Authors:T. Shagholi, M. Keshavarzi, and M. Sheidai
Tamarix L. (Tamaricaceae) is a halophytic shrub in different parts of Asia and North Africa. Taxonomy and species limitation of Tamarix is very complex. This genus has three sections as Tamarix, Oligadenia, and Polyadenia, which are mainly separated by petal length, the number of stamens, the shape of androecial disk and attachment of filament on the androecial disk. As there was no palynological data on pollen features of Tamarix species of Iran, in the present study 12 qualitative and quantitative pollen features were evaluated to find diagnostic ones. Pollen grains of 8 Tamarix species were collected from nature. Pollen grains were studied without any treatment. Measurements were based on at least 50 pollen grains per specimen. Light and scanning electron microscopes were used. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to clarify the species relationships based on pollen data. All species studied showed monad and tricolpate (except some individuals of T. androssowii). Some Tamarix species show a high level of variability, in response to ecological niches and phenotypic plasticity, which make Tamarix species separation much more difficult. Based on the results of the present study, pollen grains features are not in agreement with previous morphological and molecular genetics about the sectional distinction.
Authors:T. Wirth, I. Fazekas, Cs. Schmidt, and J. Csiky
Between the years 2015–2018, 147 stands of Ficus carica L. was found out of cultivation in Baranya county. In 2008 presence of fig wasp (Blastophaga psenes L.) and caprificus individuals that are necessary for pollination, then for producing fertile seeds were detected in Pécs at first time. For germination tests fig seeds were collected from several different stands in Pécs and successful reproduction of the species was confirmed under in vitro conditions. According to former and recent observations (i.e. subspontaneous seedlings and/or successful in vitro germination of common fig seeds in 2010 and 2014) fig wasp may have occurred in Budapest and Máriagyűd too, at least in the last ten years. These results confirm that F. carica is an old ‘new’ casual or may be a naturalised neophyte element of the Hungarian flora. According to the new records the northernmost escaped individuals of F. carica was found at 47.475° N in the Carpathian Basin, 116.5 km N of the closest Slovenian stand in the latitudinal direction.
Authors:S. Y. Kondratyuk, L. Lőkös, E. Farkas, I. Kärnefelt, A. Thell, Y. Yamamoto, and J.-S. Hur
Three new for science genera, i.e.: Erichansenia S. Y. Kondr., Kärnefelt et A. Thell for the ‘Caloplaca’ epithallina group of the subfamily Xanthorioideae, as well as Lendemeriella S. Y. Kondr. for the Caloplaca reptans group, and Pisutiella S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et E. Farkas for the Caloplaca conversa group of the subfamily Caloplacoideae of the Teloschistaceae, are described on the basis of results of the three gene phylogeny of the Teloschistaceae based on nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU sequences.
Twenty-seven new combinations, i.e.: Erichansenia epithallina (for Caloplaca epithallina Lynge), Erichansenia cryodesertorum (for Shackletonia cryodesertorum Garrido-Ben., Søchting et Pérez-Ort.), Erichansenia sauronii (for Caloplaca sauronii Søchting et Øvstedal), Fauriea mandshuriaensis (for Caloplaca mandshuriaensis S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J.-S. Hur), Fauriea trassii (for Caloplaca trassii Galanina et S. Y. Kondr.), Lendemeriella borealis (for Lecanora pyracea f. borealis Vain.), Lendemeriella dakotensis (for Caloplaca dakotensis Wetmore), Lendemeriella exsecuta (for Lecanora exsecuta Nyl.), Lendemeriella lucifuga (for Caloplaca lucifuga G. Thor), Lendemeriella nivalis (for Zeora nivalis Körb.), Lendemeriella reptans (for Caloplaca reptans Lendemer et B. P. Hodk.), Lendemeriella sorocarpa (for Placodium sorocarpum Vain.), Lendemeriella tornoensis (for Caloplaca tornoensis H. Magn.), Pisutiella congrediens (for Lecanora congrediens Nyl.), Pisutiella conversa (for Callopisma conversum Kremp.), Pisutiella furax (for Caloplaca furax Egea et Llimona), Pisutiella grimmiae (for Lecanora grimmiae Nyl.), Pisutiella ivanpisutii (for Caloplaca ivanpisutii S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et Hur), Pisutiella phaeothamnos (for Caloplaca phaeothamnos K. Kalb et J. Poelt), Pyrenodesmia aetnensis (for Caloplaca aetnensis B. de Lesd.), Pyrenodesmia albolutescens (for Lecanora albolutescens Nyl.), Pyrenodesmia aractina (for Parmelia aractina Fr.), Pyrenodesmia atroflava (for Lecidea atroflava Turner), Pyrenodesmia bicolor (for Caloplaca bicolor H. Magn.), Pyrenodesmia molariformis (for Caloplaca molariformis Frolov, Vondrák, Nadyeina et Khodos.), Pyrenodesmia neotaurica (for Caloplaca neotaurica Vondrák, Khodos., Arup et Søchting), Pyrenodesmia peliophylla (for Placodium peliophyllum Tuck.) are proposed based on results from a combined phylogenetic analysis using nrITS, nrLSU and mtSSU gene sequences.
Authors:Zoltán Attila Köbölkuti, Klára Cseke, Attila Benke, Mátyás Báder, Attila Borovics, and Róbert Németh
Since Populus has veritable value as timber, plywood, pulp, and paper, genomic research should create the sound basis for further breeding toward desirable wood quality attributes.
Materials and methods
In this study, we addressed the need for a research methodology that initially identifies and then characterize candidate genes encoding enzymes with wood property phenotypic traits, toward the aim of developing a genomics-based breeding technology.
On 23 different poplar species/hybrid samples, we successfully amplified 55 primers designed on Populus trichocarpa L. Considering the number of polymorphic sites, out of 73,206 bp, 51 SNPs and 31 indel events were found. Non-synonymous single base mutations could be detected in number of 30, 21 out of 164 sequences were the number of minimum recombination events and 41 significant pairwise comparisons between loci could be detected.
Discussion and conclusion
Our results provide a roadmap for a future association genetic study between nucleotide diversity and precise evaluation of phenotype.
Authors:Gergely Sámuel Bartha, Gergő Tóth, Péter Horváth, Eszter Kiss, Nóra Papp, and Monika Kerényi
Several Aristolochia species were used as medicinal herb across Europe and in recent years, their antimicrobial activity has also been investigated.
Materials and methods
In this study, A. clematitis was selected to evaluate the aristolochic acids I and II (AA I and AA II) concentrations and the antimicrobial activity of methanol, hexane, butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of the root, stem, leaf, root, and fruit. AA I and AA II contents were measured by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography–ultraviolet method.
Each fraction of the plant contained AA I and AA II and the root was found to have the highest contents of AA I (1.09%) and AA II (0.7454%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of all extracts were determined by standard microdilution method. The fruit’s extracts showed the most efficient antimicrobial effect against both methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.
Correlation between the AA I and AA II concentrations and the antimicrobial effect was not found.
Authors:C. M. Mutshinda, Z. V. Finkel, C. E. Widdicombe, and A. J. Irwin
Ecological communities are shaped by a complex interplay between abiotic forcing, biotic regulation and demographic stochasticity. However, community dynamics modelers tend to focus on abiotic forcing overlooking biotic interactions, due to notorious challenges involved in modeling and quantifying inter-specific interactions, particularly for species-rich systems such as planktonic assemblages. Nevertheless, inclusive models with regard to the full range of plausible drivers are essential to characterizing and predicting community response to environmental changes. Here we develop a Bayesian model for identifying, from in-situ time series, the biotic, abiotic and stochastic factors underlying the dynamics of species-rich communities, focusing on the joint biomass dynamics of biologically meaningful groups. We parameterize a multivariate model of population co-variation with an explicit account for demographic stochasticity, density-dependent feedbacks, pairwise interactions, and abiotic stress mediated by changing environmental conditions and resource availability, and work out explicit formulae for partitioning the temporal variance of each group in its biotic, abiotic and stochastic components. We illustrate the methodology by analyzing the joint biomass dynamics of four major phytoplankton functional types namely, diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores and phytoflagellates at Station L4 in the Western English Channel using weekly biomass records and coincident measurements of environmental covariates describing water conditions and potentially limiting resources. Abiotic and biotic factors explain comparable amounts of temporal variance in log-biomass growth across functional types. Our results demonstrate that effective modelling of resource limitation and inter-specific interactions is critical for quantifying the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors.
Due to its overall environmental impact, the residual dye in the wastewater from the synthetic dye manufacturing and textile industries is a global concern. The discharge contains a high content of pigments and other additives, possessing complex structures. As per the requirement for dyed clothing, dyestuff in the effluent is less susceptible to acids, bases, and oxygen. Thus, conventional physical and chemical methods are not always efficient in degrading the dyes. Some microorganisms growing in an area affected with textile effluent have the capability to utilize the dyes as a source of carbon or nitrogen or both. As a very clean, inexpensive, and sufficient alternative, bioremediation of textile wastewater using these microorganisms has gained major popularity. This review primarily centers the contribution of bacteria in this sector and the isolation of such bacteria from textile effluent. A secondary focus is discussing the factors which influence the performance by different bacteria.
Authors:Nabi Khezrinejad, Gholam Khodakaramian, and Fatemeh Shahryari
This study aims to characterize plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in sunflowers growing in different locations at North West of Iran.
Materials and methods
Sunflower plants were collected from different regions of West Azarbaijan, and rhizospheric bacterial strains were isolated and screened for PGP traits. Identification and characterization of the PGPR were conducted based on 16s rDNA sequences and phenotypic analysis, the strains clustered for genetic diversity by rep-PCR method.
Among the 80 bacterial isolates, 20 showed PGP traits and were selected for other potentials. All the selected isolates produced indole-3-acetic acid at the rate of 9.2–33.7 mg/ml. In addition, 13, 15, 12, and 16 were positive for phosphate solubilization, siderephore, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia production, respectively. The results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated that PGPRs distinctly increased sun flower shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, as well as shoot and root dry weight. Based on 16S rDNA sequences and biochemical and physiological characteristics, 20 PGPRs were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (five isolates), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four isolates), Pseudomonas geniculata (one isolate), Bacillus subtilis (four isolates), Bacillus pumilus (two isolates), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (two isolates), and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans (two isolates). In rep-PCR, PGPR isolates were differentiated into seven clusters (A–G) at 65% similarity level. These results demonstrated the existence of a considerable species richness and genetic diversity among PGPRs isolated from different regions of North West of Iran.
To the best of our knowledge, this is first report for the identification and characterization of B. frigoritolerans as PGPR in sunflower plants.
Authors:Rubina Tu¨nde Szabó, Mária Kovács-Weber, Márta Erdélyi, Krisztián Balogh, Natasa Fazekas, Ákos Horváth, Miklós Mézes, and Balázs Kovács
Background and aims
The aim of this study was to verify that the comet assay can be used to investigate the DNA damaging effects of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in the liver of broiler chickens. The comet assay is a favorable genotoxic analysis because it is cheap, simple, and can be used in many organisms and different tissues.
Materials and methods
Male broiler chickens were fed with T-2/HT-2 toxins-contaminated diet for 14 days. The comet assay was successfully adapted to chicken liver cells, and the DNA damage was determined by a decrease in the comet parameter (DNA % in the tail) in the experimental groups.
The method of evaluation was found to be critical because DNA damage could not be detected exactly using the CometScore software, due to inaccurate separation of head and comet. However, this problem can be solved by visual evaluation.
In the case of the visual evaluation, each toxin-treated group differed significantly from the control group, indicating that the assay can be useful for the assessment of primary DNA damage caused by T-2/HT-2 toxins.
In this study, we analyzed gynandromorphs with female terminalia, to dissect mating-related female behaviors in Drosophila.
Materials and methods
We used gynandromorphs, experimentally modified wild-type (Oregon-R) females, and mutant females that lacked different components of the female reproductive apparatus.
Many of the gynandromorphs mated but did not expel the mating plug (MP). Some of these – with thousands of sperm in the uterus – failed to take up sperm into the storage organs. There were gynandromorphs that stored plenty of sperm but failed to release them to fertilize eggs. Expelling the MP, sperm uptake into the storage organs, and the release of stored sperm along egg production are separate steps occurring during Drosophila female fertility. Cuticle landmarks of the gynandromorphs revealed that while the nerve foci that control MP expelling and also those that control sperm uptake reside in the abdominal, the sperm release foci derive from the thoracic region of the blastoderm.
Discussion and conclusion
The gynandromorph study is confirmed by analyses of (a) mutations that cause female sterility: Fs(3)Avar (preventing egg deposition), Tm2gs (removing germline cells), and iab-4DB (eliminating gonad formation) and (b) by experimentally manipulated wild-type females: decapitated or cut through ventral nerve cord.