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Abstract

Aim

Limited investigations on metabolic responses to exercise training in female adolescent volleyball athletes exist. The aim of this study was to obtain serum and urine metabolite markers in female adolescent volleyball athletes within 2-week strength-endurance training using a metabolomics approach coupled with biochemical analysis, which would be potential biomarkers for evaluating the physiological state of athletes.

Methods

Twelve female adolescent volleyball athletes were recruited for 2-week strength-endurance training. Differential serum and urine metabolic profiles between the pre- and post-training group were obtained on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and data subsequently underwent orthogonal partial least-squares analysis (OPLS).

Results

Strength-endurance training exerted a significant influence on the athletes' serum and urine metabolic profiles. The changed metabolites were primarily involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism and amino acids metabolism. Results support the hypothesis that female athletes displayed an increased propensity to oxidize lipids as the major energy source. Exposure to strength-endurance training also led to a significant increase in cortisol, but a decrease in testosterone, indicating disordered hormone adjustment. Exercise-induced oxidative stress occurred, as was evidenced by the decrease in reduced glutathione, and increases in blood malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione. Since the muscle damage markers creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase did not show significant changes, the training might not cause cell membrane damage and the athletes did not cross the adaptive injury level.

Conclusion

By measurement of endogenous metabolites, the metabolomics study has the potential to reveal the global physiological changes in response to exercise training.

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Abstract

This article contributes a novel technique based on cascade classifiers for smoke detection by utilizing the image processing method. It has been a difficult issue for ten years or so due to its variety in shape, texture, and color. In this article, a machine learning methodology is represented to tackle this issue and simulated with MATLAB software. The smoke detection issue acted like a classification issue. The solution is demonstrated as a binary classification issue. Hence, the support vector machine (SVM) is represented for classification. In order to train and test the SVM classifier, both samples of positive and negative are gathered. Two SVM classifiers are utilized in the cascade. The first classifier distinguishes the presence of smoke if smoke presents in a provided input image; the second classifier is utilized to find the locale of smoke in a provided input image. The size of the window is set to 32 × 32 and slided across the whole image to identify the smoke in a zone of the window. The novel technique is a training dataset and utilizing linear kernel function. In this manner, the novel technique is tested with a test dataset. The first SVM classifier obtained 100% accuracy in training and 96% accuracy in testing. A training accuracy of 96% and a test accuracy of 93.6% were obtained by the second SVM classifier. This novel technique proved to be more proficient and cost-savvy than the traditional strategies.

Open access

Abstract

The paper deals with the internal syntactic structure of deverbal -nje nominals in Serbian. The tests from the licensing of event-related modifiers (by-phrases and instrumental DPs) support the hypothesis that -nje nominals are derived from passive participles by adding the suffix -je (; ). Building on , I further observe that the licensing of referential and non-referential event modifiers exhibits a complex set of correlations with the aspectual properties of the base, phonological faithfulness to the base, and semantic compositionality. Semantic opacity and phonological unfaithfulness do not always go hand in hand, and I treat them as two separate components of a process of lexicalization, which is syntactically constrained (). I argue that the presence of full VoiceP structure including a v 0 referring to an event diagnosed by the licensing of referential event modifiers () constitutes a phase, which blocks lexicalization. This structure is present in -nje nominals derived from secondary imperfectives, which always license referential event modifiers and exhibit semantic compositionality and phonological unfaithfulness. Smaller structures derived from perfectives or primary imperfectives do not license referential event modifiers (hence, they do not constitute a full phase), which is what makes them susceptible to lexicalization.

Free access

Abstract

In a higher education institution, perceptions and values are split due to the emergence of subcultures, and market orientation is split into competitive, customer (student) and interfunctional orientation. This study seeks to shed light on the concept of market orientation in this context through a comparison of perceptions and values of market orientation in subcultures in a higher education institution in Hungary and consider avenues for potential best practice. Through a mixed method approach, subcultures are identified and are found to exhibit a combination of overlapping and disparate market-oriented values and perceptions. Market orientation is found to be a continuum and affected by an array of latent variables, such as level of support (institutional and collegial), attitudes to performance appraisal and extent of external focus. Management must tailor the initial message of a market orientation strategy to the shared values at the organizational level, and then adjust the message and incentives to each subculture. In this way, management can create an atmosphere of cohesion, whilst addressing diversity in subcultures.

Open access

Summary

This article is concerned with shedding light on two examples of influence between Horace and the Greek poets, both ancient and modern. The aim of this paper is to shed light on several parallel aspects between two of the Alcaic odes of Horace and two modern Greek lyric poems by Constantine Cavafy and Angelos Sikelianos, respectively. Subsequently, I show, within the wider framework of inter-textuality, a subtle example of the utilization and re-utilization of lyric elements that are originally ancient Greek in nature by the Latin and modern Greek poets. In my argumentation, I will rely on textual similarities, as well as on the views expressed by scholars in non-comparative contexts The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, I compare Horace’s carm. 2. 3 with Cavafy’s Ithaka. The most important points of comparison in this section are three common features: instructive tone, the epicurean tendency and the melancholic end. In the second, I compare Horace’s carm. 1. 37 with Sikelianos’ Dithyramb. The most important points of comparison in this section are three common features, namely, the connection of the Bacchic ecstasy to political issues, the connection of the Dionysiac spirit to the struggle against the national enemy and the association of Bacchic frenzy with hunting and chase.

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Summary

Analysing Greek literary sources together with a selection of preserved ostraka, this article discusses the interrelationships between the prevention of hybris, the perceptions of tyranny, and the purposes of practising ostracism in fifth-century Athens. It will be proposed that the political decisions to organize ostrakophoriai were reactions to the threat posed by hybristic disposition of an individual – hence, ostracism played a role in detecting and punishing one’s motives and intentions. It will also be proposed that luxurious life-style was perceived by the Athenians both as a sign of Medism and of a hybristic disposition characteristic of a would-be-tyrant. Thus, profligate life-styles of political figures might have urged the Athenians to organise ostrakophoriai.

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Abstract

The objective of this research is to develop a dehusked coconut grading machine for coconut cultivators and entrepreneurs. The basis of design is characterized by a tapered belt conveyor and sizing board with openings of increasing aperture which run along the edge of the belt conveyor. Dehusked coconuts are fed onto the tapered belt conveyor where the gravitational force pushes the nut towards the edge until it comes in contact with sizing board. Due to the tangential force, the nut reels along the sizing board, where dehusked coconuts are graded and allowed to fall through aperture according to their sizes. Performance tests indicated that the inclination angle and velocity of the belt significantly affected contamination ratio, grading efficiency and capacity at 5% significance level. The most efficient configuration for fully husked coconut and semi husked was a belt speed of 1.3 m/s with the inclination angle of 15° and belt speed of 1.5 m/s with the inclination angle of 15° respectively. The machine is acceptable by coconut growers and entrepreneurs.

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Summary

Christianity spread out in Pannonia, too, and in the 3rd century there are proofs of its existence in the southern part of both Pannonias. Christianity became stronger in consequence of placing the officium praesidis of Valeria to Sopianae at the end of the 3rd century. The flourishing of ancient Christianity in Sopianae and in the surrounding villas was in the second half of the 4th century. The bronze casket mounts recently found in Bakonya support this historical reconstruction and offer new evidence for the presence of rich Christians in that era.

Open access

Abstract

Effect of coating with calcium nitrate in three concentrations (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) on chemical and mechanical properties, and impact behaviour of two apple cultivars (Golden Delicious (GD) and Red Delicious (RD)) during time (0, 2, and 4 months) was studied. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix, organoleptic properties, modulus of elasticity (E), yield stress, yield strain, and toughness were measured. The effect of impact loads was determined by measuring bruise volume (BV) and bruise susceptibility (BS). The results showed that pH and °Brix significantly increased, while titratable acidity, E, yield strain, toughness, and BV decreased during storage time. As Ca(NO3)2 concentration increased, titratable acidity, E, yield strain and yield stress increased and pH decreased (P < 0.05). Highest and lowest values for °Brix were observed in GD treated with 1.0% Ca(NO3)2 after four months (13.31) and GD treated with 0.5% Ca(NO3)2 at the first day (10.65), respectively. Maximum E was obtained in GD treated with 1.0% Ca(NO3)2 on the first day (2130 kPa) and this sample also showed the lowest BS after four months of storage (2.82 mL J−1), while the uncoated GD had the highest BS on the first day (7.11 mL J−1).

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