Authors:A. Berkics, V. Varga, Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, and Á.B. Jóźwiak
Tendencies of foodborne outbreaks show that the number of illnesses caused by Campylobacter spp. has been increasing recently in the European Union and in Hungary as well. However, the epidemiological statuses of Member States are diverse. There are several aspects to be investigated by competent authorities before the introduction of interventions. Methods supporting food safety decision making range from quick and easy techniques to complex, resource consuming approaches. The aim of the present study was the implementation of an evaluation and ranking system for a risk and its causes occurring in the broiler production chain. Data and information available in scientific literature were converted to a structured easy-to-use evaluation that supports decision making and helps structured data processing.
Authors:E. Szabó, D. Szakos, Gy. Kasza, and L. Ózsvári
The aim of this research was to assess the consumer habits of lactose sensitive persons in case of lactose-free products and their other shopping aspects for development of new, dairy-based lactose-free products. The research was based on face-to-face questionnaire survey, and those who declared to be lactose sensitive were analysed. Among them, only half of the women (49.3%) and one third of the men (34.6%) were medically proven lactose sensitive, so more than half of the respondents declared themselves affected on the basis of self-diagnosis. Our results show that reliably regular customers of lactose-free products are women and persons with medical diagnosis, high educational degree, and under the age of 30. The lactose-free consumer group prefers the following product features: lactose-free label; rich in calcium, vitamins, and fibre, and free of carbohydrate, sugar, and gluten. Only two-thirds of lactose sensitive customers (66.7%) consume lactose-free products regularly, so it can be assumed that the level of knowledge of this disease, its treatment, and the importance of lactose-free dairy products among these persons is insufficient. This could be solved with education, advertisement, and other information opportunities.
Mathematical methods take an important part in reconstruction technologies of radiographic image. Back projection, iterative, and analytical (Two-dimensional Fourier, Filtered Back Projection) methods are the most important procedures for image reconstruction. Whenever there exists numerous projections, analytical methods have a great performance in speed and accuracy and due to these advantages they are comprehensively used for X-ray imaging. One of the widespread used methods in tomographic image reconstruction is Filtered Back Projection (FBP) algorithm. This paper presents an application of this reconstruction algorithm for a generated image of the object. Shepp-Logan filter is used to form the filtered back projection image and performance improvement is investigated. The obtained images indicate that FBP algorithm can be substantial for various applications in the field of medicine and industry.
Authors:D. Koren, B. Hegyesné Vecseri, and G. Kun-Farkas
The aim of this research was to study the effect of micro- and industrial scale malting on the folate content of barley. Two malting barley varieties (one spring and one winter) were studied, applying the same technology. Furthermore, a roasting experiment was carried out at given temperatures for different time periods. The total folate content was determined by microbiological method. The folate content of the barleys was between 10.1 and 23.4 µg/100 g dry matter. For micro- and industrial scale, malting folate content increased 6.5–8-fold and 4–7-fold, respectively, during the malting process. An unexpected result was observed during industrial malting: the folate content increased during kilning by 18–35%, unlike micro scale malting, where a 15–20% decrease was observed. Results obtained during roasting showed that folic acid content did not decrease when roasted for 20 min at 100 °C, but it decreased linearly with increasing temperature. Folate is completely degraded in 20 min at 200 °C. It can be stated that barley malt can serve as a relatively good source of folate, but barley variety and malting technology have significant impact on it.
Authors:A. Singh, S. Sharma, A. Gupta, and B. Singh
Brown rice was germinated for different times (12, 24, 36, and 48 h) at different temperatures (25, 30, and 35 °C) with the aim to improve the in vitro digestibility and antioxidant potential of the flour made from it. Results showed that increase in germination time and temperature increased in vitro digestibility of starch and protein during germination of brown rice owing to depolymerisation of starch and protein molecules by enzymatic activity. After germination under varying conditions, antioxidant activity increased from 50.19 to 95.58%, total phenolic and flavonoid contents from 0.88 to 2.02 mg GAE/g and 34.06–62.94 mg QE/100g, respectively. Germination at elevated temperature (35 °C) for prolonged time (48 h) also increased the reducing power by 60.49% and metal chelating activity by 114.50% as a result of structural breakdown of bound phenolics. Increased activity of hydrolytic enzymes with progress in the germination time and temperature also results in continuous reduction in the pasting properties and lightness values (L), while increasing a* and b* values of the flour of germinated brown rice. Tailored germination, therefore, can be offered as a tool to increase nutrient digestibility and bioactive potential of brown rice as compared to non-germinated brown rice, thus, producing naturally modified flour with enhanced functionality.
Authors:Mohammad Reza Ganjali Bonjar, Kristóf Roland Horváth, Bálint Baranyai, and István Kistelegdi
The purpose of this research is the application of a passive design strategy for office buildings, the wall-window-ratio optimization under moderate climate. A simplified thermal and lighting simulation model of an office research building served as reference testbed for thermal comfort, daylight factor and illuminance as well as heating, cooling and lighting energy demand assessment. These six performance types of similarly oriented room groups are evaluated via a self-developed weighting process to determine the orientation dependent optimal wall-window-ratio of all room groups. This multi objective optimization applies in a broad range of office buildings under moderate climate.
Authors:G. Ucak Ozkaya, A. Besir, E. Metin, and M.Z. Durak
Cherry tomatoes inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were treated with vaporised ethyl pyruvate (EP). The changes of microbial and organoleptic properties of the samples during storage were investigated at two temperatures (4 and 10 °C) and four EP concentrations (0, 42, 105, and 420 ppm) for 7 days at 4 °C and for 5 days 10 °C. After 3 days, 4.3 log and 3.6 log reductions in E. coli O157:H7 numbers were detected in cherry tomatoes treated with 42 ppm EP at 4 °C and at 10 °C, respectively. The highest EP treatment (420 ppm) led to 5.7 log CFU g−1E. coli O157:H7 reduction after 1 day at 4 and 10 °C. The reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium on samples treated with 420 ppm EP was 7.7 log CFU g–1 after 1 day at 4 °C, and 6.9 log after 1 day at 10 °C. The treatment of EP can be effective at decreasing pathogen populations and can protect the organoleptic and colour properties of fresh produce.
Authors:A. Tonamo, I. Komlósi, L. Varga, M. Kačániová, and F. Peles
The objective of this study was to use matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of ovine-associated staphylococci. Presumptive Staphylococcus isolates were recovered from ovine udder surface (US), individual raw milk, bulk tank milk, and cheese samples and were characterised by conventional phenotypic methods. A total of 69 bacterial isolates were further confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Forty-two (60.9%) of 69 isolates were successfully identified on genus and species level. Two thirds (n = 28) of the 42 identified isolates were shown to be Staphylococcus spp. These 28 staphylococcal isolates formed two clusters, one consisting of 22 Staphylococcus aureus strains and the other composed of 6 non-aureus staphylococci, including S. simulans (n = 3), S. auricularis, S. equorum, and S. haemolyticus. MALDI-TOF MS has proven to be a reliable tool for the identification of staphylococci from raw sheep's milk, especially bulk tank milk; however, currently it appears to be less useful for the identification of bacterial isolates originating from ovine US samples. This is the first study to evaluate the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of Staphylococcus spp. in ovine raw milk, cheese, and US samples in Hungary.
In this study, the potential of the substitution of the conventional preservative potassium sorbate by fermented wheat flour as an alternative was analysed. The organic acid content and antibacterial activity of preservatives and the macronutrient characterisation were tested, as was the sensory evaluation of biscuits with added conventional and alternative preservatives. The results show that the fermented wheat flour contains secondary fermentation metabolites (e.g. acetic, lactic and pyruvic acids). Both fermented wheat flour and potassium sorbate have antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that fermented wheat flour in the recommended concentration range had no impact on sensory quality. Therefore, fermented wheat flour represents a potential substitution for conventional potassium in bakery products.
Authors:Gábor Rózsás, György Bognár, Gábor Takács, and Balázs Plesz
The efficiency of the most modern photovoltaic cells currently reaches 40–45%, which is achieved by concentrator systems. However, despite better device efficiencies concentrator photovoltaic cells have major drawback, namely the high amount of waste heat, which requires new cooling solutions.
This paper gives a short overview of the current cooling techniques and proposes a novel microchannel cooling solution for concentrator photovoltaic cells. In the concept, the microscale channels are integrated into the backside metallization of the PV device. The paper gives a description of the technological process that can be used to produce microchannels on the back of solar cells and shows the optimization of the channels to achieve optimal cooling performance.