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Néhány potenciálisan mérgező fém frakcióinak meghatározására alkalmazott analitikai módszer értékelése eltérő fizikai talajféleségű mintákon

Evaluation of analytical methods for the determination of different potentially toxic metal fractions in soils with different physical properties

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Kovács Katalin, Horváth Márk, Halász Gábor, Takács Anita, Heltai György, Boros Norbert, Sipos Péter, and Győri Zoltán

Munkánk során potenciálisan toxikus fémek frakcióinak meghatározására alkalmazott analitikai módszereket kívántunk értékelni, azok talajféleségtől való függése alapján.

A talajféleségtől való függés mértéke döntően megszabja a módszer használhatóságát. Jelen dolgozat célja, hogy a Cu, a Zn, a Fe és a Ni környezeti mobilitása szempontjából értékelje a vizsgálatba vont egy- és többlépéses kioldásos módszereket.

Vizsgálatainkhoz a TIM adatbázisból származó négy, eltérő fizikai talajféleségű mintát választottunk (homok-, homokos vályog-, vályog- és agyag-talaj sorrendjében növekvő agyag- és humusztartalommal és pH-val).

Öt különböző kivonószerrel végzett egylépéses extrakciót és kétféle szekvens, azaz 3+1 lépéses egymás utáni extrakciós vizsgálatot végeztünk (BCR és McGrath módszerekkel).

Elvégeztük a minták Magyar Szabvány (MSZ 21470-50) szerinti, mikrohullámú kezeléssel egybekötött, H2O2+HNO3 eleggyel való roncsolását is. Az így megállapított elemtartalom környezetvédelmi szempontból teljes („összes”) elemtartalomnak tekinthető.

A mérési eredmények alapján megkíséreltük kiválasztani a vizsgálatba vont módszerek közül azokat, amelyek a talajból már biztonsággal meghatározható mennyiségű elemet vonnak ki, de a kivont mennyiség még nem a teljes elemtartalommal arányos.

A mikrohullámú feltárással kapott Zn-, Cu-, Fe- és Ni-tartalmak, a homok-, homokos vályog-, vályog- és agyag-talaj sorrendben, vagyis az agyag- és humusztartalmukkal, valamint pH-jukkal párhuzamosan nő. Egy olyan összetett rendszerben, mint a talaj, az egyes talajtulajdonságok, így az agyag- és humusztartalom, valamint a pH hatása vizsgálataink alapján nem különíthető el, de mint várható volt, a nagyobb agyag- és humusztartalmú és magasabb pH-jú talajok ezekből az elemekből többet halmoztak fel.

Mivel a kelátképzőket tartalmazó kivonószerek az összes réztartalomnak mintegy harmadát kivonták, a kivont mennyiség a réztartalommal volt arányos, vagyis a réztartalom növekedésével párhuzamosan nőtt.

Ezek a kivonószerek tehát Cu esetében kevésbé alkalmasak az egyes talajféleségek toxicitása közti különbségek kimutatására.

A rézzel ellentétben, a másik három elemnél az egyes talajféleségeknél kivont kis elemmennyiségek esetenként nagyságrendileg is különböztek, így az elméleti meggondolásunknak megfelelően feltételezhető, hogy az egyes talajféleségek toxicitása közti különbséget mutatják.

A két szekvens módszernél a vasnál kapott mérési eredményeket azok szórása miatt nem lehetett értékelni.

Megállapítható, hogy a BCR agresszívebb kivonószereket használ, mint a McGrath módszer, ennek megfelelően a BCR módszerrel a talajok átlagában az elemek 36, a McGrath módszerrel pedig csak 9%-át vontuk ki.

A BCR módszernél nincs vízszerű gyenge kivonószer, amiből a különböző talajok összes elemtartalmából felszabaduló ionok mennyiségére lehetne következtetni. Az ecetsav, a leggyengébb kivonószer, de a kicserélhető elemtartalom mellett kivonja a karbonátokhoz kötött, vagyis biztosan nem szabad ionos elemtartalmat is.

Mivel a BCR módszer minden kivonószerével sok elemet vonunk ki, nincs érdemi különbség az elemek egyes talajoknál mért kivonási százaléka között, ami figyelembe véve, hogy a talajok elemtartalma a homoktól az agyagtalajig nő, azt jelenti, hogy a kivont mennyiség az összes elemtartalommal arányos.

Lényegében ugyanezt mondhatjuk a McGrath módszer két agresszívebb kivonószeréről is, annak ellenére, hogy lényegesen kevesebb elemet vonnak ki. Ezzel szemben a módszer leírása szerint, a 0,1 mólos kalcium-kloridos kivonatból a vízoldható és kicserélhető elemtartalomra lehet következtetni, így minden bizonnyal a talajok toxicitását mutatja.

In this study, we aimed to evaluate some analytical methods used to determine the fractions of potentially toxic metals, based on their dependence on soil type.

The degree of dependence on soil type determines the applicability of the method. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the single- and multi-step extraction methods included in the study in terms of the environmental mobility of Cu, Zn, Fe and Ni.

For the studies, we selected four samples with different physical soil types from the Soil Information and Monitoring System database.

In order to establish trends, soil samples were selected so that their clay and humus content, i.e., their adsorption capacity as well as their pH increased in the order of sand, sandy loam, loam and clay soils.

One-step extractions with five different extractants and two sequential extraction analyses including 3+1 steps were performed (BCR and McGrath methods).

We also performed the digestion of the samples with H2O2 + HNO3 solvent combined with microwave treatment according to the Hungarian Standard (MSZ 21470-50). The element content determined in this way can be considered as the "total" element content from the environmental point of view.

Based on the results of the analyses, we tried to select from the methods included in the study those that already extract a safe amount of elements from the soil, but the extracted amount is not yet proportional to the total element content.

The Zn, Cu, Fe and Ni contents resulting from microwave digestion increased in the order of sand, sandy loam, loam and clay soils, i.e. in parallel with the clay and humus content and pH of the soils.

As the extractants containing chelating agents extracted about one-third of the total copper content, the amount extracted was proportional to the copper content, i.e. it increased in parallel with the increase in copper content. Thus, in the case of copper, these extractants are less suitable for detecting differences in the toxicity of different soil types.

In contrast to copper, in the case of the other three elements, the small amounts extracted from each soil type also differed in order of magnitude, so according to our theoretical consideration, it can be assumed that they show a difference between the toxicity of each soil type.

The results obtained with iron using the two sequential methods could not be evaluated due to their standard deviation.

It can be stated that BCR uses more aggressive extractants than the McGrath method, accordingly, the BCR method extracted 36%, whereas the McGrath method only 9% of the elements on average of the soils.

The BCR method does not have an aqueous weak extractant, which would indicate the amount of ions released from the total element content of the different soils. Acetic acid is the weakest extractant, but in addition to the exchangeable element content, it also extracts the ionic element content bound to carbonates, which is certainly not free.

Because a large amount of elements is extracted with each extractant in the BCR method, there is no significant difference in the percentage of elements extracted for each soil, which, given that soil element content increases from sand to clay soil, means that the extracted amount is proportional to total element content.

Basically, the same can be said for the two more aggressive extractants of the McGrath method, despite the fact that they extract significantly less amount of elements. In contrast, as described in the method, the water-soluble and exchangeable element content can be inferred from the 0.1 M calcium chloride extract, thus it certainly indicates soil toxicity.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is regarded as a potent stimulating factor for angiogenesis and vascular permeability and probably is connected with an inflammatory reaction. Our study aimed to determine the effect of VEGF in the inflammatory process in the oral mucosa of experimental animals in the modulation of atopic disease.

Materials and methods

Atopic condition was simulated by the ovalbumin model. Obtained specimens of oral mucosa were examined histologically; immunohistochemistry was performed with detection VEGF, CD23, CD20.

Results

Most pronounced changes with twice increased expression activity of VEGF has been detected in the affected areas of the lamina propria and were associated with perivascular inflammatory microinfiltration, but unexpected expression in the epithelial layer has been revealed surround of intraepithelial inflammatory cells mainly. Pronounced correlations have been detected as VEGF and CD23 (r = 0.91), VEGF and CD20 (r = 0.87), CD23 and CD20 (r = 0.89).

Discussion

described the changes in the tissues of the oral mucosa could be served as a basis for the development of preventive measures in patients with atopic diseases.discussion

Conclusions

Activation of VEGF is connected with accumulation of inflammatory infiltrate represented by B-lymphocytes, activated macrophages, eosinophils with a correlation in atopic process.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Several behaviors, besides consumption of psychoactive substances, produce short-term reward that may lead to persistent aberrant behavior despite adverse consequences. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions, such as pathological gambling, internet gaming disorder and internet addiction.

Case presentation

Here, we report two cases of behavioral addictions (BA), compulsive sexual behavior disorder for online porn use and internet gaming disorder. A 57-years-old male referred a loss of control over his online pornography use, started 15 years before, while a 21-years-old male university student reported an excessive online gaming activity undermining his academic productivity and social life. Both patients underwent a high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (l-DLPFC) in a multidisciplinary therapeutic setting. A decrease of addictive symptoms and an improvement of executive control were observed in both cases.

Discussion

Starting from these clinical observations, we provide a systematic review of the literature suggesting that BAs share similar neurobiological mechanisms to those underlying substance use disorders (SUD). Moreover, we discuss whether neurocircuit-based interventions, such as rTMS, might represent a potential effective treatment for BAs.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Several behaviors, besides consumption of psychoactive substances, produce short-term reward that may lead to persistent aberrant behavior despite adverse consequences. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions, such as pathological gambling, internet gaming disorder and internet addiction.

Case presentation

Here, we report two cases of behavioral addictions (BA), compulsive sexual behavior disorder for online porn use and internet gaming disorder. A 57-years-old male referred a loss of control over his online pornography use, started 15 years before, while a 21-years-old male university student reported an excessive online gaming activity undermining his academic productivity and social life. Both patients underwent a high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (l-DLPFC) in a multidisciplinary therapeutic setting. A decrease of addictive symptoms and an improvement of executive control were observed in both cases.

Discussion

Starting from these clinical observations, we provide a systematic review of the literature suggesting that BAs share similar neurobiological mechanisms to those underlying substance use disorders (SUD). Moreover, we discuss whether neurocircuit-based interventions, such as rTMS, might represent a potential effective treatment for BAs.

Open access

Szemészeti tünetek és szemészeti társbetegségek monoklonális gammopathiával járó kórképekben

Ophthalmic symptoms and ocular comorbidities in diseases with monoclonal protein production

Hematológia–Transzfuziológia
Authors: Nóra Szentmáry, Kitti Kormányos, Gábor Tóth, Gábor László Sándor, Orsolya Németh, Anita Csorba, Cecília Czakó, Klaudia Kovács, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, Gergely Varga, László Gopcsa, and Gábor Mikala

Összefoglaló. Célkitűzés: A monoklonális fehérjetermeléssel járó haematológiai kórképek szemészeti tüneteinek és szemészeti társbetegségeinek összefoglalása irodalmi adatok alapján. Módszer: A Pubmedben rendelkezésre álló adatok kigyűjtése, elemzése és összefoglalása. Eredmények: Immunglobulin-lerakódás a szem szövetei közül leggyakrabban a szaruhártyában figyelhető meg (paraproteinaemiás vagy immuntaktoid keratopathia). A monoklonális fehérjeszaporulattal járó plazmasejtes betegség gyakoribb szemészeti jelei pedig a paraproteinaemiás keratopathia mellett a kristályhordozó histiocytosis (CSH), a hypercupremiás keratopathia, a foveolaris drusen/maculopathia és az orbitalis plasmocytoma. A ritkább szemészeti jelek/tünetek közé az akut/krónikus uveitis, a Doyne retina dystrophia és az arteria vagy vena centralis retinae elzáródása tartoznak. Szemészeti mellékhatás szisztémás szteroidok és a belantamab mafotidin alkalmazásakor jelentkeznek. Következtetések: A monoklonális gammopathiával járó kórképek sokszínű szemészeti panaszokkal jelentkezhetnek a klinikai gyakorlatban, aminek felismerése a megfelelő kivizsgálás elindításával a szemész feladata. A betegek kezelése és gondozása során a haematológusok és szemészek együttműködése a számos ismert szemészeti tünet és társbetegség miatt elengedhetetlen. A megfelelő szemészeti kezeléssel a látóélesség és ezáltal a betegek életminősége jelentősen javítható.

Summary. Purpose: To summarize ocular symptoms and ocular comorbidities of monoclonal gammopathy, based on literature data. Methods: A comprehensive Pubmed search has been performed to summarize ocular symptoms and comorbidities before January 2021. Results: Immunglobulin deposition was most commonly observed in the corneal tissue (paraproteinaemic or immuntactoid keratopathy). Beside paraproteinaemic keratopathy, the most common ocular signs and ocular comorbidities of plasma cell disorders with monoclonal gammopathy are crystal-storage histiocytosis (CSH), hypercupremic keratopathy, foveolar drusen/maculopathy and orbital plasmocytoma. Less common ocular signs are acute/chronic uveitis, Doyne retinal dystrophy, central retinal artery or vein occlusion. Ophthalmic side effects are expected following the use of systemic steroids or belantamab mafotidin. Conclusions: Monoclonal gammopathy may present with diverse ocular symptoms in the clinical practice, which should be examined and treated through an ophthalmologist. Therefore, collaboration of haematologists and ophthalmologists is essential for these patients. With appropriate ophthalmic treatment, there is a significant improvement of best corrected visual acuity of these patients, with a significant impact on their quality of life.

Open access

Új molekuláris klasszifikációs rendszerek diffúz nagy B-sejtes limfómában

New molecular classification systems in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Hematológia–Transzfuziológia
Authors: Laura Kiss, Bence Bátai, Csaba Bödör, and Ákos Nagy

Összefoglaló. A diffúz nagy B-sejtes limfóma (DLBCL) a leggyakoribb non-Hodgkin-limfóma (NHL), az összes NHL-es eset mintegy 40%-a tartozik ide. A betegek kétharmada az első vonalbeli kemoimmunterápia hatására meggyógyul, azonban harmaduknál rendkívül agresszív DLBCL alakul ki. A rendelkezésre álló új terápiás lehetőségek ellenére a kemoimmunterápiára rosszul reagáló csoportban a terápiás siker egyelőre várat magára, aminek hátterében a betegség rendkívüli heterogenitása és ebből következően a klinikai vizsgálatokba történő nem megfelelő betegszelekció állhat. A jelenleg alkalmazott DLBCL besorolás a génexpresszió alapján meghatározott sejteredetnek megfelelően három csoportot különít el: a csíracentrum-eredetű (GCB), az aktivált B-sejt-eredetű (ABC) és a nem klasszifikálható DLBCL-es eseteket. Bár a GCB csoportba tartozó eseteknek jellemzően kedvezőbb a kórlefolyása, mint az ABC csoportba tartozóké, az egyes csoportokon belül továbbra is rendkívül sokszínű a várható kórlefolyás. A molekuláris diagnosztikai módszerek utóbbi évtizedekben látott fejlődésének köszönhetően olyan molekuláris eltérésekre derült fény, melyek egy új klasszifikációs rendszer alapköveiként szolgálhatnak. Az új, molekuláris genetikai klasszifikáción alapuló modellek célja olyan prognosztikus és prediktív biomarkerek azonosítása, amelyek elősegíthetik a betegek személyre szabott rizikóstratifikációját, valamint potenciális terápiás célpontként szolgálhatnak. Jelen összefoglaló közleményünkben a DLBCL-lel kapcsolatos legfrissebb molekuláris genetikai eredményeket tekintjük át.

Summary. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is considered to be the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, representing 40% of all cases. While almost two third of DLBCL patients can be cured using first line chemoimmunotherapy, the remaining patients develop refractory or relapsed disease with poor outcomes. Despite the wide range of therapeutic options, the success rate in patients poorly responding to chemoimmunotherapy has not met the expectations, potentially resulting from the molecular heterogeneity of the disease. The DLBCL classification used in current diagnostic routine distinguishes three groups based on cell of origin: germinal center B-cell-like, activated B-cell-like and unclassified cases. Even though the GCB subgroup generally has a favorable outcome, compared to the ABC group, there is still a remarkable heterogeneity in each group regarding individual prognosis. Owing to the advances of molecular diagnostic methods, the recently described molecular alterations may serve as cornerstones of a new classification system. Current research focuses on incorporating alterations harboring prognostic or predictive significance into molecular genetic classification systems moving one step closer to paradigm shift in lymphoma management: integrating personalized precision medicine into clinical practice. Hereby, we review the most recent genetic studies, and we provide an overview and comparison of the novel molecular-based DLBCL classification systems published in the past few years.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to regulate cancers by controlling the process of autophagy and by mediating the post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulation of autophagy-related genes. This study aimed to investigate the potential prognostic role of autophagy-associated lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.

Methods

LncRNA expression profiles and the corresponding clinical information of CRC patients were collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Based on the TCGA dataset, autophagy-related lncRNAs were identified by Pearson correlation test. Univariate Cox regression analysis and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis (LASSO) Cox regression model were performed to construct the prognostic gene signature. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to further clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms.

Results

We obtained 210 autophagy-related genes from the whole dataset and found 1187 lncRNAs that were correlated with the autophagy-related genes. Using Univariate and LASSO Cox regression analyses, eight lncRNAs were screened to establish an eight-lncRNA signature, based on which patients were divided into the low-risk and high-risk group. Patients’ overall survival was found to be significantly worse in the high-risk group compared to that in the low-risk group (log-rank p = 2.731E-06). ROC analysis showed that this signature had better prognostic accuracy than TNM stage, as indicated by the area under the curve. Furthermore, GSEA demonstrated that this signature was involved in many cancer-related pathways, including TGF-β, p53, mTOR and WNT signaling pathway.

Conclusions

Our study constructed a novel signature from eight autophagy-related lncRNAs to predict the overall survival of CRC, which could assistant clinicians in making individualized treatment.

Restricted access

Abstract

Eugenitin is a non-volatile chromone derivative which is always found in dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Merr.) & L.M. Perry. Until now, there were no reports about the pharmacokinetics of eugenitin in biological fluids. A UPLC-MS/MS method developed to determine eugenitin in mouse blood. The blood samples were prepared by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chrysin (internal standard, IS) and eugenitin were gradient eluted by mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (0.1% formic acid) in a BEH C18 column. The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of m/z 221.1→206.0 for eugenitin and m/z 255.1→152.9 for IS with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used for quantitative detection. The calibration curve ranged from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL (r > 0.995). The accuracy ranged from 98 to 113%, the precision was less than 12%, and the matrix effect was between 86 and 94%, the recovery was better than 81%. The developed method was successfully used for pharmacokinetics of eugenitin in mice after intravenous (5 mg/kg) and oral (20 mg/kg) administration, and the absolute availability of eugenitin was 12%.

Open access

Abstract

Metastatic human sarcomas temporarily respond to radio-chemotherapy relapse and remain highly resistant to further combination chemotherapy as to a curative effect, including checkpoint control.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Social-networks-use disorder is discussed as a potential further type of disorders due to addictive behaviors. Theoretical models assume cue-induced craving and disadvantageous decision making to be relevant mechanisms. This study investigates if the presentation of social-networks-related cues interferes with decision making under ambiguity.

Methods

Craving was induced with a cue-reactivity paradigm and assessed with a visual analogue scale. Participants (N = 146) played a modified Iowa Gambling Task with social-networks-related cues and neutral cues presented on the advantageous and disadvantageous decks respectively, or vice versa. Symptoms of social-networks-use disorder were measured with a modified version of the short Internet Addiction Test.

Results

Overall, participants chose options with neutral cues more often than those with social-networks-related cues, even if it was disadvantageous. There was a significant interaction between decision-making performance and Iowa Gambling Task condition in predicting symptom severity. The results indicate that choosing decks with social-networks-related cues even if it was disadvantageous is associated with higher tendencies towards a social-networks-use disorder. The interaction with cue-induced craving did not explain further variance.

Discussion and Conclusions

The results highlight the relevance of cue reactivity, decision making, and their interaction as potential mechanisms explaining tendencies towards a social-networks-use disorder. Decision making was influenced by affective responses, which could result in a higher risk of a potential addictive behavior. This is consistent with the findings from addiction research and with theoretical approaches assuming an imbalance between affective and cognitive processes in addictive behaviors.

Open access