Authors:Á. Illés, Cs. Bojtor, A. Széles, S.M.N. Mousavi, B. Tóth, and J. Nagy
The presented research aimed to confirm that the differences in the lipid peroxidation of three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes and maturity are due to different nitrogen levels, which was observed based on the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) measured in the leaves at the main phenological stages of plants. The experiments were performed in a multi-factorial long term fertilisation field trial. In the study, phosphorus and potassium were constantly provided at the optimal level for the plants. The phosphorus and potassium fertilisation were applied in autumn. However, N levels varied from 0 to 300 kg ha−1. Sampling was done at different growth stages 5 times during the growing season (4 leaves, 6 leaves, 8 leaves, 14 leaves, silking). The 300 kg ha−1 N (dose 3) resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA level), but not a statistically significant difference between the control (dose 1) and the 120 kg ha−1 (dose 2) N doses. The H1 hybrid had the lowest level of lipid peroxidation at the first sampling date. High volume nitrogen fertilisation (dose 3: 300 kg ha−1) increased lipid peroxidation in the hybrids. Averaging the values obtained for the same hybrid at the different sampling times, the medium (dose 2) 120 kg ha−1 N treatment had no significant effect on the lipid peroxidation of the hybrids compared to the values of the control plants. Based on the lipid peroxidation response of the hybrids to N treatment, the exact N dose inflection point can be determined to make the fertiliser utilisation of plants more efficient. Based on our results, we found that inadequate, low (120 kg ha−1) or high (300 kg ha−1) nitrogen fertilisation could affect the MDA levels of plants, thereby affecting the functioning of the lipid peroxidation mechanism.
Authors:M. Krpan, N. Major, Z. Šatalić, and M. Hruškar
Human breast milk, infant formula, and follow-up milks were tested by a commercial electronic tongue (αAstree, Alpha MOS) with the aim to determine taste diversity, since it has been recently shown that infants exposed to different tastes early in life, develop different food preference at a later age. Human milk (36 samples) were obtained from 13 lactating women, while 12 samples of infant formula and 14 samples of follow-up milk were obtained from the Croatian market and opened prior to analysis. Human breast milk samples showed a much higher diversity than both infant formulae and follow-up milks. These results suggest that breast-fed infants are exposed to a broader sensory experience, while formula fed infants are exposed to less diverse taste. Future studies will probably answer how this influences later food choice, taste preferences, and consequently, risk of obesity and other chronic diseases.
In the study, four potent Lactobacillus cultures of L. rhamnosus K4E, L. plantarum RD7, L. fermentum K7, and L. fermentum K16 were considered for the production of B-vitamins, organic acids and biotransformation of soy isoflavones. L. plantarum RD7 showed the highest B2 production (0.84 μg mL−1) after 36 h, while L. fermentum K16 exhibited maximum B12 production (0.084 μg mL−1) after 12 h. L. rhamnosus K4E produced 0.24 μg mL−1 of folate after 12 h. Highest production of lactate (16.43 μg mL−1) and acetate (5.86 μg mL−1) was reported by L. rhamnosus K4E. L. plantarum RD7 showed maximum butyrate (0.253 μg mL−1) production compared to the other cultures. The highest bioconversion of soy aglycones was reported by L. rhamnosus K4E with 55.43% for daidzein and 72.30% for genistein, during soymilk fermentation. These potent cultures have a potential to be used as functional starter cultures for the production of functional fermented soy foods.
Authors:I. Mahmoudi, A. Telmoudi, M. Chouaibi, and M. Hassouna
This study aimed to produce probiotic ‘Testouri’, traditional Tunisian sheep cheese, by direct-to-vat inoculum of probiotic adjuncts.
The potential of Testouri sheep cheeses was evaluated by an assessment of gross composition and proteolytic, antibacterial, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities during storage at 4 °C for 28 days. Results highlighted that no significant differences were observed in compositional parameters of the samples at day 0. Probiotic counts in cheeses remained at 8 log CFU g−1 during storage. Probiotic cheeses exhibited measurable antibacterial activities with the maximum value (diameter of 12 ± 0.07 mm) on Staphylococcus aureus strain. Also, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitions ranged from 42 ± 0.77 to 58 ± 0.88% and 20 ± 0.9 to 47 ± 1.3%, respectively, during storage. Additionally, cheeses inoculated with probiotics exhibited significant increases in proteolytic and antioxidant activities compared to the control sample.
Therefore, Testouri cheese can be considered a good carrier of probiotics and can be promoted for commercial uses.
The Roissypole is a complex residential area within Charles de Gaulle airport in Paris. There are already accommodations of different levels with bars, cafes and more in this area, but there is a lack of simple connection between existing buildings, which help brings life to the outside atmosphere. The proposed concept is not a simple public facility renew instead of a new social and functional design, which is to reinvent the airport region design to transform the Roissypole district into an appealing enjoyable and lively living environment. While enhancing the life quality for both long and short-term residents, for people to share their life, live in an active way, it also provides passive life and initiative social activities, which form a new lifestyle.
This paper presents the results of a theoretical-numerical study of laterally-restrained thin-walled steel rectangular hollow flange beams subjected to bending, shear and bending and shear interaction. Finite element analyses were carried out by using ANSYS software, and validated by previous experimental tests. Furthermore, the effect of intermediate stiffeners was investigated, where the improvement percentage in bending capacity was 4.4%. Additionally, all the corresponding outcomes were calculated according to EN 1993-1-3. The results showed that current standard rules tend to be somewhat conservative in both bending and bending and shear interaction cases, while they are not quite accurate in shear case.
University campuses and the surrounding urban environment are an integral part of each other's lives. The subject of this article is the relationship between them, primarily in relation to Pécs and University of Pécs. During the examinations, the network of connections regarding the city, university and its education sites will be visible. As it stands, the education sites of University of Pécs are not yet able to function as campuses. The creation of urban public spaces for the development of campuses is essential, as it can be seen through international examples and design. This may be the result of the numerous reductions and reorganization of educational sites.
Authors:Gábor Heckenast, Marcel Ferencz, and András Tibor Kertész
The focus of this research is the connection between architecture and water, how this natural element has formed the way of thinking. To give a complex answer, it is required to observe this complex topic from different aspects: time, space (with macro and micro space typology), meaning, technology, art and architectural design method, which all together can create a network of ideas. This outlined network could provide a theoretical basis for a new complex design method – from the building scale to the urban scale – for the upcoming challenges of built environment in connection with water in the future.
Authors:Lucia Bytčanková, Ján Rumann, and Peter Dušička
The structural parts of intake structures directly affect the flow velocity distribution in the turbine intake of small hydropower plants, where inhomogeneous flow leads to uneven load of the turbine units causing operational problems. A 2D numerical flow modeling was used for investigations of the flow in an intake structure of a low-head small hydropower plant. The effects of shape changes of the intake structure on the flow velocity distribution in the turbine intakes were investigated and assessed proving significant effect of the shapes of the intake structure on the flow homogeneity in turbine intakes.
The Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC) of India has been calculating and publishing the Construction Cost Index (CCI), monthly, since 1998. Construction cost variations interrogate different kinds of projects such as roads, power plants, buildings, industrial structures, railways and bridges. The success rate of completion of construction project is diminished due to the lack of prediction knowledge in CCI. Predicting CCI in greater accuracy is quite difficult for contractor and academicians. The following factors are influenced higher in CCI such as population, unemployment rate, consumer price index (CPI), long term interest rate, domestic credit growth, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and money supply (M4). CCI can be used to forecast the construction cost. The relevant resource data was collected across the nation between 2003 and 2018. As outcome-based, non-econometric tools such as smoothing techniques, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machines (SVMs) have produced a better outcome. Among these, smoothing techniques have given the notable low error and high accuracy. This accuracy has measured by Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Square Error (MSE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The major objective of this research is to help the cost estimator to avoid underestimation and overestimation.