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Der österreichische Dichter Ludwig Foglar lebte von 1845 bis 1850 in Pest-Buda. Er schrieb Gedichte und Kurzgeschichten in deutschsprachigen Organen von Pest, im Taschenbuch Iris, in der Zeitschrift Der Ungar und in der niveauvollen Zeitschrift der Zeit, Der Spiegel. Seine Themen sind Liebe, Gefühle, Natur. Die ungarische Revolution von 1848 begrüßte er enthusiastisch. Nach den blutigen Ereignissen des darauffolgenden Unabhängigkeitskrieges suchte er in der Natur Trost. Den Kontakt zu seinen Wiener Freunden verlor er auch in dieser Zeit nicht, wie seine Briefe an Ludwig August Frankl belegen. Das Werk von Ludwig Foglar in Pest ist ein Beispiel dafür, dass die Kommunikation zwischen Wiener und Pester auf Deutsch veröffentlichenden Schriftstellern in dieser Zeit recht lebhaft war.

Open access


Widespread introduction of HIV integrase inhibitors into clinical care may result in appearance of drug resistance mutations affecting treatment outcome. The aim of our study was to monitor the resistance patterns of integrase inhibitors beside protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors in newly diagnosed therapy-naive HIV-positive patients in Hungary between 2017 and 2019.

Genotype-based resistance testing of HIV integrase, protease and reverse transcriptase was performed by amplification and Sanger population sequencing from plasma samples. Drug resistance mutations were identified by the algorithm of Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database.

Potentially transmitted, non-polymorphic integrase major mutation was detected in 1 out of 249 samples, while accessory mutations were observed in further 31 patients (12.4%). The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations related to protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 5.8% (10/173) between the end of 2017 and 2019. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor associated resistance mutations were the most frequent indicators of TDR (6/173; 3.5%), followed by resistance mutations associated with protease (3/173; 1.7%) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2/173, 1.2%).

The first detection of integrase major mutation and the changing patterns of other resistance mutations in Hungarian untreated HIV-positive population indicate the necessity of continuous molecular surveillance of Hungarian HIV epidemic.

Open access
Authors: Máté Tolvaj, Márton Tokodi, Bálint Károly Lakatos, Alexandra Fábián, Adrienn Ujvári, Fjolla Zhubi Bakija, Zsuzsanna Ladányi, Zsófia Tarcza, Béla Merkely, and Attila Kovács


Background and Aim

Right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) assessed by 3D echocardiography is a powerful measure to detect RV dysfunction. However, its prognostic value in routine clinical practice has been scarcely explored. Accordingly, we aimed at investigating whether RVEF is associated with 2-year all-cause mortality in patients who underwent diverse cardiovascular procedures and to test whether RVEF can overcome conventional echocardiographic parameters in terms of outcome prediction.

Patients and Methods

One hundred and seventy-four patients were retrospectively identified who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography comprising 3D acquisitions. The patient population consisted of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients (44%), heart transplanted patients (16%), and severe valvular heart disease patients (39%). Beyond conventional echocardiographic measurements, RVEF was quantified by 3D echocardiography. The primary endpoint of our study was all-cause mortality at two years.


Twenty-four patients (14%) met the primary endpoint. Patients with adverse outcomes had significantly lower RVEF (alive vs. dead; 48±9 vs. 42±9%, p<0.01). However, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21±7 vs. 18±4mm), and RV systolic pressure (36±15 vs. 39±15mmHg) were similar. By Cox analysis, RVEF was found to be associated with adverse outcomes (HR [95% CI]: 0.945 [0.908 – 0.984], p<0.01). By receiver-operator characteristic analysis, RVEF exhibited the highest AUC value compared with the other RV functional measures (0.679; 95% CI: 0.566 – 0.791).


Conventional echocardiographic measurements may be inadequate to support a granular risk stratification in patients who underwent different cardiac procedures. RVEF may be a robust clinical parameter, which is significantly associated with adverse outcomes

Open access

During the last decade, a number of explicit results about the distributions of exponential functionals of Brownian motion with drift: At(μ)=0t ds exp {2(Bs+μs)}, have been obtained, often originating with the works of D. Dufresne.

In the present paper, we rely extensively on these results to show the existence of limiting measures asT, when the law of {Bt+μt,0_t_T} is perturbed by the Radon-Nikodym density consisting of either of the normalized functionals exp (αAT(μ)) or 1/(AT(μ))m. The results exhibit different regimes according to whether μ_0, or μ<0 in the first case, and to a partition of the (μ,m)-plane in the second case.

Although a large number of similar studies have been made for, say, one-dimensional diffusions, the present study, which focuses upon Brownian exponential functionals, appears to be new.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: Mohammed Hamed Alqarnı, Mohamad Ayman Salkini, Prawez Alam, Mazen Talal Alanazı, Maged Saad Abdel-Kader, and Samah M. El Sohafy


Plants secondary metabolites undergoes qualitative and quantitative variation due to environmental and growth factors. It is a crucial factor to select the proper time for collection of medicinal plants to assure maximum content of active components reflected as maximum efficacy. Olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) are known traditionally for their antidiabetic effect. The secoiridoid glycoside oleuropein is the main active component of Olive leaves responsible for the biological activity. The current study was conducted to monitor the seasonal variation of oleuropein in Olives leaves collected from the same location. To achieve this goal a validated HPLC method following the ICH guidelines was established. Separation was conducted using RP18 column and a mobile phase consisted of ultrapure water containing 20% acetonitrile and 1% acetic acid. Detection was performed at 254 nm with 1 mL/min flow rate. The method was simple, linear, accurate, precise, specific and robust. The analyses revealed considerable variations in the level of oleuropein throughout the year. This variation cannot be explained by temperature variation during the year. Two points of high levels of oleuropein were detected prior to flowering stage and ripening of the fruits. The levels of growth regulators most likely is responsible for the increased production of oleuropein. It is recommended that leaves intended for medicinal use to be collected during the fruiting stage prior to fruit ripening.

Open access


In this study, faecal samples of four American Staffordshire terrier dogs (used for illegal fighting) were analysed by DNA extraction, molecular-phylogenetic and parasitological methods, in order to examine the occurrence of protozoan, apicomplexan parasites. In one sample, the DNA of Sarcocystis morae was shown to be present. This species was identified based on 100% identity with already reported sequences of S. morae from cervids in Lithuania and Spain. The result was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The sporocysts of the canine S. morae isolate measured 14.95 × 9.75 μm on average. This is the first molecular evidence in support of the final host role of domestic dogs in the life cycle of S. morae. The most likely source of the infection was raw meat given to the examined dog to increase its physical achievement. In conclusion, under similar circumstances dogs may participate in the life cycle of S. morae in a ‘natural way’, shedding sporocysts/oocysts when used for hunting or taken to walks in forested areas.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Thiago Henrique M. Vargas, Camila N. Barra, Lidia H. Pulz, Greice C. Huete, Karine G. Cadrobbi, Adriana Tomoko Nishiya, Silvia Regina Kleeb, José Guilherme Xavier, José Luiz Catão-Dias, and Ricardo F. Strefezzi


Mast cell tumour (MCT) is the most frequent skin neoplasm in dogs. These tumours are characterised by variable behaviour and clinical presentation that make prognosis an important and challenging task in the veterinary practice. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is known to influence several biological processes that are important in the cancer context and has been described as a prognostic marker for several human cancers. The aim of the present work was to characterise Gal-3 immunolabelling in canine cutaneous MCTs and to investigate its value as a prognostic marker for the disease. Thirty-four random cases of canine cutaneous MCT that were surgically treated with wide margins were included in this study. Gal-3 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the results were compared with the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, Ki67 index, histopathological grades, mortality due to the disease and post-surgical survival. The majority of the MCTs (65.8%) were positive for Gal-3. Gal-3 immunolabelling was variable among the samples (2.7%–86.8% of the neoplastic cells). The protein was located in the cytoplasm or in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Gal-3 positivity was correlated with BCL2 expression (P < 0.001; r = 0.604), but not with Ki67 and BAX. No significant differences were detected between histological grades or in the survival analysis. Gal-3 expression correlates with BCL2 expression in MCTs. Although an efficient marker for several human neoplasms, the results presented herein suggest that Gal-3 immunolabelling is not an independent prognostic indicator for this disease.

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Cyclodextrins are widely used in various fields including food industry. In this review, their role in high carbohydrate-containing, starchy foods are reviewed and discussed. Both the effects as functional ingredients affecting the structural properties of starch and as active ingredients slowing down starch digestion and, as a consequence, decreasing the glycaemic index of starchy foods are overviewed without considering the traditional applications as carriers and stabilisers of aroma and flavour, essential oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other bioactive components to enrich foods, even if they are carbohydrate foods. The effect on starch metabolism is explained by the structural transformations caused by cyclodextrins on starch amylose and amylopectin. Several examples are shown how the technological and sensorial properties of bread, rice products, pasta, and other starchy foods are modified by cyclodextrin supplementation, and how the digestibility is changed resulting in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic effects.

Open access

Hat törvényhatósági jogú város székházépítési pályázata •

Hivatalszervezés és helyigény

Office Organization and Space Requirements on the Examples of the Headquarters of Cities with Municipal Rights

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Megyeri-Pálffi Zoltán and Marótzy Katalin

A magyar nagyvárosok városházái – amelyek többsége a magyar historizmus legszebb építészeti emlékei közé tartozik – jól reprezentálják azt a robbanásszerű polgárosodást és modernizációt, amely az Osztrák– Magyar Monarchia (1867) létrejöttével bekövetkező változások velejárója volt.

Tanulmányunkban a korszak építészeti tendenciáinak megismeréséhez kívánunk egy új szempontot adni: a nagy városházák térszervezetét vizsgáljuk meg a közigazgatási struktúra történeti alakulásának fényében. Ezzel az elemzéssel egyúttal az adminisztráció és az építészet sajátos viszonyrendszerét is megvilágítjuk.

A vizsgálat alapját a dualizmus korának magyar építészeti szaksajtójában közölt hat törvényhatósági jogú város részletesebb pályázati dokumentációja adja, amely látványosan tükrözi a korszak városháza- építészeti tendenciáit. Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902–1903), Marosvásárhely (1905), Szabadka (1906), Pozsony (1907) és Kolozsvár (1910) városi székházainak tervpályázati anyagát dolgoztuk fel, aminek köszönhetően a városháza mint jelentős közigazgatási épülettípust elemeztük az építészeti funkció és a hely igény relációjában. Így – a legnagyobb városházák pályázatain keresztül – a kor városházáinak mint adminisztratív épületeknek – ismert építészeti reprezentativitása mellett – alaprajzi rendszerükben, helyiség struktúrájukban megfigyelhető speciális vonásait rajzolhatjuk fel.

The city halls of the Hungarian large cities – most of which are among the most beautiful architectural monuments of Hungarian historicism – well represent the explosive civilization and modernization that accompanied the changes that took place with the establishment of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy (1867).

In our study, we want to give a new perspective to get to know the architectural tendencies of the period: we examine the spatial organization of large city halls in the light of the historical development of the administrative structure. With this analysis, we also shed light on the specific system of relations between administration and architecture.

The study is based on the more detailed tender documentation of six cities with municipal rights published in the Hungarian architectural press of the age of dualism, which spectacularly reflects the city hall architectural tendencies of the period.

We wrote up the design competition material of the city headquarters of Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902– 1903), Târgu Mureş (1905), Subotica (1906), Bratislava (1907) and Cluj-Napoca (1910), thanks to which we analyzed the city hall as a significant administrative building type in relation to architectural function and space requirements. Thus, through the tenders of the largest city halls, we can draw the special features of the city halls of the age as administrative buildings, in addition to their well-known architectural representativeness, in their floor plan system and room structure.

Open access