Concrete indeterminate flexural members represented by continuous beams reinforced with both fiber-reinforced polymers and steel bars in a way that allows for moment redistribution at failure are analyzed. The efficiency of introducing steel bars in the critical sections where plastic hinges are likely to form is evaluated in terms of reliability. Monte Carlo simulation and the concept of comparative reliability are both employed. Ultimately, the effect of different design parameters on the strength reduction factor is evaluated.
The aim of this paper is to introduce the visual elements that may influence the lighting quality, and link them with the functioning of drug addiction institutes to understand the adequate design for each function and assure the well-being of the patient, therefore reduce their stress. The suggested strategy accords the qualitative and quantitative lighting design conditions to afford a complete reference for the forward study.
With the continuous development of society and cities, people’s demand for urban public space is constantly changing, and the methods for public space renewal are becoming more and more diverse. As a flexible space renewal strategy, street art activities can not only partially update the space, increase the vitality of the space, but also improve the quality of the space and meet people’s needs. This paper first discusses the concepts and types of street art and clarifies the scope of research, Then, through the analysis of the role and impact of “street art activities intervening in urban space”, and finally summing up the relevant enlightenment, to create a favorable material environment for the future art intervention space.
Authors:Hayder Wafi Al-Thabhawee and Abbas Ali Al-Hassan
Castellated beams are made from a hot rolled steel I-section in a few steps. Firstly, the web of the parent I-section is cut in a particular zigzag pattern and the two halves are reconnected by welding to form a castellated beam with hexagonal openings. In other cases, a spacer plate is placed between the two halves to produce octagonal openings, which increase the section depth. Increasing the depth by adding spacer plates leads to web-post buckling. This study focuses on improving the castellated beam to obtain high strength with relatively low cost by placing a steel ring inside the octagonal openings to strengthen the weakest part, which is its web. The results show that the steel ring is effective in strengthening the web-post.
Authors:László Hajdu, Balázs Dávid, and Miklós Krész
Because of the wide variety of possible application fields and the spread of smart devices, the research of wireless sensor networks has become an increasingly important area in the last decade. During the design of these networks, several important aspects have to be considered, for example the lifetime of the network, expected battery usage, or robustness of the installed system. In this paper a simulation environment is introduced that enables the testing of different information spreading methods on the network and provides suggestions for gateway placements with different objectives.
Authors:Abbas Al-Hdabi, Mohammed Al-Jumaili, and Huda Abdulzahra
Cold asphalt emulsion mixtures are produced at ambient temperature and it have several advantages i.e., energy savings, safety and reducing CO2 emission during manufacturing and construction, reduction of adverse environmental impact. Cement kiln dust is a fine powdery substance with appearance similar to Portland cement that is generated as a by-product material of cement manufacturing industry. The aim of this research is addition of cement kiln dust instead of Portland cement as filler in asphalt emulsion mixtures. Cement kiln dust was added with 2, 4, 6, and 8% from total weight of aggregate to improve the mechanical properties and durability of this mixture. The results were very positive and encouraging, due to the improvement of the mechanical properties and durability of the mixtures.
Authors:Ivan Baláž, Yvonna Koleková, Lydia Moroczová, and Antonio Agüero
Eurocodes give guidance how to design built-up columns having effective bending stiffness, smeared shear stiffness and local bow imperfection amplitude e0= L/500 under compression. The guidance is valid only for columns supported by hinges at their ends. The second order theory is presented, which allows analysis of the battened and laced built-up columns with initial imperfection under combined compression and bending with the bottom end fixed and the upper one free in the case of in-plane buckling. The application of the theory in several numerical examples is given in Part II.
The congested traffic flow is significantly different from both the free flow and the non-congested but limited flow. Two of those differences are in the merging and crossing movements. Based on the conducted measurements, this movement could be up to 10 times faster in the congested condition. Another important feature is the giveway gestures. It was found that the vast majority of the gaps needed to merge or cross are not generated by the traffic dynamic, but created by the arterial road's drivers in the interactions with drivers wishing to merge or cross.
Authors:Bode Venkata Kavyateja, J. Guru Jawahar, Chundupalle Sashidhar, and Narasimha Reddy Panga
This paper analyses the structural behavior of reinforced self-compacting concrete beams under two-point loading. A total number of five beams were cast with varying quantities of alccofine (i.e., 0, 5, 10, and 15%) and constant dosage of fly ash (i.e., 25%) and tested for examining the load-deflection curves and ultimate moment carrying capacity of reinforced self-compacting concrete beams. From obtained experimental results, it was found that the load-carrying capacity was increased when the beam with the addition of alccofine and fly ash is compared with the normal concrete beam. The experimental obtained ultimate strength values were compared with theoretically predicted values using IS 456-2000, ACI 318-11, and CSA A23.3-04 codes.
Several types of punching shear reinforcements are available for increase of the maximum resistance against punching shear failure of flat slabs. Conventional punching shear reinforcement in form of stirrups or double headed studs are in use for decades. They are well known due to their simplicity and good performance. A new type of punching reinforcement has been developed for the case, where the flat slab exposed to extreme load and resistance of conventional type of punching shear reinforcement is not sufficient. Another designs point out that new construction system can reduce the amount of CO2. This paper presents some results of parametric study focused on design of the flat slab using different types of punching shear reinforcement and considering the concrete consumption.