Suppletive allomorphs may be conditioned based on their phonological environment. When the allomorphy distribution is phonologically natural, this has motivated theoretical models supporting phonologically-optimizing suppletive allomorphy (POSA), whereby the phonological grammar selects the suppletive allomorph whose output is least marked. This paper re-examines four cases argued to support POSA in Irish, Tiene, Katu, and Konni, and for each provides counter-arguments against this position. In contrast to POSA, I assert that the most straightforward analysis is to formalize the conditioning phonological environment via subcategorization frames, and that the burden of proof falls on proponents of POSA to show otherwise. Subcategorization correctly predicts that subcategorized phonological material is the only phonological material which suppletion can be sensitive to. [An appendix is provided which argues against POSA in another language, Udihe, and instead posits a single underlying form with gradient representations.]
In this paper, it is argued that synthetic compounds based on the passive participle in English fall into two classes, depending on whether they possess the capacity to license modifiers pointing to the presence of the external argument. Compounds such as computer-generated, pencil-drawn or home-made are typically used as eventive and resultative participles, both of which are syntactically agentive. Compounds belonging to this group are contrasted with adjectives such as action-packed, family-oriented, work-related or adult-themed, which are shown to behave syntactically like underived adjectives, with no traces of the external argument. As such, they correspond to the class of stative participles.
This article accounts for the traditionally-labelled Level 1/Level 2 affix distinction in English by combining the predictions of floating segmental structure (e.g. ) and cyclic spell-out by phase (; ). It offers insight not only into the different phonological patterns these affixes trigger, but importantly, explains when the same affix will trigger distinct phonological patterns (when an affix behaves sometimes as Level 1 and sometimes as Level 2). It is argued that Level 1 affixes are distinguished by an initial floating vowel in their underlying representations, and that if we combine this with the proposal that affixes that merge directly to roots are interpreted in the same phonological cycle as these roots then we can remove the reference to diacritic notions such as Level 1 and Level 2 from the grammar. This then allows for a fully modular account of English affix classes, where the phonological derivation refers solely to phonological representations.
Authors:Katalin Lőrincz, Éva Kruppa-Jakab, Renáta Szabó, and János Csapó
In recent years, the city of Veszprém was able to obtain several significant achievements concerning its green branding: it was awarded the “Hungary in Bloom” and the “Climate Star” titles together with the “Gold” prize of the Entente Florale Europe award and the special “President’s Award for the Restoration of a Public Open Space”. This case study examines the impact and results of the preparation work and participation in national and an international green branding contests on destination marketing and city image through the analysis of the literature and structured interviews with the theme specialists of the contests. The implications of the research, based on the result of displaying the future vision of Veszprém, offer best practice advice for communities that are considering using green branding tools such as entering a horticultural contest. The results of the research confirm that a potential winning entry, apart from having an attractive cityscape, needs to meet the more novel assessment criteria of these contests as well, i.e. the development of family friendly and accessible infrastructure, multilingual tourist information and digital accessibility.
In the paper we argue against the traditional assumption about the relationship between morphology and harmony in Hungarian according to which monomorphemic and polymorphemic (suffixed) forms behave in the same way harmonically within the domain of harmony. We show that the harmonic properties of the root are inherited by morphologically complex forms based on the root and this can override the phonological restrictions on harmony. We propose an Optimality Theory analysis of the interaction between the phonological constraints on harmony and the paradigm uniformity constraint Harmonic Uniformity.
This paper investigates place of articulation shifts involving heterosyllabic C[non-coronal]C[coronal] clusters. Such phenomena are found, among other languages, in the diachrony of Italiot Greek, where three typologically different historical stages are observed: (a) no shifts; (b) dorsal > labial shift; (c) dorsal, labial > coronal shift. Drawing on model of the Place node and the markedness hierarchy dorsal ≺ labial ≺ coronal (with “≺” denoting ‘more marked than’) (), I maintain that these shifts reduce the markedness of codas. The gradual typological changes are accounted for in terms of Property Theory ().
Authors:Géza Ripka, Enikő Kiss, Jenő Kontschán, and Árpád Szabó
Three eriophyoid species are recorded for the first time in Hungary, viz. Paraepitrimerus erigeronsis Xue et Hong collected from Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. (Asteraceae), Phyllocoptes parvulus (Nalepa) from Potentilla reptans L. (Rosaceae) and Aceria salicina (Nalepa) from Salix alba L. (Salicaceae). In addition, supplementary description of the vagrant phyllocoptine mite, Paraepitrimerus erigeronsis, and the deuterogynous and leaf margin rolling Aculus craspedobius (Nalepa) from Salix integra Thunb. (Salicaceae) is provided.
This paper deals with the underlying representation of [w]-final words in Brazilian Portuguese, usually spelled with <l> and pronounced as [w] and occasionally as [ɫ] (e.g., papel / [paˈpɛw] ~ [paˈpɛɫ] ‘paper’). It focuses on non-verbs derived by a vowel-initial suffix preceded by [l] (e.g., papel+eiro ‘paper+suffix’ / [papeˈlejɾʊ] ‘papermaker’; cliente+ismo ‘client+suffix’ / [kliẽnteˈlizmʊ] ‘patronage’). The results from a pseudoword task answered by 219 participants contrasted to lexicon data from Corpus Brasileiro show that native speakers associate such derived forms with bases already containing [l] in the last syllable, either in the onset or the coda position. This observation is interpreted in a constraint-based approach, with the assumption that a demand for alignment between vowel-initial suffixes and roots closed by /l/, along with the requirement for phonological correspondence between base and derivative, is highly ranked in a grammar that accounts for learning morphophonological representations in the language.
As therapy-refractory giardiasis is an emerging health issue, this review aimed at summarizing mechanisms of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in Giardia duodenalis and strategies to overcome this problem.
A narrative review on antimicrobial resistance in G. duodenalis was based upon a selective literature research.
Failed therapeutic success has been observed for all standard therapies of giardiasis comprising nitroimidazoles like metronidazole or tinidazole as first line substances but also benznidazoles like albendazole and mebendazole, the nitrofuran furazolidone, the thiazolide nitazoxanide, and the aminoglycoside paromomycin. Multicausality of the resistance phenotypes has been described, with differentiated gene expression due to epigenetic and post-translational modifications playing a considerable bigger role than mutational base exchanges in the parasite DNA. Standardized resistance testing algorithms are not available and clinical evidence for salvage therapies is scarce in spite of research efforts targeting new giardicidal drugs.
In case of therapeutic failure of first line nitroimidazoles, salvage strategies including various options for combination therapy exist in spite of limited evidence and lacking routine diagnostic-compatible assays for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in G. duodenalis. Sufficiently powered clinical and diagnostic studies are needed to overcome both the lacking evidence regarding salvage therapy and the diagnostic neglect of antimicrobial resistance.