Authors:Marija Mihaela Labat, Kamila Hlavčová, and Gabriel Földes
In recent decades many forests in Slovakia, especially those in mountain basins, have been devastated by wind or snow calamities. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to analyze land use and estimate the changes in runoff from the Boca and Ipoltica river basins in Slovakia for historical (1990 and 2006) and present land use (2012). The changes in runoff are presented as changes in design floods. For estimating the design floods, the curve number method was used. The values of the design floods on both of these river basins have increased due to deforestation.
Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is a type of vitamin K. MK-7 is produced via bacterial fermentation, and in order to reach the desired product purity, several downstream processing steps, including extraction, drying, ultrasonication, must be carried out. These processes, however, need to be carried out in such fashion to ensure the least amount of vitamin K lost and maximum recovery into the end-product. Therefore, in this study, drying, storage at 4 and −20 °C, and ultrasonication steps were evaluated under different conditions. Static liquid fermentations were conducted in McCartney bottles to explore the maximum MK-7 secretion potentials in different glycerol and glucose-based media compositions that were optimized in our previous studies. Maximum 32.5±0.4 mg l−1 and 14.6±0.4 mg l−1 concentrations were achieved in glycerol and glucose-based media, respectively. Concentrations of MK-7 produced under same fermentation conditions in 30 ml McCartney amber bottles with 3 ml of media in them and in 75 ml culture tubes with 20 ml media were compared. Also, ultrasonication, drying, and storage conditions were investigated to ensure the least amount of vitamin K is lost. Results showed that drying under forced air flow was the fastest, thus, demonstrated a better preservation of the vitamin, and should replace vacuum drying. Ultrasonication for 15 min seems to be safe and sufficient for phase transition for analysis. Also, storage at refrigerated temperatures seems to preserve MK-7 at least for one week. Furthermore, fermentations in McCartney bottles indicated how MK-7 concentrations are distributed in different zones of the static liquid broth. Culture tube results provided the conclusion as of how the metabolism of MK-7 changes in static fermentation when the scale-up process begins from McCartney bottle to culture tubes. Results in general showed a clearer road map to ensuring better quality and preservation of the valuable end-product, and illuminated more the path to further scaling up of the fermentation process for commercial production of MK-7.
Phenolic extract from banana peel was extracted with 95% ethanol and characterized by LC-TOF-MS/MS. Epicatechin, rutin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, myricetin, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were detected in the extract. Cholate test was performed for the initial examination of the hypolipidemic effect of the dietary fibres. The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with sulphuric acid then sodium hydroxide (SST) and sodium hydroxide treatment (SHT) had high water-holding capacities (7.48 and 6.91 g g−1) and swelling capacities (4.8 and 4.3 ml g−1). The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with trypsin then sulphuric acid (TST) and sulphuric acid treatment (SAT) had high oil-holding capacities (5.52 and 5.10 g g−1) and enhanced capacities for sodium cholate adsorption. Results indicated the potentials of banana peel as functional ingredient in food applications.
Authors:V. Saravana Kumar, S. Anantha Sivaprakasam, Rengasari Naganathan, and Saravanan Kavitha
The proposed work addresses a novelty in techniques for segmentation of remotely sensed hyper-spectral scenes. Incorporated inter band cluster and intra band cluster techniques has investigated. With a new constrain validate the new segmentation methods in this proposed work, the fast K-Means is used in inter clustering part. The inter band clustering is carried out by fast K-Means methods includes weighted and careful seeding procedures. The intra band clustering processed using Particle Swarm Clustering algorithm with enhanced estimation of centroid. Davies Bouldin index is used to determine the number of clusters in the mentioned clustering strategies. The hyper-spectral bands are clustered in order to reduce the band size. In next phase, the above said enhanced algorithm carried out the segmentation process in the reduced bands. In addition, statistical analysis is carried out in various scenarios.
The main design strategies of this Chinese project are connection and aesthetic. The new annex building conference and meeting center - presents the new contemporary form and sets up a new relationship with the original stadium surrounding and local traditional culture. The traditional symbol - ‘Lotus Flower’ is used as an effective design imagines, and it was transferred into contemporary form to create the new functional space and attractive volume. This project is a great possibility to explore the methods how traditional and cultural elements can show up in up-to-date way in contemporary architecture.
Authors:Gabriel Földes, Silvia Kohnová, and Marija Mihaela Labat
The paper focuses on future changes in the short-term rainfall intensities in the western region of Slovakia. The analysis was performed for 4 climatological stations, namely: Malacky, Myjava, Vrbovce and šaŠtín. The short-term rainfall intensity data from the community land model that is a regional climate model were used in durations of 60 to 1440 minutes for a warm period. The focus was aimed at comparing changes in rainfall characteristics, especially changes in the seasonality and trends and changes in the scaling exponents and design values.
In different Comfort Standards, for different building functions the requirements for summer and also for winter period differ. The operative temperature is one of these parameters, which in different Comfort Standards for summer-winter period specifies the building's comfort category.
This paper presents the results of measurement of the operative temperature in PASSOL laboratory with different heat storage and using night ventilation.
Authors:Lea Čubanová, Andrej Šoltész, and Adam Janík
Implemented flood protection measures come to a re-evaluation due to changes in the hydrological situation, due to more recently occurring flash floods whose robustness exceeds the capacity of the measures initially proposed. The problem is the structures constructed on the streams as well as the unpermitted house building on the banks, the pollution of the stream or sedimentation. Case study on small catchment with problems of flash floods in the middle Slovakia was solved. Stream channel capacity was not sufficient for higher flow rates; therefore new flood protection measures were proposed (river bed training, low training walls, detention reservoir). Their efficiency was verified via mathematical modeling.
Nowadays heuristic methods are one of the most used tools for the optimization of problems. The proof of that is the fact that they are widely used in chemistry, economics and energy. Among the most popular of heuristic methods belongs differential evolution, belonging to the so-called ‘evolutionary algorithms’. They can handle difficult, large-scale problems with many parameters, like the optimization of the hydro-thermal coordination of hydro and thermal power plants. As with any other method, differential evolution also has certain parameters. These parameters, among others, are the size of the population, the maximum number of generations, crossover parameter and mutation factor. The effect of these parameters on the results of an optimization using differential evolution is the focus of this paper. The hydro-thermal coordination of one hydro and one thermal power plant was used as an example to explain this issue.