Authors:Xue Kang, Gabriella Medvegy, and Yufang Zhou
China has experienced rapid urbanization, and the countryside has been abandoned over the past few decades, with some of it left in ruins. Faced with the many challenges brought by urbanization, people are tired of traffic jams and polluted air, which is the disadvantages of urbanization and the countryside, is beginning to be re-recognized and explored with new possibilities. The countryside has become the front line of contemporary Chinese architectural practice. Architects, artists and other different roles try to realize the rebirth of the countryside in many aspects, such as nature and humanity, production and community, through architecture and space.
Authors:Yongting Shi, Anna Mária Tamás, and Gergely Sztranyák
Based on the consensus that the rural cultural landscape with regional characteristics is conducive to promoting the sustainable development of rural areas, this study explores how to use multiple means to restore the countryside with insufficient or severely damaged landscape resources and rebuild the contemporary rural landscape with regional characteristics. Combining the design of practical cases, the article proposes the use of low-tech, low-interference vernacular technology, and the integration of artistic intervention methods can more effectively restore landscape characteristics and stimulate rural development vitality.
Authors:B. Baráti-Deák, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, and Á. Belák
Bacterial strains with inhibitory eﬀect on Salmonella Hartford, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Escherichia coli, respectively, were isolated. Out of the 64 bacteria originated from food processing environments, 20 could inhibit at least one of the tested pathogens, and it was proved that growth decline of the pathogenic bacteria was more remarkable by co-culturing than by using cell-free supernatants of the isolates. Seven diﬀerent genera (Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Macrococcus, Staphylococcus, Serratia, and Rothia) reduced the pathogens’ growth during the time period of analysis, and the strongest inhibitory eﬀect was observed after 24 h between 15 and 30 °C. Sensitivity of the tested human pathogenic bacteria against the inhibitory strains was distinct, as Y. enterocolitica could be inhibited by numerous isolates, while S. Hartford proved to be the most resistant. Our results reveal that the isolated bacteria or their excreted metabolites could hinder pathogen growth when used in suﬃcient quantities.
Authors:K. Banwo, O. Osagbemi, O. Ajao, and A. Sanni
Sourdough is specialty bread made from a combination of ﬂour, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts. Composite ﬂour of cassava, sweet potato, and soybean was used for the production of sourdough bread employing autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from the composite dough. The ﬂour samples were assessed for functional properties, while the sourdough breads were evaluated for nutritional composition and organoleptic properties. The ﬂour samples possessed good proximate proﬁles and phenolic contents. The lactic acid bacterium and yeast with the most desirable properties were identiﬁed as Lactobacillus plantarum and Pichia kurdriazevii. Fermentation improved the nutritional indices of the composite sourdough bread samples. Lactobacillus plantarum SLC21 and P. kudriavzevii SYD17 bread had a shelf life of 7 days, while the control bread lasted for at least 4 days. Lactobacillus plantarum SLC21 and Pichia kudriavzevii SYD17 bread had the best overall acceptability. Utilisation of these local crops in a composite blend for sourdough will increase commercial proﬁt for local farmers and developing economy. The composite blend will be of great importance in the preparation of pastries that do not require high gluten content. The strains exhibited great potentials for a better nutritional composition of the composite sourdough bread.
Authors:Alaa Al-Fatlawi, Károly Jármai, and György Kovács
The aim of the research was to develop a new lightweight sandwich structure, which can be used for elements of air containers. The structure consists of aluminum foam core with fiber reinforced composite face-sheets. Nine different laminated glass or/and carbon fiber reinforced plastic face-sheet combinations were investigated. Finite element analysis of the sandwich structures was introduced. Single-objective optimization of the new sandwich structure was achieved for minimal weight. Five design constraints were considered: stiffness of the structure, face-sheet failure, core shear, face-sheet wrinkling, size constraints for design variables. The elaborated composite structure results significant weight savings due to low density.
The warm-up effect is a well-known phenomenon, which occurs in all types of laser trackers. The series of experiments was performed to determine the influence of warm-up effect on measurement and a warm-up time of device – the time after the temperature inside the tracker is stable. In this paper, the tested tracker was Leica AT960-MR. Results showed that the warm-up effect could cause errors up to tenths of millimeters, and a warm-up time of instrument is around two hours, which is similar to the other researches.
Authors:Bence Gergő Barsy, Gyula Győri, and Péter Tamás Szemes
Our research team has developed a system and methodology for measuring psycho-physiological parameters, which can be used to determine the level of fatigue and fitness of the person being measured. This article describes the electroencephalography (EEG) part of this system. This article covers the technical and mathematical background of EEG measurement, the selection and implementation of the measurement tool in the development environment, and the development of the measurement and processing algorithm. The result is a system that can detect, digitize, and process the digitized signal from the brain, and save the processed signal in an XML database.
Authors:J.K. Odusote, A.A. Adeleke, P.P. Ikubanni, O.S. Ayanda, J.M. Abdul, and R.A. Yahya
Plukenetia conophora (Nigerian Walnut) leaf extract was studied as a corrosion inhibitor on Al–Zn–Cu alloy in acidic (HCl and H2SO4) media using gravimetric, gasometric and electropotential techniques. The study showed that the inhibition efficiency (IE) increased as the concentration of the leaf extract increased and reached the peak (94.8%) at 0.8 g/L in 1 M HCl. In the two acidic media, P. conophora leaf extract exhibited good corrosion inhibition properties on the Al–Zn–Cu alloy samples due to adhesion of the extracts on the samples' surfaces. The adsorption process of the extract on the alloy sample surfaces was found to be spontaneous and perfectly obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model. Thus, P. conophora leaf extract is recommended for utilisation as a potential replacement for toxic inorganic inhibitors and for application in paint and coating industries.
Authors:Olena Yakymchuk, Dmytro Yakymchuk, Nataliia Bilei-Ruban, Iryna Nosova, Serhiy Horiashchenko, Kostyantyn Horiashchenko, Tetyana Kisil, and Viacheslav Tuz
The objective of this research is to develop the equipment for liquid-jet forming of women's headwear hats, which will allow expanding design assortment of these products. The equipment for cyclic liquid-jet forming of headwear hats in liquid-active working environment (LAWE) with forming element rotation was designed. The mechanism of movement and orientation of liquid -jet forming nozzle was developed, which allows influencing fabric parts by flooded and controlled liquid-jet, repeating the contour at a certain distance and with appropriate angle attack on each technological section of the part. The conducted experimental research allowed to receive semi-spherical forms of headwear hats from six fabrics suit-coat assortments, which are one of the most difficult forms of non-seam forming. Completely formed hats of a given complex configuration were obtained by liquid-jet forming, different from standard semi-spherical ones. The developed equipment provides mobility of the production from the point of view of quick equipment adaptation due to action use of flooded controlled liquid-jet and forming of a significant number of various hats contours, various combinations of technological forming modes.
Recently, the thermal performance of the parabolic trough collector (PTC), augmented to be more applicable and efficient, received intensive research. These studies aimed to improve heat transfer in the receiver part, in order to decrease the heat loss, and enhance the heat transfer to the thermal fluid. Many previous review papers focused on the numerical sides rather than the experimental side. Several research papers recommended doing more research in the experimental field; in order to decrease the gap between the numerical and experimental results, as well as increase the confidence level of what has been done in the theoretical field researches. Regarding the recommendations of the recent papers to decrease the gap between numerical and experimental aspects, this review paper focused on the recent experimental research related to thermal enhancement performance in the receiver part of the parabolic solar collector. In this research, different categories of the enhancement methods are discussed in detail through this review, namely nanofluids, surface modifications, and inserts models or the two categories combined together. We discussed these categories for different parabolic troughs considering only the recent experimental research between the period from 2014 up to 2019. Some parameters were discussed, such as the main dimensions of the examined receiver and parabolic collector. Moreover, types of nanoparticle specifications and preparation methods with different base fluids were highlighted. In addition, we discussed different aspects of using inserts models and inlet and outlet surface modification methods. Finally, the main thermal efficiency and thermal performance enhancement results for each work were presented.