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Abstract

This paper investigates place of articulation shifts involving heterosyllabic C[non-coronal]C[coronal] clusters. Such phenomena are found, among other languages, in the diachrony of Italiot Greek, where three typologically different historical stages are observed: (a) no shifts; (b) dorsal > labial shift; (c) dorsal, labial > coronal shift. Drawing on model of the Place node and the markedness hierarchy dorsallabialcoronal (with “≺” denoting ‘more marked than’) (), I maintain that these shifts reduce the markedness of codas. The gradual typological changes are accounted for in terms of Property Theory ().

Free access

Abstract

Three eriophyoid species are recorded for the first time in Hungary, viz. Paraepitrimerus erigeronsis Xue et Hong collected from Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. (Asteraceae), Phyllocoptes parvulus (Nalepa) from Potentilla reptans L. (Rosaceae) and Aceria salicina (Nalepa) from Salix alba L. (Salicaceae). In addition, supplementary description of the vagrant phyllocoptine mite, Paraepitrimerus erigeronsis, and the deuterogynous and leaf margin rolling Aculus craspedobius (Nalepa) from Salix integra Thunb. (Salicaceae) is provided.

Restricted access

Abstract

This paper deals with the underlying representation of [w]-final words in Brazilian Portuguese, usually spelled with <l> and pronounced as [w] and occasionally as [ɫ] (e.g., papel / [paˈpɛw] ~ [paˈpɛɫ] ‘paper’). It focuses on non-verbs derived by a vowel-initial suffix preceded by [l] (e.g., papel+eiro ‘paper+suffix’ / [papeˈlejɾʊ] ‘papermaker’; cliente+ismo ‘client+suffix’ / [kliẽnteˈlizmʊ] ‘patronage’). The results from a pseudoword task answered by 219 participants contrasted to lexicon data from Corpus Brasileiro show that native speakers associate such derived forms with bases already containing [l] in the last syllable, either in the onset or the coda position. This observation is interpreted in a constraint-based approach, with the assumption that a demand for alignment between vowel-initial suffixes and roots closed by /l/, along with the requirement for phonological correspondence between base and derivative, is highly ranked in a grammar that accounts for learning morphophonological representations in the language.

Restricted access

Abstract

Introduction

As therapy-refractory giardiasis is an emerging health issue, this review aimed at summarizing mechanisms of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in Giardia duodenalis and strategies to overcome this problem.

Methods

A narrative review on antimicrobial resistance in G. duodenalis was based upon a selective literature research.

Results

Failed therapeutic success has been observed for all standard therapies of giardiasis comprising nitroimidazoles like metronidazole or tinidazole as first line substances but also benznidazoles like albendazole and mebendazole, the nitrofuran furazolidone, the thiazolide nitazoxanide, and the aminoglycoside paromomycin. Multicausality of the resistance phenotypes has been described, with differentiated gene expression due to epigenetic and post-translational modifications playing a considerable bigger role than mutational base exchanges in the parasite DNA. Standardized resistance testing algorithms are not available and clinical evidence for salvage therapies is scarce in spite of research efforts targeting new giardicidal drugs.

Conclusion

In case of therapeutic failure of first line nitroimidazoles, salvage strategies including various options for combination therapy exist in spite of limited evidence and lacking routine diagnostic-compatible assays for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in G. duodenalis. Sufficiently powered clinical and diagnostic studies are needed to overcome both the lacking evidence regarding salvage therapy and the diagnostic neglect of antimicrobial resistance.

Open access

Abstract

Interest in organic growing systems that means no harm to the environment, mankind, and the world’s natural ecosystem is increasing. This study evaluated the impact of organic versus conventional cultivation method on eggplants (Topan-374 and Pala-49), tomatoes (Rio Grande and Pink), and bell pepper (Kandil dolma) considering individual phenols, total phenol-flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial potential. Peel and pulp of eggplants were evaluated separately. Organic cultivation enhanced trans-ferulic acid in the peels of both eggplant cultivars and the pulp of Pala-49. Organic Pala-49 had also higher amounts of cyanidin and caffeic acid in the peel, and only caffeic acid in the pulp. Chlorogenic acid was found in higher quantities in organic Rio Grande tomato and bell pepper. All organically grown vegetables in our study had significantly higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than conventional ones except Pink tomato. Organic farming significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity of both eggplant cultivars. Only organic peel of Pala-49 eggplant cultivar had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Organic cultivation has an advantage in terms of antioxidant potential and phenolic constituents, and it enhanced the nutraceutical potential of both cultivars of eggplant, Rio Grande tomato, and bell pepper.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous studies have reported that stronger avatar identification and negative self-concept are associated with gaming disorder (GD). This study aimed to examine the value and significance of avatars based on firsthand accounts from regular and problematic gamers, and to identify any potential links between avatar-related experiences and excessive gaming.

Methods

An online survey of 993 adult gamers yielded 3,972 text responses. Qualitative analysis of 59,059 words extracted 10 categories of avatar-related perspectives.

Results

Some problem and non-problem gamers employed sentimental language (e.g., ‘dear friend’, ‘like a child’, ‘part of my soul’) to refer to their avatar. However, most participants perceived avatars as a means of achieving in-game goals and enabling greater interactivity (e.g., socializing). When asked to reflect on hypothetically losing their avatar, participants generally anticipated feeling temporary frustration or annoyance due to lost time and effort invested into the avatar. Although some participants reported that their avatar ‘mattered’, avatars were often considered as superficial (‘just pixels’) and peripheral to the primary reinforcement of achieving in-game rewards and objectives. Some broader psychological and identity issues such as gender dysphoria, rather than ‘addiction’, were cited as motivating persistent avatar-related interactions and attachment.

Discussion and conclusions

Participants reported diverse views on the psychological value and function of avatars, but the relationship between avatars and problematic gaming or GD was largely unclear or inconsistent, and refuted by some participants. Future research with clinical samples may lead to a better understanding of player-avatar processes, including whether avatar-stimuli facilitate the development of maladaptive gaming habits, particularly among psychologically vulnerable players. Future investigations should be mindful of ‘overpathologizing’ avatar-related phenomena and recognize their important role in socializing, storytelling, and creative expression among gamers.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Few studies have assessed the epidemiology of hallucinogenic substance use among racial and ethnic groups of varying age cohorts. Use of psychedelic substances may differ among people of color (POC), due to factors such as stigma and discriminatory drug enforcement practices against POC. The lack of inclusion of POC in psychedelic research further underscores the importance of identifying differences in use among racial/ethnic groups and age cohorts.

Methods

Data from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was used for this analysis (N = 56,313, unweighted), representative of the non-institutionalized U.S. population. Proportions of lifetime hallucinogen use by race/ethnicity were compared. Proportions of past year rates of use were compared to examine differences by race/ethnicity and age cohort.

Results

Approximately 15.9% of the U.S. population over 12 had used a hallucinogen at some point in their lifetime and 2.0% had used in the past year. Lifetime hallucinogen use was most prevalent among non-Hispanic White and multi-racial individuals, while Black/African Americans reported the lowest rates of use. White and multi-racial groups also reported the highest proportions of past year use among 12–34 year olds, and White individuals reported the highest proportions among 35–49 year olds. Hispanic individuals reported higher proportions of use among the 12–17 cohort, but lower proportions among the 26–49 year old cohorts. Black/African Americans reported the lowest rates of past year use among the 12–25 year old cohorts. 50+ and older cohorts reported the lowest rates of hallucinogen use in the past year.

Limitations

Data is cross-sectional and self-reported. “Race” is a social construction is subject to change over time, and NSDUH ethnoracial categories are limited. Institutionalized populations are not included in the study.

Conclusions

Significant differences in hallucinogen use among ethnoracial groups by substance and age cohorts were observed. Findings from this work may inform education, interventions, and therapeutic psychedelic research.

Open access

This paper is a continuation of a previous study that presented the names of mammal, insect, and reptile species appearing in the Book of Leviticus of the so-called Gözleve Bible. The present study aims to survey the rest of the animal names in the corpus, representing bird species. The translation shows a mixed vocabulary and therefore the distribution of the Kipchak, Oghuzic, and non-Turkic elements will be compared with their equivalents in some of the other books of the Gözleve Bible, a recently published critical edition of another Crimean Karaim Bible, and some Ottoman Turkish Bible translations.

Open access