Authors:Sarah E. Nelson, Timothy C. Edson, Eric R. Louderback, Matthew A. Tom, Alessandra Grossman, and Debi A. LaPlante
Background and aims
Online sports wagering is a popular and still growing gambling activity around the world. Like other types of gambling, it can lead to problems that include devastating financial, social, and health-related harms. The first analysis of actual online sports wagering activity (LaBrie et al., 2007) suggested that levels of financial and time involvement were more moderate than anticipated from earlier self-report studies. However, these findings are now more than a decade old.
The current study examined actual online sports wagering activity of a similar cohort of 32,262 gamblers who subscribed to a European online betting platform in February 2015 to understand how sports betting might have changed in ten years. Measures included subscriber characteristics, betting activities, and transactional activities.
Players placed a median of 15 bets during the 8-month study period, made a median of 2.5 bets per betting day, had a median bet size of 6.1 euros, and experienced a median net loss of 25 euros. We were able to distinguish highly involved bettors in the top 2% of total wagered, net loss, and number of bets, whose behavior differed from that of the rest of the sample.
Discussion and Conclusions
Sports wagering behavior has remained relatively stable over time despite legislative changes and an increase in popularity, with a small subset of subscribers exhibiting disproportionately high engagement, transactional activity, and in-game betting. Further investigation of individual trajectories of wagering behavior and engagement with different types of sports wagering products is merited.
In this study, microbiological quality of 93 ready-to-eat food products was determined by enumeration of total aerobic bacteria and members of Enterobacteriaceae. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in the products were also investigated. Aerobic colony counts were between 1.9 × 102–3.4 × 108 CFU g−1 for 84.9% and Enterobacteriaceae counts were between 2 × 102 and 6.7 × 106 CFU g−1 for 43% of the samples. S. aureus was detected in 7.5% of the samples, but L. monocytogenes was not detected in any sample. 72.9% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed resistance to at least one antibiotic tested, and 5 among the S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin G and 2 against methicillin. Four S. aureus isolates produced only Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and 1 isolate produced both Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and B. Biofilm experiments revealed biofilm formation on polystyrene for 95.8%, 87.5%, and 91.6% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates at 4 °C, 22 °C, and 37 °C, respectively, whereas all S. aureus isolates formed biofilm at all temperatures.
Authors:Alexander Tomei, Joseph Studer, and Gerhard Gmel
Background and aims
Social determinants are closely related to addiction, both as a cause and a consequence of substance use and other addictive behaviors. The present paper examines prosocialness (i.e. the tendency to help, empathize, and care for others) among a population of young males. We compared prosocialness across different types of addiction and examined whether prosocialness varied according to the presence of multiple addictions.
A sample of 5,675 young males, aged 19–29 years old (Mean = 21.4; Median = 21), completed a questionnaire that included screening tools to identify addictive behaviors with regards to alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, gambling, and gaming. The questionnaire also included a scale to measure prosocialness.
Compared to a no-addiction control group, the subgroups of young men suffering from behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling and gaming) reported the lowest levels of prosocialness. Respondents with an alcohol addiction also showed lower prosocialness compared to no-addiction controls. By contrast, no significant differences in prosocialness were found between respondents with nicotine disorder or cannabis disorder and the no-addiction controls. Furthermore, the number of addictions had no clear, observable effects on prosocialness. Significant differences were found between the no-addiction control group and the groups reporting one or more addictions, but not between the separate groups reporting one, two, and three or more addictions.
Discussion and conclusions
A better understanding of the social dimension affecting young males with addiction, particularly gambling and gaming addictions, may be useful for their prevention and treatment.
A budapesti bérházépítés során a volumenközpontú szabályozástól a korszerű lakóháztervezési elvek felé történő elmozdulás folyamata felölelte a 20. század első harmadát. A tanulmány ezt az időszakot kívánja megvilágítani, az átmeneti időszak általános városépítészeti szemléletváltásainak, főbb jellemzőinek, és az ezek nyomán kialakuló beépítési mód változásainak a bemutatásával. A folyamatot a városépítészeti szempontból példaértékűnek tekintett Újlipótváros néhány tömbjének részletesebb elemzése illusztrálja, melyek kutatási alapját eredeti térképi anyagok és korabeli szakmai publikációk képezik.
In multi-storey rental housing in Budapest the first third of the 20th century was characterized by a transition from quantity-centered regulation to modern principles of residential house planning. The study seeks to shed light on this period by presenting attitude changes in general urban design in the transitional period, as well as their main characteristics and resulting development patterns. The process is illustrated by a more detailed analysis of some blocks in Újlipótváros considered exemplary from the point of view of urban planning, based on original maps and contemporary professional publications.
Authors:M. Fekete, V. Fazekas-Pongor, P. Balazs, S. Tarantini, G. Szollosi, J. Pako, A.N. Nemeth, and J.T. Varga
Pathological alterations in nutritional status may develop in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients through production of inflammatory cytokines and inadequate diet.
The aim of our study was to determine the correlation between nutritional status and quality of life of COPD patients.
We evaluated the nutritional status of COPD patients of Hungarian National Koranyi Institute for Pulmonology using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) between January 1 and June 1, 2019. Lung function, physical fitness, and respiratory muscle strength were included in the assessment.
Fifty patients (mean age was 66.3 ± 9.6 years) participated in our study. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 and mean fat-free mass index (FFMI) was 16.8 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Overweight patients had better lung function values (FEV1ref%: 46.3 ± 15.2) than normal (FEV1ref%: 45.1 ± 20.9) and underweight patients (FEV1ref%: 43.8 ± 16.0). The Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC) was significantly associated with various parameters; strongest correlation was found with FFMI (r = −0.537, P < 0.001), skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) (r = −0.530, P < 0.001), and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) (r = −0.481, P < 0.001).
Our results indicate that malnourished COPD patients may have reduced lung function and lower quality of life compared to normal weight patients. Thus, our findings suggest that nutritional therapy be included in the treatment of COPD patients combined with nutritional risk screening and BIA during the follow-up.
Fifty years ago P. Erdős and A. Rényi published their famous paper on the new law of large numbers. In this survey, we describe numerous results and achievements which are related with this paper or motivated by it during these years.
We introduce a new subgroup embedding property in a finite group called s∗-semipermutability. Suppose that G is a finite group and H is a subgroup of G. H is said to be s∗-semipermutable in G if there exists a subnormal subgroup K of G such that G = HK and H ∩ K is s-semipermutable in G. We fix in every non-cyclic Sylow subgroup P of G some subgroup D satisfying 1 < |D| < |P | and study the structure of G under the assumption that every subgroup H of P with |H | = |D| is s∗-semipermutable in G. Some recent results are generalized and unified.
Authors:Katsuyuki Tokinoya, Seiko Ono, Kai Aoki, Koki Yanazawa, Yasuhiro Shishikura, Takehito Sugasawa, and Kazuhiro Takekoshi
Exercise training is beneficial for reducing obesity. In particular, exercise training can lower the catecholamine concentration in circulation. Renalase, whose expression was first confirmed in the kidneys, is a physiologically active substance that decomposes circulating catecholamines; additionally, it has been reported to be present in the skeletal muscles. The aim of this study was to clarify the expression of renalase in the skeletal muscles and kidneys after high-intensity exercise training in obese mice.
Material and methods
The mice were divided into four groups: normal diet and sedentary, normal diet and exercise training, high-fat diet and sedentary, and high-fat diet and exercise training, and the test was performed for 8 weeks.
Body weight and skeletal muscle wet weight were reduced by high-fat diet intake but were rescued by training. Skeletal muscle renalase gene expression was significantly increased by exercise training. However, in the kidneys the gene expression of renalase was significantly increased by high-fat diet intake and exercise training. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of catecholamine-degrading enzymes, catechol-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase A and B.
We demonstrated that exercise training increased the gene expression of renalase in the skeletal muscles and kidneys, thus lowering circulating catecholamine levels. This may lead to amelioration of obesity as catecholamines are lipolytic.
Authors:Liviu-Constantin Holdon and Arsham Borumand Saeid
In this article, we study ideals in residuated lattice and present a characterization theorem for them. We investigate some related results between the obstinate ideals and other types of ideals of a residuated lattice, likeness Boolean, primary, prime, implicative, maximal and ʘ-prime ideals. Characterization theorems and extension property for obstinate ideal are stated and proved. For the class of ʘ-residuated lattices, by using the ʘ-prime ideals we propose a characterization, and prove that an ideal is an ʘ-prime ideal iff its quotient algebra is an ʘ-residuated lattice. Finally, by using ideals, the class of Noetherian (Artinian) residuated lattices is introduced and Cohen’s theorem is proved.