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Abstract

The first person singular indefinite or non-definite of Hungarian verbs that end in -ik shows variation between the regular -k suffix and the -m suffix, used otherwise in the definite. This variation is systematic and subject to metalinguistic awareness. Our study relies on previous quantitative work, a frequency dictionary compiled from the new Hungarian Webcorpus, as well as a forced-choice elicitation experiment to assess the role of word frequency, word length, derivational endings, and across-form similarity in shaping this variation. We find that first person singular indefinite variation is largely defined by natural categories: verbs that look similar will also show a similar preference to -k/-m. This pattern is attested in the webcorpus as well as in participant responses in the elicitation task.

Open access

The main feature of the extant Old Uyghur manuscripts is their fragmentary state of preservation and the predominant lack of dating. Catalogues and editions of the Old Uyghur fragments reveal a great diversity in the size and format of the discovered manuscript folios and the fragments from them. This study aims to promote the reconstruction of the scope of the Old Uyghur book forms from preserved fragments as an important part of the Old Uyghur manuscript culture. Which book forms were utilized, who participated in their production, and where? Studies on the papers and inks employed are obtainable. This study focuses on the Buddhist scrolls of the Säkiz Yükmäk Yaruk.

Open access

Abstract

This paper uses a corpus linguistic approach to investigate finite verbs co-occurring with infinitives. It aims to explore a range of similar verbs along a set of formal-distributional features based on Kálmán C. et al.'s (1989) study. We used hierarchical agglomerative clustering to analyze the data. The analysis identifies four clusters, two comprising verbs more auxiliary-like than the others. The results of this experiment are broadly similar to those of Kálmán C. et al. (1989); however, we also find remarkable differences. Most importantly, the so-called stress-avoiding verbs are likely to occur between the preverb and its associated infinitive, indicating that they are much closer to central auxiliaries than previously assumed.

Open access

In this article I intended to further explore Jürgen Frembgen’s supposition about the late presence of the spotted hyena in South Asia with the help of available textual sources. My aim was to determine what kind of animal is meant by the word tarakṣu, which is the common Sanskrit name for the hyena.

Open access

Abstract

Childhood nutrition is an important element of lifestyle research, since the regularity and nutritional content of our meals as children, and the way in which they are eaten, determine our physical and mental health throughout our lives. Prior to 2018, there was no basic interdisciplinary research on this topic in Hungary, thus to fill the gap, an interdisciplinary research group was established in 2018 at the Institute of Ethnography, which carried out nationwide research. The present study is based on fieldwork undertaken by the author in two schools — the János Lenkey Primary School in Eger (formerly Primary School No. 1) and the Tamás Bolyki Primary School in Ózd — as well as a large amount of information gleaned from questionnaires and interviews. My research was also extended in terms of a historical and geographical perspective: I studied archival sources and expanded the field of my investigations by including Salgótarján, a research location familiar from my earlier research, which provided a vantage point alongside Ózd and Eger, as a third city typical of Northern Hungary. Public catering for children has undergone significant changes in the last six to seven years, although prior to this it had appeared relatively uniform, in line with the ingredients available at the time. The obligation to provide public catering and the general obligation to work, which began in the Rákosi era and culminated in the Kádár era, significantly changed family eating habits. Traditional elements typical of a particular locality disappeared as the globalization efforts of socialism were accomplished. The ever-decreasing amount of time devoted to preparing, cooking, and consuming food moved society in the direction of canteens, fast-food restaurants, and later, after the regime change, global fast-food chains. Education on proper nutrition is not currently part of academic teacher training, thus for want of a better alternative, teachers organize children's school meals based on their own experience and socialization or following the school's regulations (where they exist), without having a unified concept. The number of meals eaten at home has been reduced to light breakfasts, lunches, and dinners, with families mostly sitting down together at the table for dinner, when they often consume ready meals. Lack of contact with foodstuffs and with the person preparing the food has a negative impact on children's psychological development. Relying on extensive basic research and participant observation, and through the joint efforts of specialists from several fields of the social sciences, a significant improvement could be achieved in both public catering and education on healthy nutrition.

Open access

Abstract

In Hungary, about half of the 3–18 age group has regularly used school food service. This paper focuses on the operation and social embeddedness of school canteens and the at-home eating habits of the families involved. My conclusions are based on the findings of my interdisciplinary research group. Ethnographers from the RCH Institute of Ethnology and dietitians from the National Institute of Pharmacy and Nutrition have been studying school food from 2018 to 2023. We selected a few model settlements: in addition to the capital, Budapest, three smaller towns, and two villages. Through questionnaires, interviews, and fieldwork observations, we investigated cooking, serving, meal courses, meal time, eating habits, preferences, as well as the nutritional knowledge of students, teachers, kitchen staff, and parents. Our goal, among other things, is to collect best practices and facilitate communication between participants. Some examples from our research highlight the special role of the centrally regulated school food in local food culture, and difficulties with social and historical roots can occasionally hamper school lunches in becoming a socially accepted model of a healthy diet. The school canteen works best at sites where cooking takes place within the school premises. There is a strong connection between the kitchen staff and the teachers, and they work together in the interest of the children. The value of food and its appreciation is demonstrated by how it is treated and how it is talked about. Communication about food in the canteen should be based on food preparation at home, where parents and children work together. The operation of canteens has become particularly problematic following the measures introduced during the coronavirus pandemic. A sustainable, enjoyable canteen can only be realized through the regular communication of schools and school kitchens, as well as children and their parents. Our findings are presented to our respondents, along with providing them with a comparison of different examples.

Open access

School Meals on the Menu

Studies on the Practices of Children's Catering

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author:
Anikó Báti
Open access

Abstract

This article traces references to nature and naturalism (understood as an attempt to ground and legitimize art in natural phenomena) in Ligeti's writings, but also in selected aspects of his oeuvre. The references to nature recur here in various manifestations, with romantic depictions of nature appearing alongside more recent, modernist approaches. The concept of nature is associated with the romantic setting for human emotions, with the discovery of scientific laws, with listening to soundscape, with phenomena of auditory perception and with the spectral explorations of sound. Although nature is not a central, strategic concept for Ligeti, it remains a constant, even if hidden, context for his work, a point of reference.

Open access

Abstract

Sándor Weöres's poetry was a life-long passion and source of inspiration for György Ligeti. This article explores the role Weöres played in Ligeti's early development as a composer by providing insight into the genesis of all of his 13 early settings of Weöres, including the unpublished choral works Hajnal [Dawn] and Tél [Winter], the incomplete song “Nagypapa leszállt a tóba” [Grandpa descended in the pond], and the unfinished oratorio “Istar pokoljárása” [Ishtar's Journey to Hell], and by making some analytical observations on them. Ligeti's early settings of Weöres were composed in three periods. The first stage in 1946–1947 was his compositional discovery of Weöres's poetry, which seems to have acted as a fuel and a challenge for him, triggering something of a musical self-liberation. His Weöres settings in 1949–1950 may be seen as a sign of solidarity with the poet effectively silenced by Communist state authorities, while in 1952–1955, Weöres texts seem to have served specifically as material for Ligeti's experimentation with static music and serialism.

Open access

Abstract

Children are a vulnerable group in terms of obesity: nearly 20% of Hungarian kindergarten and school-aged children are overweight or obese. School catering plays a decisive role in shaping children's nutritional behavior. To support the prevention of obesity and to increase the quality of children's diets, legislation passed in 2014 included provisions on school catering. This paper provides a qualitative content analysis of a roundtable discussion on the school catering system that took place at an interdisciplinary conference, with the aim of identifying the most important messages about school meals conveyed by the discussion. During the qualitative analysis of the roundtable discussion, seven main categories emerged: factors supporting the acceptance/implementation of public catering; factors hindering the acceptance/implementation of public catering; everyday problems in the implementation of public catering; the task of caterers and public catering; the transformation of public catering; cooperation among parties with an interest in public catering; and factors helping children to cooperate. The co-occurrence network of subcategories and values can be broken down into one large component and several separate, small components. Thus, it can be concluded that the majority of subthemes and values are grouped into a coherent system. The results point to the key role of school catering in healthy nutrition and nutrition education, and the importance of close cooperation among parties with an interest in school catering to promote the social acceptance of catering and the prevention of childhood obesity.

Open access

Abstract

The starting point for the present study is the thematization of the concept of “Jewish cultural heritage” and, in this context, the outlining of the role and position of cemeteries in Jewish tradition. The case study focuses on the Hungarian village of Apc, which was home to a Jewish community of just over a hundred people before World War II. After the Holocaust, only a few survivors returned to the settlement; some of them emigrated, while others remained in Apc for the rest of their lives. In recent decades, what has become of the cemetery, one of the most important sites for the former Jewish community of Apc? This paper explores the process of the heritagization of the local Jewish cemetery, one of the activities carried out by the Together for Apc Association, a civil society initiative launched two decades ago. In 2003, the dilapidated and abandoned “Israelite cemetery” was the first of the settlement's deteriorating assets to be declared as local cultural heritage. With the involvement of various actors from the local community (volunteers and local entrepreneurs), and in contact with Jewish organizations (the Federation of Hungarian Jewish Communities, the Foundation for Hungarian Jewish Cemeteries), the cemetery was restored over a period of two years and was “inaugurated” in 2006 in the presence of a rabbi, a cantor, a Jewish secular leader, Holocaust survivors and members of the local society. In the fifteen years since then, care has been taken to ensure that the achievements are sustainable and maintained, and the cemetery has been kept open not only for the descendants of the Jewish community but for all interested parties. But the salvaging of the Apc Jewish cemetery is not only an example of the preservation of the built heritage of a single community: while for the village residents it forms part of their local identity, for the Jewish organizations it represents part of their Jewish identity. What happens when two communities stake a claim to the heritagization of the same site? As a shared goal, or “cause,” the “bipolar” process of the heritagization of the Jewish cemetery in Apc has provided an opportunity for dialogue, collective thinking, and problem solving between Jewish and non-Jewish society, even if the various heritagization goals, coming from different directions, have in many cases generated tensions.

Open access

Abstract

Gastronomy and meals have always played a key role in shaping cultural characteristics, and it is for this very reason that cultural anthropology pays particular attention to these topics. In this paper, we present several analytical dimensions that can be applied to the analysis of food culture, partly from a cultural anthropological perspective and partly from a socio-semiotic perspective. Firstly, we review those aspects of gastro-semiotics that help us to organize foods according to various dichotomies and polarities. We discuss, on the one hand, those aspects that may indicate differences between cultures and subcultures, and on the other those that relate to temporal differences in food consumption and those that are rooted in material differences among foods. We then list the dimensions that, in the form of general status symbols, may also play a role in the analysis of food. In the present paper we also discuss our longitudinal study The Symbols of Hungarianness (1997 and 2021/22), conducted on a nationwide representative sample of 1,000 people, in which we asked about foods and drinks that are characteristic in terms of national identity and that are thus also suitable for presenting certain typical features of Hungarian cuisine.

Open access

Egy új megközelítés az árokkeretek szarmata temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepének vizsgálatához

New approach to the study of the role of encircling ditches in Sarmatian burial rites

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Balázs Wieszner

Absztrakt

A tanulmány a szarmata árokkereteknek a temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepének újfajta megközelítését célozza meg, amely elsősorban a bennük elhelyezett különböző típusú deponálások strukturális mintázatait figyelembe vevő térhasználati modellen alapszik. Az árokkeretekben viszonylagos gyakorisággal kerülnek elő különböző típusú áldozati jellegű edény- és állategyüttesek. A korábbi kutatások ezeket a leleteket csak másodlagosan említették a különböző interpretációkban és azokat az őskultusszal vagy a halotti lakomával hozták összefüggésbe. Pedig az árokkeretekben elhelyezett deponálások egy olyan kötött, szelektivitáson alapuló, ismétlődő viselkedési mintázatot mutatnak, ami az árokkeretek strukturális különbségeinek ellenére is egységesnek tekinthető. Emiatt az árokkeretek temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepét célszerűbb a bennük elhelyezett deponálások, illetve azok ismétlődő, standardizáló térhasználati mintázatai révén értelmezni. Az elemzés eredményeként az árokkereteknek a temetkezési rítusokban betöltött szerepében egy olyan egységes társadalmi logika mutatható ki, ami hozzájárulhat a szarmaták társadalmi szerveződésének felvázolásához és megértéséhez.

Open access

Abstract

The paper is dealing with 194 Aucissa brooches from 27 sites in the Roman province of Pannonia, based on the results and methodology of international archaeological and historical research. Aucissa fibulae, as costume items, are one of the leading artefacts of the early imperial period, initially used mainly by soldiers (sagum), and are therefore an important archaeological source for the Roman expansion, occupation and Romanisation. In Pannonia 98% of the Aucissa fibulae were recovered from settlements, mainly from the early layers of military forts and later towns. The material of the fibulae is bronze, there is only a single known item being silver-plated. The formal, technological and chronological analysis of the Aucissa fibulae in Pannonia is followed by a costume, historical and archaeological analysis. The Aucissa brooches in Pannonia can be dated from the beginning of the 1st century A.D. to the first decades of the 2nd century A.D. The earliest types (subtypes A242.1,2,3) are found in military forts along the Roman expansion trail. The Aucissa brooches come from the areas of the East–West military expansion route (the Drava-Save interfluve, Siscia, Sirmium, Gomolava), the North–South expansion route to the Danube (Amber Road, Salla, Savaria, Carnuntum) and the Danube limes (Brigetio, Matrica, Rittium). The smaller number of later types of fibulae (subtypes A242.4,5,6) found in the interior of the province of Pannonia (vici) indicates a process of Romanisation of the local population (Bátaszék, Csákberény, Mezőörs). The Aucissa brooches can also refer to cultural and trade relations with the Barbaricum (Púchov culture); they can indicate the movement of the Roman army (Devín, Mušov) and also the mobility of people (Veresegyház, Szeged). In some places Aucissa brooches later appeared in the clothing of civilians and women (Emona).

Open access

Abstract

Copper is one of the most important raw materials in the Carpathian Basin, and its extraction, processing and trade can be traced at least from the Bronze Age to the Middle Ages and beyond. Drawing on a variety of sources and research methods, the authors explore the patterns of distribution of this raw material in Europe. The aim of the diachronic analysis is to uncover the networks of connections – commercial, cultural, and migratory – that can be traced over the long term in the Central European region. It also draws attention to other, less stable links in the Carpathian Basin, which have also influenced the history of the region in certain periods.

Open access

Abstract

This paper covers the mould-blown scallop bowls from Late Roman Pannonia (Hungary), which merit a discussion because compared to other regions of the Roman Empire, scallop bowls have a relatively dense distribution in this province (Fig. 6). All the bowls described and discussed here were part of the grave goods recovered from burials, providing a good context for these vessels.

Open access

Abstract

Elephant ivory, a prestigious and valuable raw material in the post-Roman West and Byzantium between the 5th and 7th centuries AD, may originate from various sources. While both written and art historical evidence suggests that in the case of early medieval artefacts, African provenance is more likely than Asian, no data at hand is conclusive. The present paper investigates, with the help of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, carbon and nitrogen concentration and nitrogen isotope (δ15N) analyses, the material resources of elephant ivory artefacts discovered in 6th- and 7th-century AD archaeological context in the Carpathian Basin to contribute to our understanding of late antique long-distance trade networks and economic relations.

Open access

Abstract

The Gepid Period row cemetery at Tiszaug-Országúti bevágás was unearthed in 2018–2019. Grave 301 was one of the outstanding burials amongst the 194 graves unearthed thus far. It kept the remains of a 9–11-year old boy, who was laid to rest in a scale-down burial created according to the funerary customs of the area and era but dressed in a mortuary costume and provided with goods befitting adult men. He had a purse hanging from his belt, containing an iron knife, and some pieces of flint. A double-row antler comb was placed beside his head. A cast copper alloy belt buckle with a shield-shaped pin base and punch-mark decoration fastened his clothing on the front. While buckles of this type were widely used at that time, the closest analogies to the punch-mark decoration could be collected from the Carpathian Basin. Based on those, the burial could be dated to the mid or late 6th century AD. Another outstanding feature of the cemetery was the four burials (including Grave 301) where the deceased were laid to rest in coffins made from or imitating log boats.

Grave 301 also contained a rounded conical ivory object. The optical microscope and vibration spectroscopy analyses confirmed the initial hypotheses of the finders about the raw material of the artefact. Despite carrying out a comprehensive survey for analogies and an analysis of production and use-related marks, we could not determine what the object could have been used for; it may be a semi-finished product, but it could also be a toy or amulet. At any rate, it was made from a raw material which was extremely rare in the eastern part of the Carpathian Basin in the period in question. Grave 301 was positioned in a cluster comprising more child burials, with the graves of two adult women at the fringes; the ongoing archaeogenetical investigations may shed light on the connections between them.

Open access

Проблемы поэтики раннего Чехова в соотношении с газетным дискурсом

Список как формат текста

The Problems of Chekhov’s Early Poetics in Correlation with Newspaper Discourse: The List as a Text Format

Studia Slavica
Author:
Dominika Zoltán

В статье рассматриваются некоторые особенности поэтики ранних работ (1880–1885) А. П. Чехова в сопоставлении с современной ему газетой в качестве дискурса. В первой половине 1880-х годов завершается процесс, в результате которого ежедневная газета выдвигается как доминирующий орган в новой системе печати. Этим зарождается массовая коммуникации в России, необходимой частью которой являлась «малая пресса», то есть сфера юмористических журналов, тонких журна-лов и ежедневных газет, в которых Чехов начал публиковаться.

В статье суммируются выводы исследований, реконструирующих культурное пространство рос-сийских газет и журналов обозначенного периода. Вводимое в целях сравнения понятие «газетный дискурс» понимается в статье как новое, единое пространство, которое стремится к универсально-му моделированию мира производством текстов. Газетный дискурс как термин отделяется от по-нятий «малой прессы» и «журналистики». В конце первой части рассматривается также понятие дискурсивной практики и интердискурсивности как один из видов интертекстуальности по клас-сификации Н. Фэркло.

Во второй части суммируется типология, созданная А. Степановым для ранних текстов Чехова на основе смешения или смещения в них высказываний разных речевых жанров. В дальнейшем на основе типологии выделяются те юморески, в которых обыгрываются газетные речевые жан-ры. Для сравнения с практикой газет наиболее интересным из структурных типов ранних текстов является метонимическое рядоположение не имеющих общего референта высказываний одного или разных речевых жанров. И. Сухих считает, что в принципе метонимического упорядочения мелочишек (создание циклов, серий и списков) проявляется требование газет и журналов того времени. «Мысли читателей газет и журналов» и «Записка» интерпретируются как построенные по принципу списка юморески, высмеивающие общую практику газетного дискурса – стремление к универсальности.

В двух юморесках освещается элемент пародийного интердискурса: построение по принципу спи-ска. Этот структурный тип в общем плане в творческой эволюции Чехова ведет к более сложным, составным структурам типа «Жалобной книги». Часто используемый молодым Чеховым газетный жанр реклам и объявлений также может быть переосмыслен как составная структура типа серий или списка. Интердискурсивный элемент в творческой лаборатории Чехова трансформируется в художественный прием: метонимическая логика составления списка становится индексом состо-яния, духовности, атмосферы изображаемой действительности.

Open access

This study aims to answer the question whether the ancient Cēra kings sailed the seas and, if so, whether their technology was suitable for crossing the Indian Ocean, while it tries to summarize what we know about shipbuilding in ancient Southwest India. On the following pages, an attempt is made to introduce the most important passages of the Old Tamil Caṅkam literary sources in order to analyse their data in the light of Greek and Latin sources, and of Indian and Mediterranean inscriptions. It can be concluded that although inscriptions of Tamil traders can be found from Egypt to Thailand, and the Cēra kings built a maritime fleet for probably the first time in the history of ancient South India in order to punish their enemy, the kaṭampu tribe by sailing on the seas, their nautical contribution to the long-distance trade of the Arabian Sea as well as their engagement in coastal shipping can be classified as moderate and incidental in the antiquity.

Open access

Győr-Kálvária összevont lelőhely késő vaskori embertani leleteinek biológiai antropológiai vizsgálata

Biological anthropological analysis of human remains from a Late Iron Age burial of Győr-Kálvária merged site

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors:
Katalin Gyenesei
,
Krisztián Kiss
,
Tamás Szeniczey
,
Ferenc Ujvári
,
Krisztina Pesti
, and
Tamás Hajdu

Absztrakt

A tanulmány a Győr-Kálvária összevont lelőhelyen feltárt húsz csontvázas és két hamvasztásos késő vaskori kelta temetkezésből előkerült emberi maradványok klasszikus embertani és makroszkópos paleopatológiai eredményeit mutatja be.

Open access

Four Proto-Kartvelian words with initial *γw- are traditionally held to be borrowings from either Proto-Indo-European or Proto-Armenian. Based on recent progress in Indo-European and Kartvelian linguistics, this paper argues that all four proposed PIE loanwords in PK are untenable; two out of these cannot be Proto-Armenian loanwords either. The third one, the word for ‘wine’, could be a Proto-Armenian loan in PK, but it has formal problems and the alternative proposed here, a Proto-Zan loan in Proto-Armenian, provides a more regular solution. Combined with the last case (the word for ‘juniper’), which also receives a regular solution only as a Proto-Zan loan, we have two Proto-Zan loans in Proto-Armenian instead of PIE/Proto-Armenian loans in Proto-Kartvelian.

Open access

Abstract

The treatise De vino Tokaiensi (On Tokaj Wine) written by Sámuel Domby of Gálfalva (1729–1807), is a valuable source on Hungarian history of culture and science which has become widely accessible thanks to its facsimile edition. This medical doctoral dissertation published in 1758 in Utrecht presents a study of the medicinal effects of Tokaj wine, mirroring the norms of philosophical-scientific literature in eighteenth century Hungary. It is unequivocally an exceptional document of the intellectual heritage of the educated classes in the early modern age regarding growth habitat, viticulture and winemaking, with specific reference to Tokaj-Hegyalja, a wine region and cultural landscape of historic importance in Northeast Hungary. The present paper aims at identifying the perceptions detailed in the candidate's argument in pedological terms.

Open access

Abstract

A popular trend in 16th-century Hungarian Neo-Latin poetry was the transposition of biblical, especially Old Testament books and texts. Georg Purkircher (Georgius Purkircher) paraphrased the Book of Wisdom, Péter Laskai Csókás (Petrus C. Lascovius) the Song of Songs, János Bocatius (Johannes Bocatius) the Book of Sirach/Ecclesiasticus, and Leonhardus Mokoschinus (Leonhardus Mokoschinus) a part of the Old Testament books (from Genesis to II Kings) in Latin. Internationally, only Mokoschinus' paraphrase of the Old Testament is known to any extent. In the present paper I will attempt to outline the main similarities and differences between the paraphrases of the Old Testament in Germany and in Hungary by means of a detailed philological analysis of the domestic corpus of texts and by highlighting some related parallels in Germany.

Open access

Abstract

Originally a small market town in Northern Hungary, Sárospatak (Patak) deserves attention for more than just the role it played in a series of historical events that were to define the future of this country throughout the 17th–18th centuries. The cultural, educational and musical legacy of the period is also outstanding, and the functioning of the Patak College (Pataki Kollégium), which soon gained considerable prestige, played a key part in this. The aim of this paper is to present the musical aspects of this most valuable set of interconnected cultural assets.

Open access

Almád monostorának régészeti kutatása 2014–2022 között

Archaeological research in the monastery of Almád, 2014–2022

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Gergely Buzás

Absztrakt

A tanulmány a Monostorapáti község határában található középkori Almád monostor 2014–2022 között folytatott régészeti feltárását mutatja be. Az egyes évek ásatásainak ismertetése után a kutatás eredményei alapján rekonstruálja a monostor építéstörténetét, majd tárgyalja az apátság írott forrásokból ismert történetét, és ezt összeveti a feltárások eredményeivel.

Open access

Régi utakon Székelyföld Árpád-kori hegyi váraihoz

On old roads towards Árpád-era mountain castles of Székely Land

Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
István Botár

Absztrakt

Az elrejtett mentsváraknak tekintett székelyföldi középkori várak elhelyezkedése nem függetleníthető a környezetükben húzódó terepobjektumoktól (őskori vár, népvándorlás kori sáncok, mélyutak, kápolnák). Ezek együttes vizsgálata és más adatok arra utalnak, hogy a várak „folyamatosan” használt utak mellé épültek, így a Magyar Királyság 13. századi határvédelmi rendszerének elemei voltak.

Open access

Az Aberkios-felirat

Egy „szent szöveg” születése

Antik Tanulmányok
Author:
Tibor Grüll

Az Aberkios-felirat fontos szerepet játszik a korai kereszténység kutatásában, amit az 1883-as felfedezése óta róla született kommentárok sokasága is bizonyít. Ebben a tanulmányban egy új szövegkommentárra teszünk kísérletet, amelyben igyekszünk kimutatni, hogy az erősen szimbolikus szövegű felirat megfogalmazója a Biblia mellett elsősorban a Hermas Pásztora és a Sibylla-orákulumok szövegeit használta fel. Ugyanakkor arra is találunk bizonyítékokat, hogy az epitáfium szövege Phrygia különleges feliratkultúrájába is jól beleilleszkedik. Az eredeti Aberkios-epitáfium szolgált alapul a IV. századi Vita Aberciinek, amely a hierapolisi püspök sírjához egy csodás eredetmagyarázó legendát költött. Az életrajz „krisztocentrikus” verziója szerint a felirat szövege, amelyet az „apostolokkal egyenlő” phrygiai püspök maga fogalmazott, „Isten szelleme által lehelt” szöveg. A 2Tim 3:16-ból kölcsönzött kifejezés arra utal, hogy az eredeti Aberkios-feliratot a phrygiai keresztények „szent szövegként” tartották számon, mint ahogyan Aberkios sírját a minden bizonnyal egyre növekvő számú keresztény gyülekezet „szent helyének” tekintették.

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Die lieblichste der lieblichsten Gestalten

Egy motívum nyomában Kallimachostól Goethéig és tovább

Antik Tanulmányok
Author:
Zsolt Adorjáni

Ez a rövid írás néhány jellemző példával mutat rá a szerelmi költészet egyik motívumának (’erotikus kizárólagosság’) egyszerre ősi és folytonos mivoltára. A kiindulópont Goethe egy helye, innen vezet az út a görög és a latin költészethez, hogy a végén modern példákkal zárjuk ezt a rövid, ám annál kalandosabb áttekintést. A vizsgált motívum ilyenformán korokon és műfajokon átívelő örök emberi gondolatnak és kifejezési formának bizonyul.

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A tanulmány első része egy magángyűjteményben őrzött ismeretlen bizánci szentképet ír le, amelynek központi képe a keresztre feszítés jelenet (staurósis). A dolgozat második részében felvetett hipotézis szerint a keretet alkotó képsorozat két képe egyetlen jelenetet ábrázol, Jézus Krisztus mennybemenetelét (analépsis, ascensio). A keret két másik jelenete az ezüstlemez sérülései miatt azonosítatlan, további kutatást igényel.

Open access

Készíts amulettet, írd rá ezt a ráolvasást, majd akaszd a nyakába!

Ráolvasásokat hordozó agyaghengeres amulettek, az orvosi-mágikus világ eszközei

Antik Tanulmányok
Authors:
András Bácskay
and
Zoltán Niederreiter

Tanulmányunk a mezopotámiai orvosi-mágikus amulettek egyik sajátos csoportját, az agyaghengeres amuletteket vizsgálja. E tárgyak alakja a kőből készült pecséthengerekéhez hasonló, ám agyagból készültek, s a felületükön ráolvasások szövege olvasható, melyek sokszor az amulettek tulajdonosait is megnevezik. Munkánk célja a választott tárgytípus valamennyi darabjának összegyűjtése, azok osztályozása és elemzése a rajtuk szereplő feliratok alapján, továbbá azon rítusleírások tanulmányozása, amelyek ezeknek az amuletteknek az alkalmazását említik. Vizsgáljuk e tárgyak kutatástörténetét, régészeti kontextusát, valamint a tulajdonosaikat. A rajtuk szereplő ráolvasások egyéb, kőből készült amuletteken és pecséthengereken is megjelennek, amelyeket a munkánk végén található Appendixben gyűjtöttünk össze.

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Kléruchiák és határkövek

Az athéni külpolitika vallási aspektusai a Kr. e. V. században

Antik Tanulmányok
Author:
Gyula Lindner

Athén hódításaiból nemcsak az athéni polgárok, hanem maguk az istenek is profitáltak. A Kr. e. V. század során ugyanis Athén a meghódított, olykor kléruchiává szervezett területeken a konfiskált földekből az isteneknek is (Athéné, Apollón, Poseidón stb.) dedikált parcellákat. Erről számos esetben tanúskodnak az adott területen (Aigina, Chalkis, Samos, Kós) talált határkövek (horoi), amelyek jelzik, hogy a földterület az istenség szentélykörzetének a részét képezi, akár úgy is, mint mezőgazdasági művelés alá vont temenos. Ezeket a földbirtokokat gyakran bérbe adták, és a befolyt bérleti díjat az istenség kultuszhelyének a finanszírozására fordították. A tanulmány az athéni expanzív külpolitika ezen vallási aspektusait vizsgálja a rendelkezésre álló irodalmi és epigráfiai források tükrében.

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Mesebeszéd

Egy bizánci mesefüzér tanulságai

Antik Tanulmányok
Author:
Zoltán Farkas

A tanulmány A bölcs Syntipas példázataiból címen ismert, 62 meséből álló, nagyobb részben görög előzményekre visszavezethető szír mesegyűjtemény XI. század végi bizánci fordítását mutatja be. A görög meseirodalomban másutt nem adatolt meséket középpontba állítva vizsgálom a mesék fő- és mellékszereplőinek megszólalásait és a mesék végén álló tanulságokat (epimythia), melyek közül több – formájában és tartalmában – eltér a szír „eredetitől”, és gyakran nehezen hozható összefüggésbe a mesék erkölcsi tanításával. A Függelékben a bizánci mesegyűjtemény magyar fordítása található.

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A tanulmány Sókratés férfiasságának és nőiességének kérdéskörét járja körül, részben általában azon értelmezésekkel vitába szállva, amelyek a görög filozófiát alapvetően mizogünként fogják fel, részben azokkal, amelyek megkülönböztetik a (férfias) „elvek etikáját” és a (nőies) „gondoskodás etikáját”. E célból áttekinti a sókratési életmód, tanítások, illetve módszerek azon vonásait, amelyek férfiasságát (katonai hősiesség, bátorság, viszontagságtűrés), illetve nőiességét („sókratési evangélium”, bábáskodás, gondoskodás és szolgálat) tanúsítják, és amellett érvel, hogy Sókratés e férfias és nőies attitűdök harmonikus egységét valósítja meg, és így elkerüli a mindkét nem esetében ártalmas „türannikus apa”, illetve „felfaló anya” archetípusát. Sókratés filozófiája se nem férfias, se nem nőies, de nem is gendersemleges, hanem androgün. Sókratés androgün filozófiája fejeződik ki etikájában is, melyben az általa képviselt legfőbb elv épp a gondoskodás, ezért esetében nem érvényes a fenti szembeállítás.

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Abstract

Although a score of new studies have been published about the various aspects of the history of American–Hungarian relations in the past three decades, there are still a considerable number of uncovered chapters. The present article will introduce one of the American ministers who served in Hungary in the interwar years. Nicholas Roosevelt came from a well-known family that gave two presidents to the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, and the name helped him throughout his storied career. Since he had visited Hungary at the time of the establishment of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in March 1919, he had first-hand experience regarding his host country. His service as American minister (1930–1933) fell in the first years of the unfolding Great Depression, which defined the basic conditions for Hungary, as well for the United States and Europe. Nicholas Roosevelt was an avid writer, and he left behind a plethora of both private and official documents containing, among other things, his thoughts and opinions about Hungary and Hungarians. Building this as a primary source, along with a number of secondary sources, the article will bring closer the economically and politically shaky days of Hungary in the early 1930s through the eyes of the American minister posted in Budapest, thereby enriching our knowledge about the relations between the two countries.

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Abstract

Carolus Clusius (Charles de l’Écluse, 1526–1609), one of the most renowned naturalists of sixteenth-century Europe, was a versatile man of letters. One of his fields of interest neglected in scholarship is his attitude and activities around what was called fossilia at that time, and what can today be called non-living naturalia: metals, gems, various strange “stones”, fossils or medicinal earths. Such naturalia appear several times in his correspondence. This two-part study reviews how Clusius took part in the collecting, exchange and discussions about these inorganic objects in the European respublica litteraria. He could even be involved in geological or palaeontological issues of his age. The investigation not only throws light on the activities of Clusius and some of his correspondents, but also taps into the broader topic of communication and exchange in the Literary Republic of the time, and may even contribute to the history of the natural sciences in the period. Some of the non-living naturalia Clusius was interested in (like “Saint Ladislaus's coin” or the medicinal earth of Tokaj) could be found in Hungary and he looked for them by way of friends in that region (it is known that one of his most important patrons was the Hungarian aristocrat Boldizsár Batthyány). For reasons of space, the present study has been published in two parts: Sections 1–3 appeared in the previous issue, while Sections 4–7 are published in this one. A map to the entire study is included at the end of the present part.

Open access
Studia Slavica
Author:
Володимир Шилов

Вы когда-нибудь хотели праздновать Новый год дважды? Если да, то добро пожаловать в Закарпат-скую область Украины, где, помимо официального восточноевропейского времени (UTC+2), суще-ствует еще и неофициальное (центральноевропейское время, UTC+1), которое отстает от первого ровно на один час.

В течение ХХ в. Закарпатье было частью разных государств, но до середины 1940-х годов данный регион не знал никакого другого часового пояса, помимо центральноевропейского (или UTC+1). Это время считалось официальным и в Австро-Венгрии (до 1918 г.), и в Чехословацкой Республике (1919–1938/1939), и в Королевстве Венгрии (1939–1944). С приходом сюда Красной Армии в 1944 г. незамедлительно встал вопрос о переходе на московское время (UTC+3). Иными словами, было решено к существующему центральноевропейскому времени (UTC+1) прибавить лишних два часа. Конечно, это стало причиной недовольств среди местных жителей. Однако поскольку выражать протест в СССР было очень опасно, некоторые из них решили и дальше пользоваться временем, к которому они уже привыкли (UTC+1), но делать это тайком. Так, закарпатцы создали «свое соб-ственное», так называемое «местное» время (UTC+1). Им пользовались наряду с официальным на тот момент московским (UTC+3).

После распада Советского Союза и появления независимой Украины в 1991 г. официальный ча-совой пояс был изменен с московского (UTC+3) на киевский (UTC+2). Хотя во временную зону UTC+2 географически входит большая часть территории Закарпатья, некоторые люди не захотели отказываться от «местного» времени (UTC+1), которое существует в регионе и поныне.

Характерной особенностью «двойного восприятия» времени на Закарпатье является то, что это явление можно увидеть на уличных надписях (например, на графиках работы магазинов или распи-саниях автобусов). Сюда можно отнести различного рода уточнения времени (киевского или «мест-ного») в виде определенных фраз или их сокращений, использование двух часовых поясов на одной надписи и многое другое. Поэтому есть смысл исследовать временной вопрос Закарпатья в рамках анализа языкового ландшафта.

В этой статье показаны все возможные сценарии использования времени на уличных надписях в Закарпатской области на разных языках (украинском, русском, словацком и английском). Все представленные в работе материалы основаны на реальных фотографиях с улиц. Большая часть из них была сделана автором данной статьи во время рабочей поездки по восьми закарпатским горо-дам (Ужгород, Мукачево, Берегово, Хуст, Рахов, Тячев, Чоп и Иршава) в 2019–2021 гг.

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Abstract

Since the start of the new millennium, there has been a marked turn in nutrition-related ethnographic research in Hungary. Following the reconstruction of the historical and regional processes of change in Hungarian dietary traditions, professional attention has increasingly shifted towards the present day. In this study, I first summarize the most important aspects of contemporary gastronomy and the respective research opportunities, before exploring the question of the relationship between contemporary food culture and public catering for children. The conclusion reached is that public catering for children and the food on offer in school canteens cannot be discussed without an understanding of the changes taking place in contemporary food culture, which in turn cannot be understood without taking into account contemporary social and cultural developments. Until the slowly changing culture of public catering becomes more closely aligned with the rapid changes in eating at home and in restaurants, fewer and fewer children will make use of school canteens, and where they do, they will barely touch the food but prefer to go hungry.

Open access

Abstract

The introduction of school meals in the 20th century has its roots in several parallel but independent initiatives. The common source of these initiatives was the practice of philanthropy and charity, based on religious upbringing. Public catering for children was first institutionalized in Budapest by a charitable organization, the Children's Society (Gyermekbarátok Egyesülete), after which several denominational associations followed suit. In the early 20th century, the City of Budapest itself also took the initiative, setting up its first daycare centers where needy children were not only fed but also participated in educational and recreational activities. Resources for social welfare were eroded during the war, thus foreign aid organizations stepped in to help the children of Budapest immediately after the war, while childcare became the sole responsibility of the public authorities from the 1920s. From then on, the state covered the entire costs of providing meals, similar to the system of soup kitchens established specifically for supplying food to destitute adults.

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Abstract

The Hungarian writer Sándor Petőfi (1823–1849) achieved the union of the Hungarian people thanks to the verses of his National Song (Nemzeti dal), which have always been quoted and recited with great interest. Therefore, the following paper aims to analyse some problems with the poem's translation into Spanish and present a new version of this emblematic poem for the Hungarians.

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Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Restoring two altar-inscriptions from Poetovio

Fructus, Attianus, Ariomanus

Két poetovioi oltárfelirat kiegészítése
Archaeologiai Értesítő
Author:
Melinda Szabó

Abstract

The study includes two inscriptions from Poetovio both on altars, one dedicated to Mithras, the other to Isis, both erected for the wellbeing of a person. In addition to the findspot they have in common that both persons mentioned in them were employees of the publicum portorium Illyrici customs office. This insight is the basis for the new additions to the study, as for both inscriptions it was possible to reinterpret the previously known inscriptions based on the pattern used by customs post employees, which could be observed on other inscriptions. The new addition will allow the two inscriptions to be included in the research on the operation and staffing of the Illyricum customs district.

Open access

Abstract

Prescribed and supported by the state, public catering in Hungary fulfils a common social need; its aim is to meet the nutritional requirements of consumers in terms of both quantity and quality. Public catering is legally regulated and is also important from the perspective of health policy. As the smallest unit of common catering, family meals differ from public catering in several respects. One fundamental difference is that public catering rests on scientific foundations: it is planned, organized, and controlled by a qualified manager. This manager may be a trained dietitian or a catering manager, according to the National Qualifications Register. The training for these two roles is interlinked and goes back more than a century.

Open access

Abstract

The present study examines the Hungarian practice of public catering for children from an economic perspective, bearing in mind that the production and consumption of food is, at the same time, an economic activity. Taking this approach, we focus on which institutions contribute to or hinder efficiency, by which we mean the efforts of economic agents to generate maximum welfare from the available (meager) resources. For social reasons, the supply of public catering for children is a statutory obligation on the part of local authorities, where efficiency must be combined with social considerations. The study reviews the rationing mechanism of school meals catering as a public service, looking first at the main factors determining the level of demand for public catering for children, and then at the main factors that influence supply.

Open access

Abstract

The study examines the provision of school-holiday meals for children and shows how it is embedded in society. Proper nutrition is very important for children's physical and cognitive development. However, international research shows that children's social and cultural background has a significant impact on their nutrition. To reduce these disparities and ensure that all children have a healthy diet, effective government intervention is necessary. In Hungary, school canteens and free meals during school holidays for children in need serve this purpose. The latter service is of great importance for the children of families affected by food poverty. Yet, statistics show that some of these children are unable to use this service. This study examines the period before 2016 and highlights the social embeddedness of the service and its consequences on the provision. Whether child food poverty is perceived as a social issue and a common cause generating community intervention largely depends on the local actor's correct perception of the issue, the local appraisal of need, and the consideration of parents' “deservingness.” The study also makes some suggestions about areas where further interventions should focus to improve the nutrition of children affected by food poverty.

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