This study examines the occurrence of aflatoxins (AFS) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in bread and durum wheat samples. A total of 141 samples were collected from eleven different regions of Turkey. An analytical method based on liquid extraction, immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of AFs and OTA levels. As a result, AFs and OTA were detected in 2% and 9.2% of wheat samples at concentrations varying from 0.21 to 0.44 µg kg−1 and from 0.1 to 3.2 µg kg−1, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) were found positive in samples ranging between 0.21–0.35 µg kg−1 and 0.094 µg kg−1, respectively. However, none of the samples contained aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The study also recommended that contamination levels in wheat and wheat-based products should be routinely monitored in greater sample numbers to insure food safety.
With the continuous expansion of the global dairy trade market, the quality and safety of the Chinese dairy market have a wide and far-reaching impact on the world. Based on the development of the dairy scandal in the past few years in China, this study illustrates the serious damage of melamine on human health and the negative impact on the dairy industry in China.
This study shows that the lack of effective government regulations is a key reason for dairy market failure. Consumers are lacking confidence in the quality of Chinese dairy products and the government's market regulations. The Chinese dairy market will continue to rely on imported dairy products. By analyzing the typical cases of the dairy market in China, this study aims to provide a guide for dairy industries in other countries.
Authors:A. Vásquez García, S.H. Gomes de Sá, G. de Sousa Silva, J.E. Mejia Ballesteros, E. Barbieri, R.L. Moro de Sousa, A.M. Fernandes, and M. Mitsui Kushida
The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of oysters and mussels grown in Cananéia, Brazil, by analysing mesophiles, psychrothophic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., and to compare the efficiency of Compact Dry EC method and the conventional method for counting of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The microbial analysis showed that the mean values of mesophilic counts were 3.14±0.81 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.92±0.90 for mussels; the mean values of psychrophilic counts were 2.78±0.75 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.22±0.75 log CFU g−1 for mussels; the mean values of mould and yeast counts were 3.70±0.58 log CFU g−1 for oysters and 3.33±0.81 log CFU g−1 for mussels. Salmonella spp. did not present positive results, and the maximal count of Staphylococcus aureus was 1.7 log CFU g−1, therefore, within the limits established in the legislation. The correlation coefficients between the Compact Dry EC method and conventional method were >0.87 for total coliform and E. coli counts for both types of shellfish. The data in this study show that the Compact Dry EC method is an acceptable alternative to conventional methods for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in shellfish.
Authors:A.K. Siroha, S. Punía, K.S. Sandhu, and B.L. Karwasra
Physicochemical, pasting, and rheological properties of pearl millet starches were studied and correlations among these properties were calculated. Amylose content, swelling power, and solubility of starches varied from 11.57 to 21.93%, 11.11 to 17.91 g g−1 and 12.20 to 15.20%, respectively. Volume% of starch granule size less than 10 µm varied from 36.23 to 48.34%, and 12.16 to 18.75% for above 20 µm size of granule. Peak viscosity of starches varied from 1291 to 1853 mPa·s, cv. RHB-173 had the highest value. Frequency sweep measurement of starch pastes revealed higher magnitude of G′ as compared to G″ with increase in to, indicating visco-elastic behaviour. Yield stress (σo), consistency index (K), and flow behaviour index (n) were observed as 40.73 to 115.72 Pa, 0.729 to 3.998 Pa·s, and 0.604 to 0.964, respectively. Starch pastes from cultivars studied showed shear thinning behaviour.
Authors:É. Varga-Visi, B. Toxanbayeva, G. Andrássyné Baka, and R. Romváari
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of refrigerated storage on the microbial properties and organoleptic quality of Bologna-type turkey sausage, in which fat was partially replaced with pea fibre or potato starch. Each manufactured sausage had lower counts of Esherichia coli and enterobacteria than 1 log CFU·g−1, counts were below 2 log CFU·g−1 for Staphylococcus aureus, moreover, no Salmonella spp. were found in any of the sausages. The counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria did not exceed 4 log CFU·g−1 for each sausage formulation during four-week storage at 4 °C. Spectrocolorimetric measurements revealed that there was no decline in luminosity (L*) and redness (a*) by time, namely colour fading did not occur. Saltiness and juiciness values of sausages were directly proportional. Low-fat sausages were perceived less salty than full-fat analogue with the same salt content at the early stage of storage. Nevertheless, this phenomenon was temporary as sausages had the same saltiness at the end of four-week storage period. Sausages, in which 25% of fat was substituted with pea fibre or potato starch, were assessed as having the same odour, consistency, taste, and overall impact like control during the four-week refrigerated storage.
Sustainable nutrition (SN) considers the environmental impact of food production. This study aims to analyse the relationship between nutrient density and water footprint (WF) of the most consumed food items in Hungary and to create a classification of nutrients. Based on a comprehensive analysis of literature and different data sources, the authors analysed the stochastic relationship between WF and nutrient density of different food items by Spearman's rank correlation. The analysis proved significant (P<0.05) relationship between nutrient density and WF of the most relevant food items in Hungary. Based on the classification, there are nutrients that are overconsumed among the Hungarian population and positively correlate with WF (e.g., cholesterol) and there are nutrients that are under-consumed among the Hungarian population and negatively correlate with WF (e.g., dietary fibres). In general, it can be concluded that the re-structuration of food consumption patterns in Hungary is an important and urgent task, which serves both the public health and ecologic goals. These efforts should be based on a complex evaluation of the problem. This study was one initial step to analyse SN focused on Hungary and further studies are definitely needed.
The application of ultrasound during extraction of oil from apricot kernels using hexane was evaluated and compared with conventional methods (mechanical extraction and Soxhlet extraction). Results show that ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) yields more oil with less solvent consumption. The oil yield from UAE, SE, and ME were 44.72%, 44.33%, and 35.06%, respectively. It is noteworthy that it took 44 min to extract oil by UAE method, while alike yield was obtained from SE in 6 hours. Oil extracted by UAE exhibited significantly higher peroxide and ester values. The functional groups of apricot kernel oil were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Untreated and treated kernel powders were studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the development of microstructures and disruption of cell walls were evaluated. Our study suggests that ultrasound assisted extraction may be an effective method to extract edible oils by achieving higher efficiency in shorter extraction time.
Authors:P.K. Kannaujia, N. Patel, R. Asrey, M.K. Mahawar, V.S. Meena, B. Bibwe, K. Jalgaonkar, and N. Negi
In this study, six commercial cherry tomato cultivars were analysed for variations in biochemical and technological parameters. Significant differences were observed among cultivars with respect to their technological and functional quality attributes. About 2.48-fold variation in titratable acidity, 2.47-fold variation in total phenolics, 4.13-fold variation in total carotenoid and 7.68-fold variation in lycopene contents were recorded. The total antioxidant activity and respiration rate were also found to vary about 1.85-fold and 1.48-fold, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were found in the Cherry tomato hybrid no.1 followed by Pusa cherry tomato-1. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that Cherry tomato hybrid no. 1, Pusa cherry tomato-1, and Nagmoti cultivars were abundantly rich in phytochemical and bioactive compounds.
The research was carried out at the Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava with close cooperation with Institute of Water Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology. One of the important goals was the determination of the most accurate approach related to the computational fluid dynamics modeling of the air-water interaction. Research consists of two main research methods to ensure the accuracy, set up the possibilities of cooperation and the results control. The first method was the physical model of broad-crested weir installed in collapsible canal in hydraulic laboratory and the second was numerical computational fluid dynamics model of broad-crested weir created in same scale. In free surface flows the air entrainment phenomena plays an important role. Air entrainment is affecting the volume fraction, velocity field, energy dissipation and many other parameters related to dynamic behavior of water near the crests. Different approaches were carried out to identify most accurate computational fluid dynamics setup compared to physical model measurements. Compared results and the accuracy assessment are summarized and the best computational fluid dynamics parameterization is recommended.
It is well known that the civil engineering constructions are subjected to cost risk and time overruns. The uncertainties of the cost of construction many times result in disputes among stakeholders. The recent cost fluctuation in sand price in Tamil Nadu is a good example of time and cost overruns. There are too many models developed to predict the cost of construction by using different parameters and tools. The objectives of this research are to analyse the importance of research in this field, the countries focusing on this issue, level of implementation by the practicing engineers, the tools often or successfully used, the difficulties in predicting the cost and the accuracy of prediction and bringing out a useful conclusion to provide the direction for future research. In this research, a sample of 324 research papers out of more than 2000 papers listed in Scopus database between the years 1990 and 2015 were considered and analyzed on five factors. The five factors are 1) authors affiliation – academics, industry or both; 2) country; 3) tools used – ANN, regression, time-series models, etc.; 4) complexity involved or ease of use; 5) accuracy of results. The results show interesting information.