We present a novel analysis of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) for butterfly wings at the community-level, along an altitudinal gradient. FA is an important biomonitoring tool that detects deviations of perfect symmetry in bilateral characters, assuming that genetic and/or environmental factors can be a source of stress. This study evaluated the effects of increased altitude on the symmetry of butterfly wings, testing the hypothesis that FA should increase with increased elevation in a tropical mountain. Butterflies were sampled along an altitudinal gradient of 800 to 1.400 m and forewings were detached, scanned and evaluated for symmetry. Length, width and area of the right and left forewings were measured as surrogates for FA and then combined into an index taking into account the variability of wing sizes of the whole butterfly community. We observed true patterns of FA in the length, width and area of the wings, and wing FA area increased with increased altitude. This study pioneered the analysis of FA for a community of butterflies and FA was efficient to detect developmental instability indicated by imperfections in butterfly wings.
Authors:Bekim Gashi, Efigjeni Kongjika, Mirsade Osmani, and Valon Luma
Ramonda nathaliae and Ramonda serbica are resurrection plants belonging to homoiochlorophyllous desiccation-tolerant angiosperms. Chlorophyll biosynthesis is one of the most important metabolic pathways to tolerate desiccation in these plant species.
Materials and methods
To better understand the early pathway steps of chlorophyll biosynthesis, we have analyzed the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) and contents of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and total chlorophyll as a final product during dehydration and rehydration stages for these plant species.
Our results showed that the activity of ALA-D in R. nathaliae and R. serbica plants rapidly decreased during dehydration and in the final stage of desiccation the activity of this enzyme was decreased by 79% and 86%, respectively. After rehydration of plants, the ALA-D activity was fully restored. In contrast, the ALA content of both plant species significantly increased during desiccation and decreased after 48 hr of rewatering. In each stage of dehydration or rehydration, a significant negative correlation was established between ALA-D activity and ALA content in both plant species.
Total chlorophyll content was preserved more in R. nathaliae than in R. serbica during desiccation. Moreover, ALA-D activity was decreased to a minimal level but preserved its function during desiccation, and this suggests one possible mechanism of desiccation tolerance to retain the chlorophyll of these plant species.
Grain Protein Content (GPC) of wheat is significant for enhanced nutritional value and is one of the most important aspects effecting pasta and bread making quality as well. Seventy seven Pakistani wheat varieties and advance lines were analysed to access the allelic distribution at microsatellite Xuhw89 locus using functional SSR marker. Overall, 42% of tested wheat genotypes were found to carry 126 + 130-bp allele while a 126-bp allele was detected in 58% of genotypes. A target band of 126-bp was amplified in all tested genotypes, however, an additional band of 130-bp was also detected along with 126-bp band in 32 genotypes. Genotypes i.e. (Punjab-96) total soluble protein and (MEXI PAK) globulin with 126 + 130-bp allele while (Faisalabad-2008) salt soluble protein and (TC-4928) albumin with allele of 126-bp depicted highest grain protein content. The alleles identification associated with maximum grain protein content in Pakistani wheat germplasm will assist in accelerating the breeding program in future.
Authors:Enver Ahmet Demir, Atakan Ozturk, Okan Tutuk, Hatice Dogan, and Cemil Tumer
Seizures are the hallmarks of most types of epilepsies. Behavioral and cognitive impairments coincide with interictal periods even though it is not clear whether these impairments spring out of the seizure itself or accompanying sociopsychological burden of the disease.
Materials and methods
In this study, we investigated behavioral and cognitive consequences of a single GABA receptor-related seizure in mice, and examined the potential anticonvulsive and behavior-modulating properties of sophoretin (quercetin) and rutoside (rutin).
The study demonstrated that sophoretin and rutoside, common flavonoids of the human diet, delay the seizure onset and reduce the seizure stage. Moreover, they exerted an antidepressant-like effect, which was independent of the seizure. Neither treatments nor seizure altered recognition and spatial memory performances of the mice.
Behavioral or cognitive disturbances that are evident in epileptic patients did not appear following a single seizure. In addition, we suggest that both sophoretin and rutoside successfully alleviate the seizure severity without interfering in the behavioral stability and cognitive performance. Hence, these flavonoids may be of use as adjuncts to the current treatment options.
Authors:Ainoosh Golpour, Stefan Bereswill, and Markus M. Heimesaat
Antimicrobial multidrug-resistance (MDR) constitutes an emerging threat to global health and makes the effective prevention and treatment of many, particularly severe infections challenging, if not impossible. Many antibiotic classes have lost antimicrobial efficacy against a plethora of infectious agents including bacterial species due to microbial acquisition of distinct resistance genes. Hence, the development of novel anti-infectious intervention strategies including antibiotic-independent approaches is urgently needed. Vitamins such as vitamin D and vitamin D derivates might be such promising molecular candidates to combat infections caused by bacteria including MDR strains. Using the Pubmed database, we therefore performed an in-depth literature survey, searching for publications on the antimicrobial effect of vitamin D directed against bacteria including MDR strains. In vitro and clinical studies between 2009 and 2019 revealed that vitamin D does, in fact, possess antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, whereas conflicting results could be obtained from in vivo studies. Taken together, the potential anti-infectious effects for the antibiotic-independent application of vitamin D and/or an adjunct therapy in combination with antibiotic compounds directed against infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, H. pylori infections, or skin diseases, for instance, should be considered and further investigated in more detail.
Doubled haploidy breeding via wide hybridization has been used in durum wheat haploid production for creating homozygosity in the shortest possible time. Post pollination treatment with hormones is a key factor for inducing haploid embryos in durum wheat wide crosses. An intergeneric hybridization experiment was carried out in seven durum wheat genotypes using Imperata cylindrica and two composites of Maize viz., Bajaura Makka and Early Composite, as pollen sources. The pollinated spikes were injected with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in five different concentrations i.e., 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm, for three consecutive days at 24, 48 and 72 hrs after pollination. Analysis of variance revealed that the five concentrations of 2,4-D significantly differed in their ability to induce haploid embryos and 2,4-D at 250 ppm was found to be most effective in durum wheat haploid production through wide hybridization. The highest frequency of embryo carrying seeds was recorded to be 65.75 and 36.73 percent, at 250 ppm with I. cylindrica and Bajaura Makka, respectively in first cropping season. During second season, embryo formation frequency was observed to be maximum, 70.69, 32.84 and 27.59 percent, at 250 ppm 2,4-D with all three pollen sources, viz., I. cylindrica, Bajaura Makka and Early Composite, respectively.
The GGE biplot tool has potential for determining combining ability effects, identifying distinct heterotic groups and efficient testers in a line × tester study. However, its use for such analysis has not been adequately explored. The objectives of this study were to (i) assess combining ability of extra-early maturing lines (80–85 days to physiological maturity) and testers for grain yield (ii) classify lines into heterotic groups and (iii) identify most efficient testers using GGE biplot. Sixty-three lines crossed to four testers were evaluated under Strga-infested, drought and nonstress environments for 2 years in Nigeria. Results of GGE biplot analyses of combining ability and heterotic patterns of yield of lines, grouping and identification of testers were close to those of the conventional line × tester method. Testers TZEEI 13, TZEEI 21 and TZEEI 29 were highly efficient in grouping lines under stress environments while testers TZEEI 21 and TZEEI 29 were best under nonstress environments. The GGE biplot identified tester TZEEI 13, TZEEI 21 and TZEEI 29 as most efficient across stress environments and TZEEI 21 and TZEEI 29 across nonstress environments.
A new lichenicolous fungus Buelliella indica colonising on the thallus of Graphis longiramea is described from the state of Nagaland, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot region in India. It is characterised by its brown epihymenium, much smaller ascospores with dimensions of 11.5–13.8 × 4.8–6 µm and the new host Graphis.
In the present study, morphological and anatomical structures of cypsela – 12 Cirsium Miller (Carduoideae, Asteraceae) taxa belonging to two sections (sect. Cirsium and sect. Cephalonoplos) were investigated in detail with using stereomicroscope and light microscope. The taxa were evaluated comparatively in the aspect of carpological variations and their anatomies were presented in here for the first time. Morphological features including size, shape and colour of cypselae were examined. From anatomical observations, anatomical structures of pericarp, as well as the structure of testa were described. Cypselae colours differ from light brown to stramineous, sometimes with blackish striations. Their shapes change from oblong to oblanceolate, rarely obovate. The largest cypselae are present in C. echinus (1.59±0.03 mm × 4.68±0.07 mm) and the smallest ones are found in C. subinerme (1.20±0.02 mm × 2.97±0.05 mm). The pericarp is characterised by almost parenchymatous cells, while the testa is composed of lignified sclerenchymatous cell lines and crushed cells group. Secretory structure in testa bundle was evaluated. Results obtained from this study were compared with the present data in literature. Overall, morphological and anatomical characteristics of cypselae provide useful taxonomic markers in their classifications of the studied taxa of Cirsium but not distinctive for their sectional levels.