This study assesses consumers' preference for food from social media on a sample of 510 respondents from the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia using the Best-Worst Scaling method. The findings of the study conclude that unhealthy and nutrient-poor food items are more preferred than healthy and nutrient-rich food items. The study recommends that the food and drug authority should intervene to increase consumers' awareness about the effect of unhealthy food items by creating social media accounts to warn consumers about the health outcomes of consuming certain unhealthy foods marketed through social media platforms.
Authors:Daniel Buček, Martin Orfánus, Peter Dušička, and Peter Šulek
Variable renewable energy sources, e.g. solar and wind power, require flexible management of energy sources to stabilize the power grid. Immediate changes in power generation and power usage is compensated for by the operation of hydropower plants. This subsequently leads to frequent flow fluctuations – hydropeaking downstream of the hydropower plant. This study examines the short-term impacts of hydropeaking of hydropower plants on the sediment transport using numerical morphodynamic model. The model is calibrated to field measurements and subjected to various hydropeaking scenarios on daily to sub-daily scale. Based on this study, the effect of hydropeaking of hydropower plant 23.42 km upstream of the studied river section would have negligible effect on the bedload transport in the studied cross section.
Authors:Merzouqi Maria, Sarhrouni El Kebir, and Hammouch Ahmed
Hyperspectral images (HSI) present a wealth of information. It is distinguished by its high dimensionality. It served humanity in many fields. The quantity of HSI information represents a double-edged sword. As a consequence, their dimensionality must be reduced. Nowadays, several methods are proposed to overcome their duress. The most useful and essential solution is selection approaches of hyperspectral bands to analyze it quickly. Our work suggests a novel method to achieve this selection: we introduce a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based on mutual information (MI) and Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as fitness functions. It selects the relevant bands from noisiest and redundant ones that don’t contain any additional information. .The proposed method is applied to three different HSI: INDIAN PINE, PAVIA, and SALINAS. The introduced algorithm provides a remarkable efficiency on the accuracy of the classification, in front of other statistical methods: the Bhattacharyya coefficient as well as the inter-bands correlation (Pearson correlation). We conclude that the measure of information (MI, NMI) provides more efficiency as a fitness function for GA selection applied to HSI; it must be more investigated.
Authors:Sz. Gy. Szerencsés, S. Beszédes, Zs. László, G. Veréb, D. Szalay, Zs. Hovorkáné Horváth, C. Hodúr, G. Rákhely, and Sz. Kertész
In this study, statistical analysis was performed to investigate the influence of operational parameters based on experimental results. The research aimed to know whether a long-term discontinuous module vibration operation is possible without adversely affecting filtration efficiency. Polymer membranes were compared by surface characteristics with contact angle measurements and selected for further membrane filtration experiments for dairy wastewater treatment. The effect of the main operational parameters, membrane module vibration amplitude (Avibr.) and transmembrane pressure (TMP), was investigated using a vibratory shear enhanced processing (VSEP) module with ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Components of the permeates, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), were measured, and membrane rejections were calculated to compare with threshold limit values. The results suggest that proper combination of Avibr. and TMP could mitigate membrane fouling. However, discontinuous module vibration resulted in more clogged membrane with lower fluxes, but slightly higher rejections. We conclude that investigating the significance of operational parameters is necessary for a wider, more energy and environment-friendly application in wastewater treatment.
This survey has been performed as part of a wider survey within the Western Balkan Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) Competitiveness Support Project. It presents the current situation of occupational health and safety (OHS) management at 18 SMEs in Kosovo. SMEs in the Republic of Kosovo are facing many difficulties in identifying the real need for interventions, recruiting adequate professional staff to support their activities in OHS. Exposed to an opened market under the regional and international competition, their sustainability has become more difficult and their financial fragility leads very often to the ignorance of OHS issues within their organization.
The first objective of this research aimed to understand the OHS contextual factors, barriers and drivers based on the current practice of SMEs in Kosovo. The second objective was to find out if the OHS “ideal intervention process” is applicable to achieve improvements for SMEs in Kosovo. Data collection was expedited through internal documents review, site visits and questionnaires. The statistical data were subject to descriptive analyses and inferential statistics. The findings showed that the contextual factors which influence the intervention process, were of participatory nature, cognitive and physical workplace environment, while the perceived barriers were mainly coming from lack of resources and information. Finally the features of OHS “ideal intervention process” were analyzed and compared for applicability to the SMEs in Kosovo and several interventions in this regards were proposed.
Amaranth is considered to be a part of “superfood”, however, due to multiple restricting properties, its functionality in the food industry is still not explored to its fullest. The present study investigated the effect of almond gum concentration (3–10 g), temperature (50–90 °C), and quantity of water (30–70 mL) on the functional properties of amaranth starch. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) showed that the 6.9 g of almond gum, 64.43 mL of water, and temperature maintained at 90 °C, were the optimised conditions to attain 16.77 g g−1 of swelling power, 12.97% of solubility index, and 20.13% freeze-thaw stability. Moreover, the modified amaranth starch was further employed to develop pudding as a value-added product. The findings concluded that the developed pudding using modified amaranth starch exhibited enhanced sensorial attributes due to an increase in cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience of starch gel.
Authors:Á. Illés, Cs. Bojtor, A. Széles, S.M.N. Mousavi, B. Tóth, and J. Nagy
The presented research aimed to confirm that the differences in the lipid peroxidation of three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes and maturity are due to different nitrogen levels, which was observed based on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) measured in the leaves at the main phenological stages of plants. The experiments were performed in a multi-factorial long term fertilisation field trial. In the study, phosphorus and potassium were constantly provided at the optimal level for the plants. The phosphorus and potassium fertilisation were applied in autumn. However, N levels varied from 0 to 300 kg ha−1. Sampling was done at different growth stages 5 times during the growing season (4 leaves, 6 leaves, 8 leaves, 14 leaves, silking). The 300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3) resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA level), but not a statistically significant difference between the control (dose 1) and the 120 kg ha−1 (dose 2) N doses. The H1 hybrid had the lowest level of lipid peroxidation at the first sampling date. High volume nitrogen fertilisation (dose 3: 300 kg ha−1) increased lipid peroxidation in the hybrids. Averaging the values obtained for the same hybrid at the different sampling times, the medium (dose 2) 120 kg ha−1 N treatment had no significant effect on the lipid peroxidation of the hybrids compared to the values of the control plants. Based on the lipid peroxidation response of the hybrids to N treatment, the exact N dose inflection point can be determined to make the fertiliser utilisation of plants more efficient. Based on our results, we found that inadequate, low (120 kg ha−1) or high (300 kg ha−1) nitrogen fertilisation could affect the MDA levels of plants, thereby affecting the functioning of the lipid peroxidation mechanism.
Authors:M. Krpan, N. Major, Z. Šatalić, and M. Hruškar
Human breast milk, infant formula, and follow-up milks were tested by a commercial electronic tongue (αAstree, Alpha MOS) with the aim to determine taste diversity, since it has been recently shown that infants exposed to different tastes early in life, develop different food preference at a later age. Human milk (36 samples) were obtained from 13 lactating women, while 12 samples of infant formula and 14 samples of follow-up milk were obtained from the Croatian market and opened prior to analysis. Human breast milk samples showed a much higher diversity than both infant formulae and follow-up milks. These results suggest that breast-fed infants are exposed to a broader sensory experience, while formula fed infants are exposed to less diverse taste. Future studies will probably answer how this influences later food choice, taste preferences, and consequently, risk of obesity and other chronic diseases.
In the study, four potent Lactobacillus cultures of L. rhamnosus K4E, L. plantarum RD7, L. fermentum K7, and L. fermentum K16 were considered for the production of B-vitamins, organic acids and biotransformation of soy isoflavones. L. plantarum RD7 showed the highest B2 production (0.84 μg mL−1) after 36 h, while L. fermentum K16 exhibited maximum B12 production (0.084 μg mL−1) after 12 h. L. rhamnosus K4E produced 0.24 μg mL−1 of folate after 12 h. Highest production of lactate (16.43 μg mL−1) and acetate (5.86 μg mL−1) was reported by L. rhamnosus K4E. L. plantarum RD7 showed maximum butyrate (0.253 μg mL−1) production compared to the other cultures. The highest bioconversion of soy aglycones was reported by L. rhamnosus K4E with 55.43% for daidzein and 72.30% for genistein, during soymilk fermentation. These potent cultures have a potential to be used as functional starter cultures for the production of functional fermented soy foods.
Authors:I. Mahmoudi, A. Telmoudi, M. Chouaibi, and M. Hassouna
This study aimed to produce probiotic ‘Testouri’, traditional Tunisian sheep cheese, by direct-to-vat inoculum of probiotic adjuncts.
The potential of Testouri sheep cheeses was evaluated by an assessment of gross composition and proteolytic, antibacterial, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. Results highlighted that no significant differences were observed in compositional parameters of the samples at day 0. Probiotic counts in cheeses remained at 8 log CFU g−1 during storage. Probiotic cheeses exhibited measurable antibacterial activities with the maximum value (diameter of 12 ± 0.07 mm) on Staphylococcus aureus strain. Also, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitions ranged from 42 ± 0.77 to 58 ± 0.88% and 20 ± 0.9 to 47 ± 1.3%, respectively, during storage. Additionally, cheeses inoculated with probiotics exhibited significant increases in proteolytic and antioxidant activities compared to the control sample.
Therefore, Testouri cheese can be considered a good carrier of probiotics and can be promoted for commercial uses.