Authors:Thiago Henrique M. Vargas, Camila N. Barra, Lidia H. Pulz, Greice C. Huete, Karine G. Cadrobbi, Adriana Tomoko Nishiya, Silvia Regina Kleeb, José Guilherme Xavier, José Luiz Catão-Dias, and Ricardo F. Strefezzi
Mast cell tumour (MCT) is the most frequent skin neoplasm in dogs. These tumours are characterised by variable behaviour and clinical presentation that make prognosis an important and challenging task in the veterinary practice. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is known to influence several biological processes that are important in the cancer context and has been described as a prognostic marker for several human cancers. The aim of the present work was to characterise Gal-3 immunolabelling in canine cutaneous MCTs and to investigate its value as a prognostic marker for the disease. Thirty-four random cases of canine cutaneous MCT that were surgically treated with wide margins were included in this study. Gal-3 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the results were compared with the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, Ki67 index, histopathological grades, mortality due to the disease and post-surgical survival. The majority of the MCTs (65.8%) were positive for Gal-3. Gal-3 immunolabelling was variable among the samples (2.7%–86.8% of the neoplastic cells). The protein was located in the cytoplasm or in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Gal-3 positivity was correlated with BCL2 expression (P < 0.001; r = 0.604), but not with Ki67 and BAX. No significant differences were detected between histological grades or in the survival analysis. Gal-3 expression correlates with BCL2 expression in MCTs. Although an efficient marker for several human neoplasms, the results presented herein suggest that Gal-3 immunolabelling is not an independent prognostic indicator for this disease.
Cyclodextrins are widely used in various fields including food industry. In this review, their role in high carbohydrate-containing, starchy foods are reviewed and discussed. Both the effects as functional ingredients affecting the structural properties of starch and as active ingredients slowing down starch digestion and, as a consequence, decreasing the glycaemic index of starchy foods are overviewed without considering the traditional applications as carriers and stabilisers of aroma and flavour, essential oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other bioactive components to enrich foods, even if they are carbohydrate foods. The effect on starch metabolism is explained by the structural transformations caused by cyclodextrins on starch amylose and amylopectin. Several examples are shown how the technological and sensorial properties of bread, rice products, pasta, and other starchy foods are modified by cyclodextrin supplementation, and how the digestibility is changed resulting in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic effects.
A magyar nagyvárosok városházái – amelyek többsége a magyar historizmus legszebb építészeti emlékei közé tartozik – jól reprezentálják azt a robbanásszerű polgárosodást és modernizációt, amely az Osztrák– Magyar Monarchia (1867) létrejöttével bekövetkező változások velejárója volt.
Tanulmányunkban a korszak építészeti tendenciáinak megismeréséhez kívánunk egy új szempontot adni: a nagy városházák térszervezetét vizsgáljuk meg a közigazgatási struktúra történeti alakulásának fényében. Ezzel az elemzéssel egyúttal az adminisztráció és az építészet sajátos viszonyrendszerét is megvilágítjuk.
A vizsgálat alapját a dualizmus korának magyar építészeti szaksajtójában közölt hat törvényhatósági jogú város részletesebb pályázati dokumentációja adja, amely látványosan tükrözi a korszak városháza- építészeti tendenciáit. Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902–1903), Marosvásárhely (1905), Szabadka (1906), Pozsony (1907) és Kolozsvár (1910) városi székházainak tervpályázati anyagát dolgoztuk fel, aminek köszönhetően a városháza mint jelentős közigazgatási épülettípust elemeztük az építészeti funkció és a hely igény relációjában. Így – a legnagyobb városházák pályázatain keresztül – a kor városházáinak mint adminisztratív épületeknek – ismert építészeti reprezentativitása mellett – alaprajzi rendszerükben, helyiség struktúrájukban megfigyelhető speciális vonásait rajzolhatjuk fel.
The city halls of the Hungarian large cities – most of which are among the most beautiful architectural monuments of Hungarian historicism – well represent the explosive civilization and modernization that accompanied the changes that took place with the establishment of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy (1867).
In our study, we want to give a new perspective to get to know the architectural tendencies of the period: we examine the spatial organization of large city halls in the light of the historical development of the administrative structure. With this analysis, we also shed light on the specific system of relations between administration and architecture.
The study is based on the more detailed tender documentation of six cities with municipal rights published in the Hungarian architectural press of the age of dualism, which spectacularly reflects the city hall architectural tendencies of the period.
We wrote up the design competition material of the city headquarters of Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902– 1903), Târgu Mureş (1905), Subotica (1906), Bratislava (1907) and Cluj-Napoca (1910), thanks to which we analyzed the city hall as a significant administrative building type in relation to architectural function and space requirements. Thus, through the tenders of the largest city halls, we can draw the special features of the city halls of the age as administrative buildings, in addition to their well-known architectural representativeness, in their floor plan system and room structure.
Viruses can be found everywhere, they are part of the real life of humanity. Air travel is the youngest form of geographical movement, which has become an attainable reality for everyone at the expense of extraordinarily huge efforts and sacrifices. The two realities collided at the end of 2019 and then on 11 March 2020 via the declaration of COVID-19 to be a world pandemic changing the world as known. This paper introduces these two realities and researches their legal relations.
Primarily, this paper seeks answers to the question whether pursuant to the Montreal Convention (1999) regulating the liability of the air carrier for damages an event or occurrence deriving from the disease or state of health of the passenger taking place during the operations of embarkation or disembarkation or on board the aircraft is deemed to be an accident. What extent of liability does the state of health of the passenger impose on the contracting parties pursuant to the rules of the Convention and according to legal practice?
An answer is provided by unfolding the conceptual elements of accident via legal cases. This introduces the significance of the internal regulations of the air carrier; the situation of passengers in need of special care; examines the existence of medical certificates and deals with the responsibility of the crew for the treatment of acute situations deriving from the state of health of the passenger (heart attack, thrombosis, virus infection etc.)
The answer is logical. Pursuant to the Convention, the event or occurrence deriving from the state of health of the passenger does not qualify as accident, consequently, the air carrier shall not liable. However, if in the facts of the concrete case a cause and effect relationship exists between the occurrence of the accident and the negligent conduct of the air carrier, the liability of the air carrier for damages can be established.
The study introduces the system of conditions of the liability for damages in full detail, and the causal link producing an accident. The author makes recommendations for and outlines solutions in awareness that despite all real efforts, mankind has not learnt the lesson that the virus is in a winning position.
Spiny coriander (Eryngium foetidum L.) is a perennial medicinal herb grown in the tropical regions worldwide. In India, it is used as a potential spice for garnishing and flavoring the dishes and treating several ailments. Eryngium spp. found in coastal Odisha, India has a strong aroma similar to the seasonal Coriandrum. The volatile flavor constituents of the unique plants were analyzed through headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). The volatile compounds exhibited high chemodiversity, with 10-undecenal as the major component in leaves (44.98%) and branches (57.43%). Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy identified eight major peaks grouped into six main regions. Chemo profiles of these two corianders were overlapped and showed similar area differences in the spectral peak. The lesser-known perennial Eryngium with high chemodiversity would be a better alternative to the seasonal coriander for aromatic, pharmaceutical, and industrial uses.
Plague was a frequent visitor to early modern England, ravishing the whole country six times between 1563 and 1666. The plague problem was, however, definitely not just an English peculiarity. Plague, due to its recurrent and devastating outbreaks, was one of the central themes of late sixteenth-century medical scholarship and social policymaking. Plague was regulated mainly at the local levels, but most of the continental regulations and contemporary guidance seems to endorse two common features. They placed considerable emphasis on contagion and drew certain correlations between contacting plague and poverty on the one hand and meagre living conditions on the other hand. In some desperate attempts, the Elizabethan and Jacobean governments, set out to contain the spread of the disease, missing some marked features of these novel continental practices, issued various ill-suited regulations which dominated English plague control from 1578 to 1666. Despite these regulations' remarkably egalitarian overtone and seemingly charitable resolutions, this paper argues that the Elizabethan and Jacobean policies of plague control were destined to failure chiefly because of their elitist and inconsiderate measures, reducing them effectively to a harsh policy of confinement of the infected poor masses, taking almost no account of their health or well-being.
The paper aims to highlight the nature and the relevance of the reference to constitutional traditions in the building of populist constitutionalism, with special regard to the Hungarian case. In Hungary the goals and effects of this reference – especially the references to the achievements of the historical constitution – must be discussed at the level of the constitutional text and with regard to the formation of the new constitutional jurisprudence and, furthermore, to the creation of the constitutional identity. Outstanding political theories have been built about the elements of national populism and all include a political emphasis on a nation's pride in its culture, history and traditions. This paper examines the normative legal consequences of this in a state where the populist political forces have consecutively gained a majority in the Parliament which enables them to adopt and amend a constitution and decide on the personal make up of the constitutional court. It examines the role of the reference to constitutional traditions in the transformation of the constitutional system. The illustrative case studies from Hungary show one element of the alternative to mainstream liberal constitutional democracy: a constitutional perception of the sovereign people with a strong common constitutional heritage, this latter to be respected by all state organs and by domestic, European and international law. The paper offers an understanding of this constitutional concept and assembles disclaimers and serious legal concerns that must be taken into account, at least in Hungary, but probably in many other national populist regimes as well.
On 1 January 2018, a new act entered into force in Hungary. This act is the new code of private international law in Hungary. The basic purpose of this article is to present the jurisdictional rules of the new law. In the description I discuss how the new act differs from the rules of the old code. In addition, I focus on international and European trends in private international law. I also examine the extent to which the new Hungarian code complies with these trends, as well as discussing the peculiarities of the Hungarian regulation. The new Code uses the concept of jurisdiction as a rule for the ‘international distribution’ of cases and in the sense of public international law. Therefore, I also address in this article the definition of jurisdiction and other conceptual issues, the doctrines of immunity and the description of the jurisdictional system of the Code. I present the relationship between international, European and Hungarian rules which are relevant in private international law. In addition, I provide an overview of the novel system of jurisdictional rules in the Code.
Authors:Attila Dobos, István Fodor, Gerda Kiss, and Miklós Gyuranecz
Q fever is a disease of high zoonotic potential, but interest in its causative agent is rather low although it causes some public health problems in Hungary. The prevalence of Q fever is highly variable by country. The main reservoirs of the disease are the same domestic ruminant species everywhere, but the epidemiological profile depends on the features of the specific reservoir. The aim of this large-scale study was to demonstrate the importance of Q fever in different species as a possible source for human infection in most regions of Hungary. A total of 851 serum samples from 44 dairy farms, 16 sheep flocks, 4 goat farms and 3 zoos located in different parts of Hungary were tested. The presence of antibodies to Coxiella burnetii was surveyed in dairy cattle (n = 547), goats (n = 71), sheep (n = 200) and zoo animals (n = 33). The animal species tested in Hungary showed different seroprevalence values of C. burnetii infection. Seropositivity by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was found in 258 out of 547 (47.2%) cows and in 69 out of 271 (25.5%) small ruminants, among them in 47 out of 200 (23.5%) sheep and in 22 out of 71 (31.0%) goats. Antibodies to C. burnetii were not detected in zoo animals. Seropositivity was demonstrated in 44 out of 44 (100%) dairy cattle farms, with at least one serum sample found to be positive on each farm. The seropositivity rate of small ruminant farms was 55.0% (11 positive out of 20 tested), with 9 out of 16 (56.3%) sheep flocks and 2 out of 4 (50.0%) goat herds showing seropositivity.