In recent years, managers of both private and public organizations in developing countries have been struggling to double production and improve service delivery in their organizations. Successful organizations in the western world were, however, identified with the use of Information Technology (IT). The paper examined the magnitude of IT and its application in human resource management. Four organizations from private and public sectors were selected from all. Two organizations from each sector, members of staff, Human Resource (HR) professionals and managers of these organizations were targeted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the staff and unstructured interviews were designed to gather data from the HR practitioners and managers of these organizations. A statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data. In general, about 76.9% of the participants said that IT application in HR functions enhances organizational productivity. The selected organizations could boast of basic IT facilities, but their numerical strength still remains a challenge especially among organizations in the public sector. Organizations in both sectors must invest more in IT and its related accessories as a means of solving problem of inadequacy. Internet connectivity and company website were lacking in some organizations across both sectors and should be considered so as to improve upon the human resource functions and quality service delivery in the deprived regions of Ghana. Staff motivation, wage and salaries, strategic management and organizational leadership were mentioned as factors when put together with IT would augment productivity in any given economy.
Ketorolac (Ket) is a potent non-narcotic analgesic drug (among the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). The physiological activity of Ket resides with (S)-(−)-Ket while the drug is marketed and administered as a racemic mixture. Therefore, it is desirable that the pharmacokinetics is measured and quantified for enantiomers individually and not as a total drug. The present paper is focused on relevant literature on LC enantioseparation of (RS)-Ket along with bioassay, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies within the discipline of analytical chemistry. HPLC and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods using both direct and indirect approaches are discussed. The methods provide chirality recognition even in the absence of pure enantiomers. Besides, a brief discussion on resolution by crystallization and enzymatic methods is included. The most interesting aspects include establishment of structure and molecular asymmetry of diastereomeric derivatives using LC-MS, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and by drawing conformations in three dimensional views by using certain software. A brief discussion has also been provided on the recovery of native enantiomers by TLC.
Authors:Franciéli Adriane Molossi, Luan Cleber Henker, Bianca Santana De Cecco, Marcele Bettim Bandinelli, Rochana Rodrigues, Luciana Sonne, David Driemeier, and Saulo Petinatti Pavarini
An adult, mixed-breed, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV-) positive female cat was presented with mucosal jaundice and a history of anorexia and constipation for three days. Physical examination revealed splenomegaly, cachexia, and dehydration. Humane euthanasia was conducted, followed by postmortem examination. Grossly, the cat was icteric, and presented hepatomegaly with multifocal white spots and splenomegaly. Histologically, the bone marrow was nearly completely replaced by a proliferation of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts, and there was a proliferation of fibrous connective tissue. Similar neoplastic proliferation was observed infiltrating the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle, and lungs. Immunohistochemistry was performed for von Willebrand Factor (VWF), CD79α, CD3, feline immunodeficiency virus, FeLV, and CD61. Marked cytoplasmic labelling was observed in the neoplastic cells for FeLV, VWF and CD61, corroborating the diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia.
Вивчення українського мовознавства в Угорщині має давню історію. Увага дослідників зосереджу-валася насамперед на питаннях синхронної та діахронної діалектології, зокрема закарпатської, про-блемах українсько-угорських міжмовних контактів. Ім’я Ласлова Чопея в українській лексикографії відоме насамперед як укладача «Русько-мадярського словаря» (Будапешт, 1883).
У статті проаналізовано статтю «Magyar szók a rutén nyelvben» (Угорські слова в руській мові) та реєстр «Русько-мадярського словаря», подано етимологію слів, які з погляду їх первинного похо-дження були спірними, зіставлено різні оцінки словника мовознавцями з часу його появи до сього-дення.
Ласлов (Василь) Чопей (уг. Csopey / Csopei László) – угорський педагог, перекладач, мовознавець. В енциклопедії «Українська мова» написано: «Ласлов (Василь) Чопей – український мовознавець; писав мовою дуже близькою до закарпатського народного мовлення центральної частини краю». Ю. Шевельов доповнює: «Чопей Василь – педагог, упорядник підручників для народних шкіл Закар-паття (1881–1890)».
Угорський славіст Аттіла Голлош зі вступною статтею Іштвана Удварі підготував до видання уза-гальнювальну працю «Csopey László élete és művei» (Життя і праці Ласло Чопея). А. Голлош уклав бі-бліографію праць Л. Чопея, класифікувавши їх за такими галузями: літературознавство, етнографія, мовознавство, переклади, фахова література, підручники для русинських шкіл, природознавство, експедиції, виставки, поштова скринька, статистика, рецензії, лекції в Малій Академії, редакторська робота, листування. На прохання міністерства Л. Чопей уклав та переклав вісім підручників для народних шкіл.
З появою статті «Magyar szók a rutén nyelvben» (Угорські слова в руській мові), опублікованій у 1881 році, Ласло Чопей розпочав дослідження угорсько-слов’янських мовних зв’язків. Працю Чо-пея можна вважати першою у дослідженні угорських лексичних запозичень в українських говорах сучасної території Закарпаття. У своїй статті, написаній на науковому рівні свого часу, автор пе-рерахував відомі йому угорські лексичні елементи березької говірки, вказав на фонетичні зміни, які відбулися на українському мовному ґрунті, подав тематичну класифікацію, указавши, по суті, напрямки подальших досліджень.
Традиційно вважається, що українсько-угорська словникова справа бере свій початок від другої половини ХІХ ст. із появою «Русько-мадярського словаря» Ласлова Чопея. Словник високо оцінила Угорська королівська академія наук – автор отримав премію Фекешгазія. Словниковий реєстр нараховує 20 тисяч вокабул і відображає лексичний склад добре відомих укладачеві закарпатських східнослов’янських говорів.
Проживаючи далеко від україномовної території, у кінці ХІХ ст. наголошував на самостійності української мови, відстоював право на її розвиток і функціювання.
Вважаємо, що словник є цінною лексикографічною працею, а його автора можемо вважати осно-воположником українсько-угорської лексикографії. Доробок Л. Чопея і сьогодні може стати в при-годі лексикологам, діалектологам, історикам мови, а також дослідникам міжмовних та діалектних контактів, а його результати формують основу для нових наукових розробок.
The investigation of Ukrainian linguistics in Hungary has a long history. The researchers in this ﬁeld have focused mainly on issues of synchronic and diachronic dialectology, in particular Transcarpathian, as well as the problems of Ukrainian–Hungarian interlingual contacts. László Csopey’s name is ﬁrst known in Ukrainian lexicography as the compiler of the Ruthenian–Hungarian Dictionary (Budapest, 1883). We have analyzed the paper Hungarian words in the Ruthenian language and the register of the Ruthenian–Hungarian dictionary in order to present the etymology of words that are controversial in terms of their origin and aimed to compare various assessments of the dictionary by linguists from the time of its appearance to the present.
László Csopey was a Hungarian teacher, translator, and linguist. In the encyclopaedia of the Ukrainian language, he is described as follows: “László (Vasyl) Csopey – a Ukrainian linguist; he wrote in the language which is very close to the Transcarpathian folk language of the central part of the region”. Yurii Shevelyov adds: “Vasyl Csopey is a teacher, compiler of textbooks for public schools of Transcarpathia (1881–1890)”.
In 2004, the Hungarian Slavist Attila Hollós prepared for publication the generalized work László Csopey’s life and works with an introductory paper by István Udvari. At the request of the Ministry of Education, László Csopey compiled and translated eight textbooks for public schools. He began to investigate Hungarian–Slavic language contacts and published the paper Hungarian words in the Ruthenian language in 1881. The paper can be considered the ﬁrst in the ﬁeld of investigation of Hungarian lexical borrowings in the Ukrainian dialects on the territory of present-day Transcarpathia. In his paper, the author has listed all the Hungarian lexical elements of the Bereg dialect known to him, pointed out the phonetic changes that took place in the Ukrainian language, and gave a thematic classiﬁcation indicating, in fact, areas for further research.
It is traditionally believed that the Ukrainian–Hungarian dictionary publication dates back to the second half of the nineteenth century with the appearance of Ruthenian–Hungarian Dictionary by László Csopey. The dictionary was highly praised by the Hungarian Royal Academy of Sciences and the author received the Fekésházi Prize. The dictionary register has 20,000 entries and reﬂects the lexical composition of the Transcarpathian East Slavic dialects well-known to the compiler. Living far from the Ukrainian-speaking area in the late nineteenth century, László Csopey emphasized the independence of the Ukrainian language, defended the right to its development and functioning.
We believe that the analyzed dictionary is a valuable lexicographical work, and its author is considered the founder of Ukrainian–Hungarian lexicography. László Csopey’s work is still relevant up to now and it can be used by lexicologists, dialectologists, language historians as well as specialists in interlingual and interdialectical contacts, and its results form the basis for further research in these ﬁelds of linguistics.
Authors:Ruhi Kabakci, Abdulkadir Kaya, Ayse Arzu Yigit, and Omer Varisli
This study is the first to investigate the effects of tebuconazole (TEB) on the physiological functions of bovine testicular cells and epididymal spermatozoa. Motility and plasma membrane integrity of spermatozoa exposed to TEB (0.001–100 µM) were evaluated at different incubation times (0–6 h), while TEB-induced spermiotoxicity was assessed after 24 h in cell cultures. Testicular cells, obtained from the parenchyma of bovine testes, were seeded at 1.0 × 104 and 1.5 × 106 cells/well in 96- and 12-well culture plates and incubated for 48 h in culture media containing TEB (0.001–100 µM) to evaluate cytotoxicity and hormone release, respectively. TEB did not affect the motility and plasma membrane integrity. However, significant spermiotoxicity occurred at higher TEB (1–100 µM) concentrations (P < 0.05) compared to control and lower doses. Although no dose caused cytotoxicity in testicular cells (P > 0.05), 1 and 100 µM TEB caused a significant increase in testosterone secretion (P < 0.05). As a result, high doses of TEB (1–100 µM) had slightly suppressive effects on spermatozoa; however, these doses had stimulatory effects on testosterone secretion by testicular cells. It appears that the disruption of hormonal homeostasis of testicular cells after TEB exposure may result in metabolic and especially reproductive adverse effects in bulls.
Authors:Hamid Ali, András Gábora, Muhammad Ali Naeem, Gábor Kalácska, and Tamás Mankovits
Over the recent years metallic foams have become a popular material due to their unique characteristics like low density coupled with beneficial mechanical properties such as good energy absorption, heat resistance, flame resistance, etc. However, their production processes (foaming) is highly stochastic which results in an inhomogeneous foam structure. Hybrid aluminum foam with closed-cell has been manufactured using direct foaming method coupled with the Taguchi Design of Experiments (DOE). Image analysis has been carried out to determine the average porous area and pore size. The influence of the production parameters (amount of foaming agent added, mixing speed and temperature) on the pore size and the porous area has been analyzed using the statistical Taguchi technique. From the experiments it was seen that the most important control factor for both the pore size and the porous area is the amount of the foaming agent added, followed by temperature and stirring speed. Furthermore, the statistical significance of these manufacturing parameters on the response was also investigated by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method.
The sports betting market has been growing rapidly over the last years, as have reports of problematic gambling behavior associated with betting. Due to the well-documented gambling problems of famous athletes and the betting supportive nature of many sports-related environments, athletes have been highlighted as a potential group at-risk for problematic sports betting. However, there currently remains a lack of research on individual-level athlete-specific risk-factors or mechanisms that might contribute to the development and perpetuation of betting-related problems. Here, we examine the influence of two potential risk-factors on sports betting behavior and problems: erroneous beliefs and athletes' emotional involvement.
201 athletes with different levels of expertise completed a newly developed scale to assess both factors. Participants were sampled from the general German population, predominantly male (83.08%) and on average 29.52 (SD = 11.05) years old. We use principal components analysis to detect patterns of covariation, potentially due to the proposed underlying latent factors, and regression analyses to test associations of these factors with betting behavior and problems.
We find that athletes' emotional involvement was strongly associated with betting problems whereas erroneous beliefs were not. However, distorted cognitions/beliefs were associated with higher volumes and more frequent betting activities.
Discussion and Conclusions
This might contribute to betting problems in the long run. These results highlight athletes' emotional involvement and erroneous beliefs as potential targets for future intervention and prevention efforts.
Authors:Sarah E. Nelson, Timothy C. Edson, Eric R. Louderback, Matthew A. Tom, Alessandra Grossman, and Debi A. LaPlante
Background and aims
Online sports wagering is a popular and still growing gambling activity around the world. Like other types of gambling, it can lead to problems that include devastating financial, social, and health-related harms. The first analysis of actual online sports wagering activity (LaBrie et al., 2007) suggested that levels of financial and time involvement were more moderate than anticipated from earlier self-report studies. However, these findings are now more than a decade old.
The current study examined actual online sports wagering activity of a similar cohort of 32,262 gamblers who subscribed to a European online betting platform in February 2015 to understand how sports betting might have changed in ten years. Measures included subscriber characteristics, betting activities, and transactional activities.
Players placed a median of 15 bets during the 8-month study period, made a median of 2.5 bets per betting day, had a median bet size of 6.1 euros, and experienced a median net loss of 25 euros. We were able to distinguish highly involved bettors in the top 2% of total wagered, net loss, and number of bets, whose behavior differed from that of the rest of the sample.
Discussion and Conclusions
Sports wagering behavior has remained relatively stable over time despite legislative changes and an increase in popularity, with a small subset of subscribers exhibiting disproportionately high engagement, transactional activity, and in-game betting. Further investigation of individual trajectories of wagering behavior and engagement with different types of sports wagering products is merited.
In this study, microbiological quality of 93 ready-to-eat food products was determined by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria and members of Enterobacteriaceae. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in the products were also investigated. Aerobic colony counts were between 1.9 × 102–3.4 × 108 CFU g−1 for 84.9% and Enterobacteriaceae counts were between 2 × 102 and 6.7 × 106 CFU g−1 for 43% of the samples. S. aureus was detected in 7.5% of the samples, but L. monocytogenes was not detected in any sample. 72.9% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed resistance to at least one antibiotic tested, and 5 among the S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin G and 2 against methicillin. Four S. aureus isolates produced only Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and 1 isolate produced both Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B. Biofilm experiments revealed biofilm formation on polystyrene for 95.8%, 87.5%, and 91.6% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates at 4 °C, 22 °C, and 37 °C, respectively, whereas all S. aureus isolates formed biofilm at all temperatures.