field measurements and result of Plaxis 3D modeling was performed. Results demonstrate that soft soil creep model yields predictions in a good agreement with the field measurements, while hardening soil small strain model gives slightly worst predictions.
Wind generation is regarded by many as the future of renewable energy source, but the difficulty of recycling end-of-life wind turbine components could create another kind of environmental pollution. Either landfill or incineration of end-of-life wind turbine components will cause environmental hazards. However, the current recycling technology is immature and economical. Make clean energy ‘cleaner’! The recycling of end-of-life wind turbine rotor hub and blades has become a new goal and task for architects and designers. This article uses a real project reconstructed by end-of-life wind turbine components to demonstrate the positive role of spatial narrative in achieving low-carbon and sustainable design.
The floodplains of the Tisza River, stretching across the eastern part of Hungary, are often affected by riverine and inland excess water flooding and draught. This paper investigates a possible solution to this problem utilizing the water retention capabilities of old floodplains. In this study, the effect of the position of the inlet structures of a floodplain, near Csongrád town, was examined with HEC-RAS 1D-2D coupled model. Based on the results, the rules of the deep floodplain selection were determined. On the extended model, the possibilities of a deep floodplain storage area chain have been explored. According to the estimate, more than 2.36 km3 potential storage capacity is available along the Hungarian section of the Tisza River.
In order to develop and enhance the quality of life in Tunisian urban spaces, the integration of street furniture became a new challenge for urban designers to use new methods and techniques to combine functionality and aesthetics into their design. The main objective of this paper is to focus on the analysis of the street furniture user’s needs in urban spaces to understand and discuss the requirements that should be considered while designing.