Decentralized wastewater systems treat, dispose and reuse the wastewater in the vicinity of source, reducing the sewage transportation cost to minimal. As an alternative to centralized systems it can function as a satellite system or an individual wastewater treatment unit. Design an onsite facility applies the same sizing procedure compared the conventional large scale systems, whereas the input flow data and its variability, the model parameters could differ. In this study a small size treatment unit was designed by biokinetic modeling, where the model parameters were estimated using analytical methods. As a result of the calculation the biomass build-up and the quality of the treated effluent was predicted and the operation parameters were determined in summer and winter operation.
The paper discusses the theoretical background of the state space modeling of induction machines. The main goal is to present the necessary equations of the induction machine and the topic of the state space modeling. Although the induction machine is a highly non-linear system, LPV/qLPV model can be formulated from these equations.
Authors:Patrik Márk Máder, Dorottya Szilágyi, and Olivér Rák
Information-based modeling technology is supported by advanced information technology solutions in the building industry. The integration of its methodology into construction and design processes is already going on. However, many areas still have development possibilities; for instance, building surveys belong to these fields. Countless survey tools and methodologies endeavor to support and ease the work of professionals in design and construction, yet there is a need for comprehensive collaboration. This could be promoted by creating a direct link between survey tools and architectural design software.
This article demonstrates a tool under development that intends to provide a solution to this issue.
Ensuring the provision of suitable living units remains one of the most challenging issues among the architects. The economic conditions in Kosovo represent one of the factors that influenced the functional and spatial change in multi-apartment buildings. Taking into account the passing of time, economic conditions, the requirements and needs of the communities change, those affects change in the functional and spatial aspect. The construction of multi-apartment and individual buildings, as well as other buildings with other uses in the center of the cities represents a delicate issue. On the other hand, the need for reconstruction and re-destination of usage of the existing residential buildings is becoming an important topic for the society in Kosovo. The issue is somewhat sensitive regarding the multi-apartment residential buildings, given that the usable surface is increasingly limited. The next challenge for the architects will be the treatment of the existing areas, their adaption in harmony with the requirements of the new generations, social changes that Kosovo is dealing with. The entire endeavor to reach a more comfortable solution is realized through treatment of the residential spaces not only in function wise, as well as in the exterior, through the transparence in architecture. The aim of the paper is to show transformation of the living spaces through real example, in Prishtina.
Authors:J. Li, L. Liu, C. Li, L. Liu, Y. Tan, and Y. Meng
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus to bind patulin (PAT) in the buffer solution and apple juice. The binding of L. rhamnosus to PAT was reversible, which improved the stability of the bacterial complex. The ability to bind PAT can be enhanced with the inactivation of the strain by high temperature and acid treatment. Acid-treated bacteria had the highest PAT binding rate of 72.73±1.05%. The binding rates of acid and high temperature (121 °C) treatments were increased by 21.37% and 19.15%, respectively. L. rhamnosus showed the best detoxification ability to PAT at 37 °C, where the binding rate reached 50.9±1.03%. When the dose of inactivated bacteria powder was 0.02 g ml−1, the minimum concentration of PAT in apple juice was 0.37 µg ml−1. The addition of the L. rhamnosus inactivated powder did not affect the quality of the juice product and effectively bound the PAT in apple juice.
Authors:A. Sharma, S. Prasad, R. Arun Kumar, S. Jaiswal, P.K. Agrawal, L. Kant, and J.C. Bhatt
The present paper reports that significant genetic variability was evident in Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and phytic acid (phytate, PA) contents in a set of 39 diverse maize genotypes collected from maize breeding programme of hill agriculture, India. The Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and PA concentrations were found to be in the range 19.31–50.64 mg kg−1, 12.60–37.18 mg kg−1, 0.17–8.27 µg g−1, and 6.59–7.13 g kg−1, respectively. The genotypes V335, V420, V393, V416, V414, V372, and V351 were identified to have higher concentration of β-carotene, Fe, and Zn but lower amount of PA. Possible availability of the minerals Fe and Zn was determined using molar ratio between PA as inhibitor and β-carotene as promoter for their absorption. The micronutrient molar ratio showed that Fe and Zn traits could be dependent of each other. Low R2 value revealed relation between β-carotene and kernel colour. The selected genotypes could be considered as potential sources of favourable genes for further breeding programs to develop micronutrient enriched maize cultivars.
Authors:A.M. Tran, T.B. Nguyen, V.D. Nguyen, E. Bujna, M.S. Dam, and Q.D. Nguyen
Four strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium including L. plantarum 01, L. fermentum D13, L. rhamnosus B01725, and B. bifidum B7.5 exhibiting naringinase production were applied in grapefruit juice fermentation. All investigated strains grew well in grapefruit juice without nutrition supplementation. In all cases, cell counts were 108–109 CFU ml−1 after 24 hours of fermentation. The highest lactic acid and acetic acid productions were observed in the case of strain L. plantarum 01. The L. plantarum 01 and L. fermentum D13 strains prefer glucose over fructose and sucrose, whereas fructose was the most favoured sugar for L. rhamnosus B01725 and B. bifidum B7.5. At the end of the fermentation process, antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of grapefruit juice decreased in all cases, but the changes were not significant. Significant decrease of naringin was observed in the case of L. plantarum 01, 28% naringin in grapefruit juice was removed after fermentation. This result is promising for development of technology for production of probiotic grapefruit juice.
Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a perennial plant belonging to Asteraceae family. It is one of the most suitable plants for growing organically. Artichoke has been used as choleretic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, cholesterol-reducing, and diuretic in traditional medicine. Artichoke has been cultivated worldwide because of its nutritional value and medicinal properties. In this study organically and conventionally grown artichokes were compared in terms of phenolic constituents, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Artichoke leaves, bracts, and floral receptacles obtained from 2 different sources (organic and conventional) were freeze-dried, powdered, and extracts were prepared with methanol. Phenolic constituents (chlorogenic acid, cynarin, luteolin, and apigenin) were analysed by HPLC-DAD system. It was found that organic farming enhanced cynarin, chlorogenic acid, and luteolin amounts in receptacle (edible part). Organically grown leaves had also higher amounts of cynarin and chlorogenic acid than conventional ones. Cynarin amount was higher by 35% in organic receptacle and 20% in organic leaves. Organic farming also augmented the antioxidant property and flavonoid content of edible parts of the artichoke. Additionally, organically grown leaves had the highest antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoid contents. Antibacterial activity was observed with both organic and conventional leaves only against Staphylococcus epidermidis. This comparative study revealed that organic farming enhanced the health-beneficial medicinal values of artichoke's heart and leaves.
Authors:Á. Vajda, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, L. Ózsvári, and Gy. Kasza
Salmonellosis is a widely known infectious disease in Hungary that played dominant role between 1960 and 1996 and remained one of the top food-borne illnesses to these days with an estimated total number of 96 048 cases (2019). Beside direct costs of treatment, indirect costs are also significant on the level of population. Among indirect costs, consumer well-being losses are difficult to be estimated. For this purpose, the willingness to pay (WTP) method is used most frequently that measures the cost an individual would undertake to avoid a certain harm. For the well-being loss estimation, the data of National Food Chain Safety Authority's annual consumer survey was used, in which 323 respondents gave evaluable answer to the open-ended WTP question. Results indicate that an average respondent would pay 18.6 EUR to avoid salmonellosis. Main factors affecting WTP were size of family and number of children. The numbers indicate that the consumer well-being loss could be about 1 786 060 EUR annually, resulting from the multiplication of the estimated number of annual salmonellosis cases and the average WTP value. It can be concluded that consumer well-being losses alone would call for further interventions in Salmonella eradication, not to mention other – more direct – cost elements.