Leptotrichia species are fastidious anaerobic, fusiform, pencil-shaped Gram-negative bacilli that reside in microbiota of humans. Leptotrichia species have increasingly been recognized as an opportunistic pathogen in humans, mainly in the immunocompromised patient. Anaerobic organisms have rarely been isolated from blood cultures of pediatric patients. In our study, we isolated Leptotrichia trevisanii from central venous catheter culture of a five-year-old male patient. It was identified with both matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and confirmed via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and play an important role preventing mortality and morbidity in children. In our study we report a rarely diagnosed case of L. trevisanii bacteremia in a pediatric patient.
Authors:Roland Zs. Szabó, Réka Szász, and Borbála Szedmák
Crowdfunding is a disruptive innovation and has provoked interest as a new way of raising finance. The objective of our research was to analyse both the demand and supply sides of the crowdfunding ecosystem. The study used two methods. The first was a database analysis of 259,114 Kickstarter campaigns. The second was a survey on public awareness of crowdfunding in Hungary, from the perspective of 132 potential investors. The findings suggest several success factors that may be useful for campaign launchers: (1) appealing project presentation; (2) diverse pool of rewards; (3) realistic set of funding goals; (4) appropriate categories and sums of pledges; and (5) frequent communication and satisfactory information about the campaign. Furthermore, the study revealed the differences between the potential investors' expectations and the reality of crowdfunding practices.
Authors:Xiangling Wang, Tingting Wang, Ricardo Muñoz Martín, and Yanfang Jia
This is a report on an empirical study on the usability for translation trainees of neural machine translation systems when post-editing (mtpe). Sixty Chinese translation trainees completed a questionnaire on their perceptions of mtpe's usability. Fifty of them later performed both a post-editing task and a regular translation task, designed to examine mtpe's usability by comparing their performance in terms of text processing speed, effort, and translation quality. Contrasting data collected by the questionnaire, keylogging, eyetracking and retrospective reports we found that, compared with regular, unaided translation, mtpe's usefulness in performance was remarkable: (1) it increased translation trainees' text processing speed and also improved their translation quality; (2) mtpe's ease of use in performance was partly proved in that it significantly reduced informants' effort as measured by (a) fixation duration and fixation counts; (b) total task time; and (c) the number of insertion keystrokes and total keystrokes. However, (3) translation trainees generally perceived mtpe to be useful to increase productivity, but they were skeptical about its use to improve quality. They were neutral towards the ease of use of mtpe.
Xiaolu Guo’s A Concise Chinese-English Dictionary for Lovers is a novel in which language has a special protagonism. The main character, Z, is a Chinese girl who goes to London to improve her basic English. Her idiolect is thus characterised by a great quantity of linguistic errors of different types. This lack of proficiency in English makes cross-cultural communication really difficult. Therefore, language becomes in this novel not only a characterisation tool, but also an essential aspect of the plot. Moreover, it is also a paramount source of humour, since there is plenty of jokes based, for instance, on puns, many of which derive from Z’s lack of linguistic competence. The main objective of this paper is to analyse language representation in the source text as well as in the Spanish, Italian and French versions of the novel from the perspective of relevance theory. Out of the three versions, the Spanish one reflects the highest interpretive resemblance in this regard, whereas the Italian one occupies the opposite pole of the scale. With regard to the translation of wordplay, the pragmatic scenario is normally maintained in the TT, although there are statistically significant differences between the three versions and across different types of puns.
Applying factor analysis on survey data, this paper develops a concise scale of translation service provision self-efficacy aimed for diagnosing learning needs and assessing progress in pedagogical translation company simulations. First, a model of translation service provision activities based on the translation service provision standard ISO 17100 and a business process model of translation service is constructed and operationalized as a draft scale. The draft scale is then tested in an international survey (n = 380) conducted in connection with translation company simulation courses in university-level translator education. Exploratory factor analysis is used to identify dimensions and adequate items for a concise scale that comprises two four-item subscales: a project management self-efficacy subscale and a translation-production self-efficacy subscale. The scale is validated through confirmatory factor analysis. It is expected to be useful as a light-weight measurement instrument for frequent testing or as a compact part of more extensive scales.
Current translation studies do not present a clear distinction between ‘translationese’ and ‘interlanguage’, giving rise to conceptual and terminology confusion. To disentangle these two concepts, we start with a relatively conservative working definition of translationese, then find it necessary to first differentiate between direct and inverse translations, according to whether the translator's L1 equals to TL or not. Taking Zhuangzi (a Daoist classic) as a case, we made both inter- and intra-speaker comparisons among Lin Yu-tang's inverse translation, James Legge's direct translation, and the two translators' creative works in English, with well-established language complexity metrics and quantitative methods. Results show that: (1) Inverse and direct translations are remarkably different in terms of complexity; (2) Inverse translation demonstrates both features of interlanguage and translationese, with the former mostly at lexical level and the latter at syntactic level; (3) Similar patterns are also discovered in Lin's other inverse translated works, suggesting our quantitative comparative method proposed may be reliable to some extent. Such results support our proposal that translationese and interlanguage should and can be differentiated for both theoretical and practical purposes.