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The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of Aloe vera gel on the quality of probiotic lassi. Probiotic lassi was prepared by adding 15% of Aloe vera gel and inoculating with probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain. Results showed that physicochemical properties of fortified probiotic lassi were not affected by these modifications during the storage period (P>0.05), however, antioxidant activities, texture and aroma sensory parameters differed significantly (P<0.05). Lactobacillus and Streptococcus counts exhibited same behavior in Aloe vera probiotic lassi products as in control (P>0.05) after 21 days of storage. Aloe vera probiotic lassi has a beneficial effect on human health.

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Pomelo fruit juice is concentrated using two different techniques, i.e. block freeze concentration (BFC) and thermal concentration (TC), and both concentrates were spray dried separately to observe the effects of two different concentration techniques on the physicochemical properties of the spray dried powder. BFC juice had comparatively better values of retention of acidity, colour, vitamin C, DPPH● scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total sugar content than TC juice. The powder obtained from the combination of BFC and spray drying had better retention of vitamin C (121.17 mg/100 g), colour, and exhibited higher DPPH● scavenging activity than TC spray dried powder. The physical parameters including solubility index, bulk density, and hygroscopicity were significantly higher in BFC spray dried powder. BFC was observed as an efficient concentration technique in comparison to TC as a pretreatment to produce spray dried powder with a better retention of bioactive components and powder flow properties.

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Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a protease inhibitor that affects protein digestibility; however, it is increasingly being recognised as anutraceutical and cosmeceutical molecule. In the present study, BBI concentration during soybean seed development, its loss during processing treatments, and the level in commercial soy products were determined. Significant differences for BBI concentration were observed across the genotypes and seed development stages. Genotype × seed development stage interaction was also found to be significant (P<0.05) for BBI concentration. Boiling, autoclaving, microwave irradiation, and sprouting resulted in significant (P<0.05) loss of BBI. Minimum loss was observed in sprouting, while autoclaving for 5 min completely deactivated BBI. Microwave irradiation of the soaked seeds resulted in higher BBI loss than of dry seeds. Among the commercial soy products, BBI concentration was high in soy flour brands, minuscule in ready-to-cook miso soup and undetectable in extruded soy products and roasted soy nuts.

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The neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a functional food ingredient of growing importance in the preparation of GABA-enriched germinated brown rice (GBR). Quantification of GABA levels during germination in a locally developed high yielding red rice variety (UKMRC-9) was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis using pre-column chemical derivatisation with 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde (HN) using a UV detection system. Factors that influence rice germination such as soaking time and temperature were also studied. The results of this study showed that the UKMRC-9 rice variety soaked in water for 6 hours at 35 °C yielded the highest value for both germination percentage (95.4±1.2%) and GABA content (411 μg g-1). This suggests that long soaking times of 1-4 days can be substituted by short soaking times to produce high GABA levels in germinated brown rice.

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Scope of the study was to find more effective N fertilisation doses and applications to reach not only higher quantity but better quality grains as well as to be able to help preserving the continuity of feed and food quality improvement, since wheat is one of the most consumed crops all over the world.

Samples of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties harvested from the experimental field of the Szent István University in two consecutive crop seasons had been examined in the laboratory of the Crop Production Institute. Effects of nitrogen (N) application on the performance of grain protein were tested. Five high quality winter wheat varieties were studied regarding grain quality traits affected by applying undivided and split doses of N. The evaluated samples show that increasing doses of N topdressing and increasing time of application have beneficial effects on the yield and the value of protein content. Wheat grain protein value ranged between 9.9% of the untreated Mv Karéj and Alföld, where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied resulting in the highest value of 16.0%. Similarly, the gluten values among untreated and N applied plots were in a wide range. Mv Karéj had the lowest wheat gluten value on untreated plot with 18.4% and Alfold had the highest value with 36.8% on the plot where the 120+40 kg ha-1 N was applied. There were no significant changes recorded on test weight and thousand kernel weight. In the case of baking quality, there were significant differences between varieties. The best records were obtained in the case of Mv Toborzö followed by Mv Karéj.

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Medium chain fatty acids are candidates of partial sulphur dioxide replacement in wine, as a solution to the growing consumer concerns about chemical additives. In botrytised sweet wine specialties, large amount of sulphur dioxide addition is one of the effective practices to stop alcoholic fermentation. Increasing medium chain fatty acid levels up to 80 mg l-1 was tested as a sole inhibitor on solid agar surface. S. bacillaris seemed to be the most sensitive, S. cerevsisiae and S. bayanus were more tolerant, while Z. bailii showed the highest tolerance. Then, increasing medium chain fatty acid levels up to 40 mg l-1 combined with 100 mg l-1 sulphur dioxide was introduced into a Tokaj Essence under refermentation. After 56 days, the highest dosage had pronounced effect on the yeast population, but the refermentation was not inhibited completely. Medium chain fatty acids have varying inhibitory effect on botrytised wine-related yeasts, moreover, it could be used effectively in media with high ethanol content, unlike Tokaj Essence.

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The influences of dried Morchella conica powder (MCP) on quality and sensory properties of sucuks were determined. Sucuks were prepared by adding 0% (control), 1.5% MCP, 3% MCP, 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and sodium nitrate/nitrite (0.01% NaNO 3 /0.005% NaNO 2 ) and lipid oxidation, colour, texture, and sensory features were analysed. Sucuks with the addition of MCP had much lower (P<0.05) peroxide values than with the addition of BHT and nitrate/ nitrite and the control samples. It was found that the L* and a* values of sucuks with the addition of 1.5% and 3.0% MCP decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared to sucuks with nitrate/nitrite and BHT addition and control samples during fermentation. Hardness and chewiness values decreased with the addition of MCP (P<0.05) during fermentation. The sucuks with MCP added at 1.5% and 3% showed the highest overall sensory acceptance. Thus, proper amount of dried MCP addition may be effective on enhancing sucuk quality properties.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: J.A. Pino, E. Sauri-Duch, O. Sosa-Moguel, C.A. Can-Cauich, V.M. Moo-Huchin, and L. Cuevas-Glory

An aroma distillate with the odour note described as ‘fresh Habanero chilli pepper' was obtained from hydrodistillation of the fruit. GC-MS analysis of the volatile constituents from the aroma distillate allowed the identification of 100 compounds, most of them esters followed by aldehydes, alcohols, terpenes, ketones, and acids. Encapsulation process of the aroma distillate by spray drying was optimised using response surface methodology. Independent variables were inlet air temperature (150-200 °C) and carrier (maltodextrin 10 DE and gum arabic in 2:1 ratio) content (10-20% wb), while response variables were powder moisture and volatiles retention. Moisture content of the powder varied inversely proportional to the air temperature, while the volatile retention was directly related. Retention of volatiles in the powder increased when the carrier content increased, while this factor negatively affected moisture content. Based on the optimisation model of the response variables, the powder with the highest flavour quality was obtained with an air inlet temperature of 200 °C and 20% wb carrier content, with 4% moisture content and 88.6% volatiles retention.

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The aim of the study was the identification and characterisation of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus bacteria obtained from food matrices by mass spectrometry and molecular methods. A total of 46 coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolates were collected from different foodstuffs. The Staphylococcus isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by the presence and sequence analysis of the Staphylococcus protein A gene. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes were also investigated by multiplex PCR. Based on the identification of strains by the MALDI-TOF MS technique and spa-typing, all strains were identified as Staphylococcus aureus. Based on their MS peak profiles, the isolates matched the spectra of three S. aureus reference strains in the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database, with identification scores higher than 1.999 in the case of all 46 (100%) isolates. The isolates showed great genetic variability. Twenty spa types were identified, from which most lineages are capable of colonizing humans. Fifty percent of the strains harboured at least one of four enterotoxin genes (seg, seh, sei, and ser), but none of the classical enterotoxin genes could be detected.

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The surplus of waste glycerol, by-product of the biodiesel production process, is available at the global market. Some species of the genera Streptomyces have the ability to assimilate glycerol and convert it into valuable metabolic products. In the present study, the ability of Streptomyces hygroscopicus to assimilate waste glycerol and convert it into metabolic compounds with antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi obtained from apple fruit samples expressing rot symptoms, was investigated. Production of antifungal metabolites by S. hygroscopicus was carried out in 3 l stirred tank bioreactor through 7 days. Fermentation was carried out at 27 °C with aeration rate of 1.5 vvm and agitation rate of 100 r.p.m. The aim of this work was to analyse bioprocess parameters and to determine at which stage of bioprocess the production of antifungal metabolites occurs. Activity of the cultivation liquid on two isolates of Alternaria alternata and two isolates of Fusarium avenaceum were determined every 12 h using in vitro well diffusion method. It was found that the maximum production of antifungal metabolites occurred at 108 hour of cultivation. Formed inhibition zones have shown that the produced antifungal metabolites have high efficacy on tested phytopathogenic fungi (inhibition zone diameter higher than 35 mm for all test organisms).

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