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О «ковидно-коронавирусных» процессах в русском языке 2020 года

An Overview of the Processes and Innovations in Russian Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020

Studia Slavica
Authors: Е. С. Громенко, А. С. Павлова, and М. Н. Приёмышева

В статье освещаются процессы в лексико-семантической системе русского языка, происходящие в период начала пандемии коронавирусной инфекции COVID-19 в 2020 году. Цель статьи – дать общую характеристику и первую оценку явлений и процессов, протекающих в период активного пополнения словарного состава новыми узуальными и окказиональными единицами.

В русском языке в марте–июне 2020 г. происходят очень интенсивные изменения: язык попол-нился огромным количеством новых слов и понятий, ряд слов и словосочетаний получили новые значения, некоторые из них расширили сферу функционирования – перешли из специальной ме-дицинской, социальной сферы в общее употребление. Русский язык оказался включен в процесс интенсивной языковой игры и языкового творчества. Ключевыми словами эпохи стали слова ковид, коронавирус и корона, так как они оказались не только словами-символами этого исторического периода, но и продуктивными основами для огромного количества узуальных и окказиональных новообразований.

Материалами статьи стала новая лексика СМИ и интернета, собранная авторами статьи – сотруд-никами группы академических «Словарей новых слов» – и сверенная с данными крупного медий-ного банка «Интегрум», включающего материалы более 30 000 наименований изданий массмедиа, записи теле- и радиопрограмм.

В процессе исследования был рассмотрен ряд новых слов и сочетаний, вошедших в русский язык в период распространения коронавирусной инфекции, случаи формирования новой полисемии у слов ковид, ковидный, корона и прилагательных, от них образованных, кратко проанализированы сложные слова с основами ковид- и корона-, в том числе новации, образованные путем контамина-ции, рассмотрены очевидные случаи системной связи между новыми словами (синонимия, антони-мия, омонимия).

Помимо широкого обзора нового языкового материала, попыток его анализа и некоторых науч-ных обобщений, одним из важных выводов статьи является системный характер целого ряда лекси-ческих изменений, ставших результатом интенсивного и стихийного процесса в русском словообра-зовании и лексико-семантической системе.

The paper deals with the lexical-semantic processes the Russian language has experienced during the first half of the year 2020 throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the paper is to give a general characterization and evaluation of the phenomena and processes occurring at the period of time during which the language vocabulary gets rapidly enriched with both usual neologisms and occasionalisms.

From March to June 2020, the Russian language has been subject to intense changes: a vast number of new words and notions have entered the language, a certain number of lexical units and collocations have acquired new meanings, and some of them have widened the scope of functioning: e.g. a transition of units that formerly used to belong to medical terminology or to the sphere of social life into the words of common use can be observed. The Russian language has joined the process of continuous language game and linguistic creativity. COVID, coronavirus, and corona have become the keywords of the current era as they have not only turned out to be the symbols of a certain historical period but also have served as productive stems for the formation of an enormous number of regular and occasional lexical innovations.

The data presented in the paper are based on the lexical innovations published in the mass media and the Internet sources. The new lexical units were collected by the authors, who are members of the group of academic “Dictionaries of neologisms”, and collated with the large-scale mass media database “ Integrum ”, which comprises the data bank of over 30,000 mass media editions as well as records of television and radio programs.

In the course of research, the following matters are examined: a number of new words and collocations which entered the language during the COVID-19 spread, the cases of forming new polysemy that the words covid, corona, and the adjectives derived from them have developed, a brief analysis of compounds with the first-component stems covid- and corona- (including the innovations that are formed by means of blending), and the investigation of obvious cases that manifest regular lexical relations (synonymy, antonymy, and homonymy) among the above-mentioned neologisms.

In addition to the broad review of the neological language data, its analysis, and some scientific generalizations, one of the most important conclusions the paper arrives at is the regular character of a variety of lexical changes which have been caused by an intense and spontaneous process observed in the Russian word formation and lexical-semantic system.

Open access

Данная работа рассматривает абсолютивную конструкцию переходных глаголов в русском языке в соотношении с антипассивом. Переходные глаголы определяются как глаголы, имеющие возмож-ность сочетаться с прямым объектом, т. е. обладают пациентной валентностью. Однако по разным причинам они могут не реализовывать пациентную валентность.

Поскольку безобъектное употребление глагола – это результат синтаксической невыразимости пациентного аргумента, логично подходить к нему как к результату сокращения валентностных потенций. С этой точки зрения можно предположить, что безобъектная конструкция переходных глаголов имеет определенные диатетические характеристики. Мы постулируем, что невербализа-ция пациентной валентности сигнализирует о переносе пациентного аргумента на семантическую, коммуникативную периферию, и, следовательно, о его синтаксическом понижении.

Выделяются три типа невербализации пациентного аргумента: контекстный эллипсис, семанти-ческая инкорпорация объекта в значение глагола и генерализованная презентация ситуации. Нас интересует прежде всего третий тип, и именно относительно этого типа традиционно применяется термин «абсолютивная конструкция». В отличие от первого и второго типов, в которых невыражен-ный объект восстанавливается через контекст или семантику глагола, в абсолютивной конструкции объект действия не может быть специфицирован, или это делается с трудом. Поэтому абсолютивная конструкция не является неполной конструкцией.

Aбсолютивное употребление переходных глаголов – это результат сокращения валентности ком-муникативно нерелевантного объекта, что порождает определенные семантические сдвиги; глагол обозначает не акциональное действие, направленное на какой-то объект, а нечто более стативное, постоянное свойство субъекта, что переносит глагол в иные семантические классы и обусловливает его употребление в определенных контекстах.

Абсолютивная конструкция и антипассив имеют общее функциональное сходство, а именно низ-кую дискурсивную выделенность объекта действия и генерализованную репрезентацию ситуации как постоянного свойства субъекта. В русском языке типичным показателем антипассива являет-ся возвратная частица -ся. Поэтому в случаях несущественности, очевидности, неопределенности объекта действия абсолютивная конструкция и антипассивный возвратный глагол могут функцио-нировать синонимично. Ср.: Горчичник сильно жжет Ø / сильно жжется. Следовательно, в данной статье абсолютивная конструкция сравнивается с антипассивными рефлексивными глаголами типа Собака кусается. В русском языке семантический круг антипассивных рефлексивных глаголов от-носительно узок, и это объясняется тем, что их функцию вполне могут заменить невозвратные гла-голы в абсолютивном употреблении.

Кроме того, остальные типы опущения пациентной валентности также имеют соотношение с возвратными глаголами других разрядов, но детальное обсуждение этого вопроса станет темой наших дальнейших исследований.

This work examines the absolute construction of transitive verbs in Russian in relation to the antipassive. Transitive verbs are defined as verbs that can be combined with a direct object, i.e. they exhibit patient valency. However, for various reasons, this patient valency is not always realized.

Since the objectless use of the verb is the result of the syntactic inexpressibility of the patient argument, it is logical to approach it as the result of valency-reducing derivation. From this point of view, it can be assumed that the objectless transitive construction has certain diathetic properties. We postulate that the non-verbalization of patient valency signals the transfer of the patient argument to the semantic, communicative periphery and, consequently, to its syntactic demotion.

Three types of non-verbalization of the patient argument are distinguished: context ellipsis, semantic incorporation of an object into the meaning of a verb, and generalized presentation of the situation. We are primarily interested in the third type, for which the term absolute construction is traditionally used. Unlike the first and second types, in which the unexpressed object is reconstructed through the context or semantics of the verb, in the absolute construction, the object of action cannot be specified, or it is diffi cult to do so. Therefore, an absolute construction is not an incomplete construction.

The absolute use of transitive verbs is the result of reducing the valency of a communicatively irrelevant object, which generates certain semantic shift s; a verb does not denote an action directed at a concrete object but instead denotes something more stative, a constant property of the subject, which transfers the verb to other semantic classes and determines its use in certain contexts.

The absolute construction and the antipassive function similarly in that both rely on the low discursive saliency of the object of action and the generalized representation of the situation as a constant property of the subject. In Russian, a typical indicator of an antipassive is the reflexive -ся. Therefore, when the object of action is insignificant, obvious or ambiguous, the absolute construction and the antipassive reflexive verb can function synonymously (e.g. Горчичник сильно жжет Ø / сильно жжется). Therefore, in this paper, the absolute construction is compared with antipassive reflexive verbs such as Собака кусается. In Russian, the semantic circle of antipassive reflexive verbs is relatively narrow, and this is due to the fact that their function may be replaced by irreflexive verbs in absolute use.

In addition, the remaining types of omission of patient valency also have a correlation with reflexive verbs of other categories but a detailed discussion of this issue will be reserved for future research.

Restricted access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Alessandra Lugo, Chiara Stival, Luca Paroni, Andrea Amerio, Giulia Carreras, Giuseppe Gorini, Luisa Mastrobattista, Adele Minutillo, Claudia Mortali, Anna Odone, Roberta Pacifici, Biagio Tinghino, and Silvano Gallus

Abstract

Background and aims

Few preliminary studies have shown an impact of COVID-19 confinement on gambling habits. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of lockdown restrictions on gambling behaviors in Italy.

Methods

Within the project Lost in Italy, a web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 6,003 Italians aged 18–74 years, enrolled during April 27–May 3 2020, and were asked to report gambling activity before the lockdown and at the time of interview.

Results

The prevalence of participants reporting any gambling decreased from 16.3% before lockdown to 9.7% during lockdown. Traditional gambling decreased from 9.9 to 2.4% and online gambling from 9.9 to 8.0%. Among gamblers, median time of gambling grew from 4.5 to 5.1 h/month. Among non-players before lockdown, 1.1% started playing. Among players before lockdown, 19.7% increased gambling activity. Multivariate analysis showed an increase in gambling activity in younger generations (p for trend = 0.001), current smokers (odds ratio, OR 1.48), users of electronic cigarettes (OR 1.63), heated tobacco products (OR 1.82), cannabis (OR 5.16), psychotropic drugs (OR 3.93), and subjects having hazardous alcohol drinking (OR 1.93). Self-reported low quality of life (OR 1.97), low sleep quantity (OR 2.00), depressive symptoms (OR 3.06) and anxiety symptoms (OR 2.93) were significantly related to an increase in total gambling activity during lockdown.

Discussion and conclusions

Although gambling substantially decreased during lockdown, time spent in gambling slightly increased. The strong relationship found between compromised mental health and addictive behaviors calls for urgent policies to prevent vulnerable populations from increasing and developing severe gambling addiction.

Open access

Abstract

A fast LC-APCI-MS/MS screening/confirmation method was developed and validated for trace analyses of 18 analytes which are explosives and organic gun shot residues including the challenging ones with diverse ionization conditions, in soil and on hands. (+) and (−) ionization modes were used after a single-step, low-volume solvent extraction procedure developed using methanol. Tape-lifting, stub, alcohol wipes, cotton bud were compared for collecting the residues from hands of a shooter. Tape-lifting and stub gave the highest recoveries and tape-lifting was chosen. Gradient elution system using ammonium chloride:methanol was developed. Whole procedure lasted approximately 30 min, was validated in both matrices, applied to real samples as post-blast residues, smokeless powder and the hands of a shooter, after shooting. Most of the recoveries were >80% and since all the precisions were <15%, quantitation was possible for all. Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) values were: 0.2–54.1 and 0.3–190.0 ngg−1 in soil, and 0.2–132.3 and 1.1–355.0 ngg−1 in tape-lift.

Open access
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: Ayla Aktulay, Y Engin-Ustun, O Kaymak, Ayse Seval Ozgu-Erdinc, Canan Demirtas, Mustafa Kara, Nuri Danisman, and Salim Erkaya

Abstract

Objective

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a gut-derived peptide has been reported to have insulin-like effects. Our aim is to examine GLP1 levels in hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG).

Materials-methods

The study population consisted of 2 groups: Group 1 (control subjects) consisted of 22 women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies in the first trimester. Group 2 consisted of 22 singleton pregnancies complicated by HEG. Glucose and GLP1 levels were determined. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay Kit for Glucagon like Peptide 1 (GLP1) was used (Uscn, Life Science Inc.).

Results

No significant differences in maternal age, gestational age and gravida were observed between hypermetric and control groups. Maternal serum GLP1 levels were significantly higher in HEG compared with control group (P = 0.004).

Conclusion

The results of our study revealed that the presence of increased GLP1 levels in women with HEG could contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Our results indicated that increased GLP1 levels may be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. The limitation of our study was the restricted number of patients. Large prospective and randomized studies are required to evaluate the effect of GLP1 levels on hyperemesis gravidarum.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aim

This study was carried out to investigate antiplasmodial activities of Diospyros mespiliformis (DM) and Mondia whitei (MW) in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

Materials and methods

Air-dried stem of DM and root of MW were soaked in methanol, decanted and concentrated to give extracts. Parts of these extracts were partitioned successively to give dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions. Mice (18 ± 3 g) were infected with Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes from a donor mouse and were treated with the extracts, while the drug control group received 10 mg/kg body weight of artesunate and the parasitized control received the vehicle (5% v/v DMSO). Percentage parasitemia and clearance were estimated from thin films of blood smear. Hematological parameters were determined using standard methods. Both extracts were also tested on in vitro inhibition of β-hematin formation.

Results, discussion and conclusion

Results showed that DM had the least percentage parasitemia (0.67%) and highest percentage parasite clearance (84.7%) while the MW had 0.89% percentage parasitemia and 79.7% clearance at the highest dose used after the seventh day relative to untreated control. The cell free antiplasmodial activity of the fractions and extracts of both DM and MW revealed that DM significantly inhibited β-hematin formation than MW. The packed cell volume, white blood cell count, Lymphocyte, Eosinophil, Monocyte and Neutrophil significantly increased in the treated groups compared with the control. The results showed that the DM had higher antiplasmodial activity.

Open access

Abstract

Amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and less known, canihua are the most important pseudocereals. Their high nutritional value is well recognized and they are increasingly used for the development of a wide range of starch-based foods, which has been fostered by intensified research data performed in recent years. In addition to health driven motivations, also environmental aspects like the ongoing climate change are an important stimulus to increase agricultural biodiversity again. As pseudocereals are botanically classified as dicotyledonous plants their chemical, physical and processing properties differ significantly from the monocotyledonous cereals. Most important factors that need to be addressed for processing is their smaller seed kernel size, their specific starch structure and granule architecture, their gluten-free protein, but also their dietary fibre and secondary plant metabolites composition. This review gives a condensed overview of the recent developments and gained knowledge with special attention to the technological and food processing aspects of these pseudocereals.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Josephine Savard, Tatja Hirvikoski, Katarina Görts Öberg, Cecilia Dhejne, Christoffer Rahm, and Jussi Jokinen

Abstract

Background and aims

Impulsivity is regarded as a risk factor for sexual crime reoffending, and a suggested core feature in Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder. The aim of this study was to explore clinical (e.g. neurodevelopmental disorders), behavioral and neurocognitive dimensions of impulsivity in disorders of problematic sexuality, and the possible correlation between sexual compulsivity and impulsivity.

Methods

Men with Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (n = 20), and Pedophilic Disorder (n = 55), enrolled in two separate drug trials in a specialized Swedish sexual medicine outpatient clinic, as well as healthy male controls (n = 57) were assessed with the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI) for sexual compulsivity, and with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and Connors’ Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II) for impulsivity. Psychiatric comorbidity information was extracted from interviews and patient case files.

Results

Approximately a quarter of the clinical groups had Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Autism Spectrum Disorder. Both clinical groups reported more compulsive sexuality (r = 0.73−0.75) and attentional impulsivity (r = 0.36−0.38) than controls (P < 0.05). Based on results on univariate correlation analysis, BIS attentional score, ADHD, and Commissions T-score from CPT-II were entered in a multiple linear regression model, which accounted for 15% of the variance in HBI score (P < 0.0001). BIS attentional score was the only independent positive predictor of HBI (P = 0.001).

Discussion

Self-rated attentional impulsivity is an important associated factor of compulsive sexuality, even after controlling for ADHD. Psychiatric comorbidity and compulsive sexuality are common in Pedophilic Disorder.

Conclusion

Neurodevelopmental disorders and attentional impulsivity – including suitable interventions – should be further investigated in both disorders.

Open access

Az alsó szemhéj pótlása tumoreltávolítás után

Replacement of the lower eyelid after tumor removal

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Zoltán Sohajda and Levente Juhász

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A tumoreltávolítás miatt végzett teljes alsószemhéj-pótlás összetett feladat lehet. A rekonstrukció célja a kielégítő funkcionális és kozmetikai eredmény elérése. Célkitűzés: A módosított Fricke-lebennyel végzett rekonstrukció tapasztalatainak bemutatása az alsó szemhéj teljes hiánya esetén. Módszer: 2010. január és 2020. december között 7 beteg esetében tumoreltávolítás után végeztünk alsószemhéj-rekonstrukciót módosított Fricke-lebennyel. A lebeny képzése a halántéktájon történt. A betegek átlagéletkora 72,8 év volt. A szövettani eredmény minden esetben basocellularis carcinoma volt. Az átlagos követési idő 1,9 év volt. Eredmények: Minden esetben jó funkcionális és esztétikai eredményt értünk el. Lebenynecrosist, sebelégtelenséget nem tapasztaltunk. A korai posztoperatív szakban átmeneti conjunctiva- és szemhéjoedema volt tapasztalható. 3 beteg esetében könnyezés, 1 beteg esetében érintő szőrök okozta szemszúródást észleltünk. Recidíva nem alakult ki a követési idő alatt. Következtetés: Tapasztalataink szerint a módosított Fricke-lebeny kiváló funkcionális és esztétikai eredményt ad a tumoreltávolítás utáni teljes alsószemhéj-rekonstrukcióban. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(29): 1180–1184.

Summary. Introduction: The full-thickness lower eyelid reconstruction after tumor removal can be a complex challenge. The aim of reconstruction is to reach an appropriate functional and cosmetic result. Objective: To present the retrospective analysis of the reconstruction’s experience with the use of Fricke’s flap in the case of full-thickness lower eyelid defect. Method: Between January 2010 and December 2020, in the case of 7 patient’s after tumor excision on lower eyelid, reconstruction was performed with a modified Fricke’s flap. The Fricke’s flap was fashioned in the temple region. The patients’ average age was 72.8 years. The histological result was basocellular carcinoma in every case. The average follow-up period was 1.9 years. Results: In all cases, good functional and cosmetic result was detected. There were not any flap necrosis and wound dehiscence. In the early postoperative period, temporary edema of the eyelid and conjunctiva was detected. Epiphora occurred in the case of 3 patients and we observed eye irritation caused by skin hair in the case of 1 patient. Tumor recurrence was not detected during the follow-up period. Conclusion: In our experience, the modified Fricke’s flap has excellent functional and aesthetic results in the reconstruction after tumor removal on the lower eyelid. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(29): 1180–1184.

Open access

A ritka kromoszóma-rendellenességek és a fetoplacentaris mozaikosság jelentősége a praenatalis diagnosztikában a nem invazív szűrővizsgálatok tükrében

The significance of rare chromosomal abnormalities and fetoplacental mosaicism in prenatal diagnosis in the non-invasive prenatal testing era

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Zsolt Tidrenczel, Erika P. Tardy, Ildikó Böjtös, Edina Sarkadi, Judit Simon, Henriett Pikó, Gábor Vermes, János Demeter, and Artúr Beke

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés és célkitűzés: A gyakori autoszomális trisomiák és a nemi kromoszómaeltérések a mikroszkóppal észlelhető kromoszóma-rendellenességek kb. 80–85%-át képviselik. A ritka kromoszóma-rendellenességek klinikai következménye jelentős, kimutatásukat a jelenlegi szűrővizsgálatok ugyan nem célozzák, de a teljes kromoszómaszerelvényt vizsgáló, nem invazív praenatalis tesztelés új lehetőséget nyitott a korai felismerésükre. Módszer: Retrospektív analízis (2014–2019) a mikroszkóppal kimutatható kromoszóma-rendellenességek eloszlására, a fetoplacentaris mozaikosság előfordulására, klinikai összefüggéseire a praenatalis vizsgálatok tükrében egy hazai tercier centrumban. Eredmények: 2504 invazív beavatkozást végeztünk és 200 kromoszómaeltérést mutattunk ki (8%), melyek közül újonnan kialakult, ritka rendellenesség 27 volt (13,5%). Ritka autoszomális trisomia 14, poliploidia 6, de novo szerkezeti kromoszómaeltérés 5, marker kromoszóma 2 esetben igazolódott. A fetoplacentaris mozaikosság aránya a gyakori/ritka kromoszómaeltérésekben 12,4%/77,8% volt (p = 0,001), 17/40 esetben lepényre korlátozódott. A gyakori trisomiákkal kóros tarkóredő-vastagság 58%-ban, major ultrahangeltérés 35%-ban társult, melyek jelentősen különböztek a ritka kromoszómaeltérésekben (11%, p = 0,006; 67%, p = 0,047). A ritka kromoszómaeltérések jellemző praenatalis major ultrahangeltérése a facialis dysmorphismus volt. A teljes kromoszómaszerelvényt vizsgáló praenatalis tesztelés a ritka kromoszómaeltérések 12 lepényi mozaikos esetében (44%) feltételezhetően álpozitív, 1 esetben (3,7%) álnegatív eredményt generált volna, miközben a ritka autoszomális trisomiák 2 esetében ultrahangeltérés nélkül is korán detektálta volna a ritka magzati kromoszómaeltérést (7,4%). Következtetés: A normális tarkóredő-vastagság esetén észlelt major ultrahangeltérések felhívhatják a figyelmet a döntően mozaikos ritka kromoszóma-rendellenességekre. A teljes kromoszómaszerelvényt vizsgáló, nem invazív szűrőteszt a korai diagnosztika alternatívája lehet, a mozaikosságból adódó álpozitív eredményekre azonban számítani kell. A fetoplacentaris mozaikosság ismerete fontos klinikai információt biztosít, mely befolyásolhatja a terhesség kimenetelét, a terhesség követésének módját. A pontos citogenetikai karakterizálás elengedhetetlen. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(29): 1156–1165.

Summary. Introduction and objective: To determine the prevalence of microscopically visible de novo atypical chromosomal aberrations and fetoplacental mosaicism in a prenatal tertial referral center, and to investigate the maternal and fetal characteristics in connection with genomewide non-invasive prenatal screening. Method: Retrospective cohort study from 2014 to 2019 of pregnancies with invasive genetic analysis. Results: In the cohort of 2504 cases, the proportion of CVS was 53.3%. We diagnosed 200 chromosomal aberrations (8%), including 13.5% of de novo rare chromosomal aberrations (14 rare autosomal trisomies, 6 polyploidies, 5 structural aberrations and 2 small supernumerary marker chromosomes). The rate of fetoplacental mosaicism was 12.4%/77.8% in common/atypical chromosomal aberrations (p = 0.001) and confined to placenta in 17/40 cases. Associated ultrasound abnormalities were abnormal nuchal translucency and major malformations in 58% and 35% with common trisomies and 11% (p = 0.006) and 67% (p = 0.047) with true mosaic cases of rare abnormalities, respectively. Major ultrasound malformation was facial dysmorphism with rare aberrations. Potential application of genomewide non-invasive prenatal test in atypical chromosomal aberrations presumably would have been false-positive in 12 cases (44%), false-negative in 1 case (3.7%), and would have early detected 2 cases of rare autosomal trisomies (7.4%) without ultrasound anomalies. Conclusion: Structural ultrasound malformations with normal nuchal translucency thickness may be indicative of rare chromosomal aberrations. Application of genomewide non-invasive prenatal test is an alternative of early diagnostic methods with a potential of discordant results due to mosaicism. Knowledge about the presence of fetoplacental mosaicism influences risk estimation and genetic counseling, detailed cytogenetic characterization is of utmost importance. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(29): 1156–1165.

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