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Abstract

Applying factor analysis on survey data, this paper develops a concise scale of translation service provision self-efficacy aimed for diagnosing learning needs and assessing progress in pedagogical translation company simulations. First, a model of translation service provision activities based on the translation service provision standard ISO 17100 and a business process model of translation service is constructed and operationalized as a draft scale. The draft scale is then tested in an international survey (n = 380) conducted in connection with translation company simulation courses in university-level translator education. Exploratory factor analysis is used to identify dimensions and adequate items for a concise scale that comprises two four-item subscales: a project management self-efficacy subscale and a translation-production self-efficacy subscale. The scale is validated through confirmatory factor analysis. It is expected to be useful as a light-weight measurement instrument for frequent testing or as a compact part of more extensive scales.

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Abstract

Current translation studies do not present a clear distinction between ‘translationese’ and ‘interlanguage’, giving rise to conceptual and terminology confusion. To disentangle these two concepts, we start with a relatively conservative working definition of translationese, then find it necessary to first differentiate between direct and inverse translations, according to whether the translator's L1 equals to TL or not. Taking Zhuangzi (a Daoist classic) as a case, we made both inter- and intra-speaker comparisons among Lin Yu-tang's inverse translation, James Legge's direct translation, and the two translators' creative works in English, with well-established language complexity metrics and quantitative methods. Results show that: (1) Inverse and direct translations are remarkably different in terms of complexity; (2) Inverse translation demonstrates both features of interlanguage and translationese, with the former mostly at lexical level and the latter at syntactic level; (3) Similar patterns are also discovered in Lin's other inverse translated works, suggesting our quantitative comparative method proposed may be reliable to some extent. Such results support our proposal that translationese and interlanguage should and can be differentiated for both theoretical and practical purposes.

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Abstract

The article explores the interaction among three key figures in the process of publication of a literary translation into a language of low diffusion: the translator, the editor and the language reviser (the latter specific to the Slovene situation). The aim of the research is to identify who has the strongest position of power in the decision-making process of the production of a literary translation, especially when conflict arises. Information was gathered from the three groups with questionnaires, interviews and an analysis of public statements. The questions focused on the selection of the translator and language reviser, the translation process, the revision process and conflict resolution. A cross-comparison of the results indicates that despite the automatic central position of the editors, they tend to yield their decision-making power to translators, while language revisers have a more subservient, consulting role.

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Alsó tagozatosok kortárskapcsolatai az offline és online térben+

Offline and Online Relationships among Primary School Children

Educatio
Authors: Borbála Károlyi and Anikó Fehérvári

Összefoglaló. Az okoseszközök, az internet használata egyre fiatalabb életkorban jelenik meg a gyermekek körében. Az online környezet sajátosságairól, a szocializációra, valamint más tényezőkre gyakorolt negatív hatásairól már számos kutatás számolt be, azonban a tanulók kortárskapcsolatainak alakulásáról eddig kevés elemzés született. E pilotkutatás felhívja a figyelmet az offline-online jelenlét, valamint a kortárskapcsolatok összefüggéseire, az azzal járó lehetséges veszélyekre, melyek most különös jelentőséggel bírnak, hiszen a digitális oktatás bevezetése óta még több gyermeket érint az online jelenlét.

Summary. Nowadays, smart devices and the internet among children appear at younger ages than they did a few years ago. The particularities of the online environment, the social, and other negative effects are the topics of several studies, but very few focused on these effects on students’ relationships. Our pilot-research highlights the connections between offline and online relationships and the potential dangers caused by the online presence of children at a young age, which is even relevant since the beginning of the digital online education caused by the pandemic when even more primary-school children joined the online platforms.

Open access

Abstract

The study demonstrates and evaluates an approach in the structural analysis phase when assessing reinforced concrete slabs.

Due to different values of a parameter in the tests’ results, 10 models was crated for the first case study and 4 models for the second one.

In order to compare the results in terms of the flexural bearing capacity, the slabs were analyzed by using elastic finite element analysis and yield-line analysis.

Comparing the results shows that minor modification in the parameters associated with bearing capacity and the boundary conditions can affect the adequacy factor considerably, while the parameters those relate to boundary conditions affect the distribution of the yield lines.

Open access

Az online oktatás fejlődése Észak-Amerikában

The Development of Online Education in North America

Educatio
Author: Dorottya Deák
Open access
Educatio
Authors: Áron Szilveszter, Réka Kassai, Zsófia K. Takács, and Judit Futó

Összefoglaló. A COVID–19-vírusjárvány miatt 2020 márciusától júniusáig bevezetett iskolai digitális munkarend az oktatási rendszer minden résztvevőjét számos új feladat elé állította. Feltételezzük, hogy különösen nagy kihívást jelenthetett a hátrányos helyzetű családok számára (Jakab 2020). Jelen tanulmányban egy kérdőíves kutatás eredményeit mutatjuk be, amelyben azt vizsgáltuk, hogy a szocioökonómiai státusz, a háztartási rendezettség, a családi rutin, valamint a gyermek tanulásba tett erőfeszítése közül mely tényezők jelzik előre az iskolai digitális munkarendben a tanulási sikerességet. A mintát középosztálybeli és hátrányos helyzetű, romatelepen élő, alsó tagozatos gyermeket nevelő felnőttek alkották. A hierarchikus lineáris regresszió eredményei azt mutatják, hogy a szocioökonómiai státusz önmagában nem szignifikáns prediktora a tanulási sikerességnek, azonban a tanulási erőfeszítés, a háztartási rendezettség és a családi rutin igen. A fenti eredmények – habár pusztán összefüggéseket és nem feltétlen kauzális kapcsolatokat mutatnak – alátámasztják, hogy hátrányos helyzetű gyermekek feltételezhetően sikeresen támogathatók a távoktatásban való eredményes részvételben egy, a fenti változókat célzó, intervencióval.

Summary. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the education system switched to digital distant learning education from March to June 2020. These changes posed a number of new challenges to students, teachers and parents alike. We assume that disadvantaged families were in an even more vulnerable position (Jakab 2020). Thus, we aimed to conduct a study to examine whether and how certain factors, including socioeconomic status, household chaos, family routine, and children’s learning effort affected learning success during this period of homeschooling. The sample consisted of high/middle-class and disadvantaged (living in a Roma settlements) caregivers of 1st–4th grader children. Our results indicate that socioeconomic status alone was not a significant predictor of learning success, however, learning effort, household chaos, and family routine were found to be important predictors. These results – although purely correlational – might suggest that a targeted intervention can be expected to effectively help disadvantaged children adapt to and succeed in a digital distant learning education setting.

Open access

Abstract

The examination of the human gait cycle can be useful for physiotherapists for identifying and/or predicting body motion disorders and it provides important data about the patient's condition in many ways. In this paper, the progress of a special TheraSuit physiotherapy treatment of a child, who has reduced mobility due to cerebral palsy, has been investigated. Generally, this type of disorder is classified into strict levels and the effectiveness of the therapy is expressed by changing between distinct levels. On the other hand paper describes a new markerless self-developed movement analysis system, which is able to show the effectiveness of the treatment with quantitative parameters. These parameters are determined by statistical methods.

Open access
Imaging
Authors: Bettina Katalin Budai, Veronica Frank, Sonaz Shariati, Bence Fejér, Ambrus Tóth, Vince Orbán, Viktor Bérczi, and Pál Novák Kaposi

Abstract

Artificial Intelligence and the use of radiomics analysis have been of great interest in the last decade in the field of imaging. CT texture analysis (CTTA) is a new and emerging field in radiomics, which seems promising in the assessment and diagnosis of both focal and diffuse liver lesions. The utilization of CTTA has only been receiving great attention recently, especially for response evaluation and prognostication of different oncological diagnoses. Radiomics, combined with machine learning techniques, offers a promising opportunity to accurately detect or differentiate between focal liver lesions based on their unique texture parameters. In this review article, we discuss the unique ability of radiomics in the diagnostics and prognostication of both focal and diffuse liver lesions. We also provide a brief review of radiogenomics and summarize its potential role of in the non-invasive diagnosis of malignant liver tumors.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

This article presents a mixed methods study of challenging psychedelic experiences or “bad trips”, with the aim of exploring the nature and characteristics of such experiences. While challenging psychedelic experiences have been studied in previous research, the article posits that the focus of this research has been overly narrow in terms of the characteristics and etiology of these experiences, and that it would be helpful to broaden our understanding of what a challenging psychedelic trip might be and how it affects users.

Methods

In the first study, respondents (N = 38) were recruited at various online fora for individual anonymous interviews via private messaging. The Cannabis and Psychedelics User Survey used for the second study was constructed on the basis of the knowledge obtained from interviews, and recruited 319 participants (median age 33; 81% male) from seven different online communities. Respondents were asked to characterize both a typical and their worst psychedelic experience, allowing for comparisons between the two and for regression analyses of associations between challenging experiences and other factors.

Results

Both in interviews and in the survey, respondents reported a broader range of characteristics for challenging psychedelic experiences than what has previously been recognized in the research literature. Despite the often dramatic narratives, they were convinced that the experience had positive long-term consequences.

Conclusions

The two studies found that challenging psychedelic experiences have a greater thematic range than what has previously been identified. Besides the near ubiquity of fear in these experiences, confusion was also identified as an important aspect. Meditation practice had paradoxical effects on challenging psychedelic experiences, appearing as a fruitful area for further research.

Open access