Authors:Z.K. Xie, S.Y. Yu, M. He, S.X. Yu, H.F. Xiao, and Y.D. Song
In this paper, we studied the inhibitory effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on non-enzymatic glycosylation and the improvement of glycometabolism in insulin resistant (IR) human liver tumour (HepG2) cells. The anti-glycosylation activity of OA was determined by bovine serum albumin (BSA) fructose model. The results showed that OA moderately inhibited the formation of the intermediates of non-enzymatic glycosylation, fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds, and strongly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In addition, we analysed the effect of OA on glycometabolism induced by palmitic acid (PA) in HepG2 cells. The results showed that OA had almost no impact on HepG2 cell viability at concentrations lower than 30 µM. With the increase of OA concentration, glucose production in IR HepG2 cells decreased, while glycogen content increased. Meanwhile, OA has a significant inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in IR-HepG2 cells. Those results suggested that OA could be a promising natural blood glucose decreasing substance in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.
Authors:Ü.İ. Konak, H.A. Yatmaz, Ş. Nilüfer, T. Erkaymaz, and M. Certel
Residues in animal feeds and foods of animal origin have been important safety issue concerning both human and animal health. A multiresidue method for determination of eight mycotoxins and ten antibiotics was developed and validated in animal feeds by using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS. Optimisation of UHPLC-MS/MS parameters was performed to achieve good separation and resolution. The method was validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Matrix matched calibration curves showed good r2 (≥0.995) values, and limit of quantification (LOQ) values varied between 1.2 and 5.2 μg kg−1. Average recoveries ranged from 60 to 102% with relative standard deviations of 2.2 and 15.6% for all type of feed samples except for tetracyclines, lincomycin, tylosin, ochratoxin A, and fumonisin (B1 and B2).
The probiotic and technological potentials of lactic acid bacteria originating from human milk are becoming a remarkable research area. In the present study, Limosilactobacillus vaginalis MA-10 isolated from human milk was investigated in vitro for its probiotic and technological aspects. According to the results obtained in the study, MA-10 strain exhibited non-haemolytic activity and various degrees of sensitivity to most of the tested antibiotics. The strain showed good resistance to the gastrointestinal system and maintained its viability under these conditions. Its antimicrobial activity against human or clinical bacterial and fungal microorganisms and fish bacteria was determined in the range of 2.38–11.22 mm. The MA-10 strain was able to assimilate cholesterol ranging from 31.42 to 82.30%. The strain showed 9.34% ferrous-ion chelating and 32% DPPH free radical scavenging activities. These initial results from the present study confirm that L. vaginalis MA-10 may be a new source with appropriated probiotic and technological traits for various industries, and further in vivo assays.Due to the limited number of studies on L. vaginalis strains originated from human breast milk in the literature, the data obtained in this study are thought to be important for revealing the basic probiotic properties of the strain.
This study assesses consumers' preference for food from social media on a sample of 510 respondents from the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia using the Best-Worst Scaling method. The findings of the study conclude that unhealthy and nutrient-poor food items are more preferred than healthy and nutrient-rich food items. The study recommends that the food and drug authority should intervene to increase consumers' awareness about the effect of unhealthy food items by creating social media accounts to warn consumers about the health outcomes of consuming certain unhealthy foods marketed through social media platforms.
Authors:Daniel Buček, Martin Orfánus, Peter Dušička, and Peter Šulek
Variable renewable energy sources, e.g. solar and wind power, require flexible management of energy sources to stabilize the power grid. Immediate changes in power generation and power usage is compensated for by the operation of hydropower plants. This subsequently leads to frequent flow fluctuations – hydropeaking downstream of the hydropower plant. This study examines the short-term impacts of hydropeaking of hydropower plants on the sediment transport using numerical morphodynamic model. The model is calibrated to field measurements and subjected to various hydropeaking scenarios on daily to sub-daily scale. Based on this study, the effect of hydropeaking of hydropower plant 23.42 km upstream of the studied river section would have negligible effect on the bedload transport in the studied cross section.
Authors:Merzouqi Maria, Sarhrouni El Kebir, and Hammouch Ahmed
Hyperspectral images (HSI) present a wealth of information. It is distinguished by its high dimensionality. It served humanity in many fields. The quantity of HSI information represents a double-edged sword. As a consequence, their dimensionality must be reduced. Nowadays, several methods are proposed to overcome their duress. The most useful and essential solution is selection approaches of hyperspectral bands to analyze it quickly. Our work suggests a novel method to achieve this selection: we introduce a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based on mutual information (MI) and Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as fitness functions. It selects the relevant bands from noisiest and redundant ones that don’t contain any additional information. .The proposed method is applied to three different HSI: INDIAN PINE, PAVIA, and SALINAS. The introduced algorithm provides a remarkable efficiency on the accuracy of the classification, in front of other statistical methods: the Bhattacharyya coefficient as well as the inter-bands correlation (Pearson correlation). We conclude that the measure of information (MI, NMI) provides more efficiency as a fitness function for GA selection applied to HSI; it must be more investigated.
Authors:Sz. Gy. Szerencsés, S. Beszédes, Zs. László, G. Veréb, D. Szalay, Zs. Hovorkáné Horváth, C. Hodúr, G. Rákhely, and Sz. Kertész
In this study, statistical analysis was performed to investigate the influence of operational parameters based on experimental results. The research aimed to know whether a long-term discontinuous module vibration operation is possible without adversely affecting filtration efficiency. Polymer membranes were compared by surface characteristics with contact angle measurements and selected for further membrane filtration experiments for dairy wastewater treatment. The effect of the main operational parameters, membrane module vibration amplitude (Avibr.) and transmembrane pressure (TMP), was investigated using a vibratory shear enhanced processing (VSEP) module with ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Components of the permeates, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), were measured, and membrane rejections were calculated to compare with threshold limit values. The results suggest that proper combination of Avibr. and TMP could mitigate membrane fouling. However, discontinuous module vibration resulted in more clogged membrane with lower fluxes, but slightly higher rejections. We conclude that investigating the significance of operational parameters is necessary for a wider, more energy and environment-friendly application in wastewater treatment.
This survey has been performed as part of a wider survey within the Western Balkan Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) Competitiveness Support Project. It presents the current situation of occupational health and safety (OHS) management at 18 SMEs in Kosovo. SMEs in the Republic of Kosovo are facing many difficulties in identifying the real need for interventions, recruiting adequate professional staff to support their activities in OHS. Exposed to an opened market under the regional and international competition, their sustainability has become more difficult and their financial fragility leads very often to the ignorance of OHS issues within their organization.
The first objective of this research aimed to understand the OHS contextual factors, barriers and drivers based on the current practice of SMEs in Kosovo. The second objective was to find out if the OHS “ideal intervention process” is applicable to achieve improvements for SMEs in Kosovo. Data collection was expedited through internal documents review, site visits and questionnaires. The statistical data were subject to descriptive analyses and inferential statistics. The findings showed that the contextual factors which influence the intervention process, were of participatory nature, cognitive and physical workplace environment, while the perceived barriers were mainly coming from lack of resources and information. Finally the features of OHS “ideal intervention process” were analyzed and compared for applicability to the SMEs in Kosovo and several interventions in this regards were proposed.
Amaranth is considered to be a part of “superfood”, however, due to multiple restricting properties, its functionality in the food industry is still not explored to its fullest. The present study investigated the effect of almond gum concentration (3–10 g), temperature (50–90 °C), and quantity of water (30–70 mL) on the functional properties of amaranth starch. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) showed that the 6.9 g of almond gum, 64.43 mL of water, and temperature maintained at 90 °C, were the optimised conditions to attain 16.77 g g−1 of swelling power, 12.97% of solubility index, and 20.13% freeze-thaw stability. Moreover, the modified amaranth starch was further employed to develop pudding as a value-added product. The findings concluded that the developed pudding using modified amaranth starch exhibited enhanced sensorial attributes due to an increase in cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience of starch gel.
Authors:Á. Illés, Cs. Bojtor, A. Széles, S.M.N. Mousavi, B. Tóth, and J. Nagy
The presented research aimed to confirm that the differences in the lipid peroxidation of three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes and maturity are due to different nitrogen levels, which was observed based on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) measured in the leaves at the main phenological stages of plants. The experiments were performed in a multi-factorial long term fertilisation field trial. In the study, phosphorus and potassium were constantly provided at the optimal level for the plants. The phosphorus and potassium fertilisation were applied in autumn. However, N levels varied from 0 to 300 kg ha−1. Sampling was done at different growth stages 5 times during the growing season (4 leaves, 6 leaves, 8 leaves, 14 leaves, silking). The 300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3) resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA level), but not a statistically significant difference between the control (dose 1) and the 120 kg ha−1 (dose 2) N doses. The H1 hybrid had the lowest level of lipid peroxidation at the first sampling date. High volume nitrogen fertilisation (dose 3: 300 kg ha−1) increased lipid peroxidation in the hybrids. Averaging the values obtained for the same hybrid at the different sampling times, the medium (dose 2) 120 kg ha−1 N treatment had no significant effect on the lipid peroxidation of the hybrids compared to the values of the control plants. Based on the lipid peroxidation response of the hybrids to N treatment, the exact N dose inflection point can be determined to make the fertiliser utilisation of plants more efficient. Based on our results, we found that inadequate, low (120 kg ha−1) or high (300 kg ha−1) nitrogen fertilisation could affect the MDA levels of plants, thereby affecting the functioning of the lipid peroxidation mechanism.