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Abstract

Based on the current literature, the link between Achilles tendon moment arm length and running economy is not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the connection between Achilles tendon moment arm and running economy and the influence of Achilles tendon moment arm on the function of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit during running.

Ten male competitive marathon runners volunteered for this study. The participants ran on a treadmill at two running speeds: 3 and 3.5 m s−1. During running the oxygen consumption, lower leg kinematics, electrical activity of plantar flexor muscles, and fascicle behavior of the lateral gastrocnemius were measured simultaneously. On the second occasion, an MRI scan of the right leg was taken and used to estimate the Achilles tendon moment arm length.

There was a negative correlation between running economy and the body height normalized moment arm length at both selected speeds (r = −0.68, P = 0.014 and r = −0.70, P = 0.01). In addition, Achilles tendon moment arm length correlated with the amplitude of the ankle flexion at both speeds (r = −0.59, P = 0.03 and r = −0.60, P = 0.03) and with the electrical activity of the medial gastrocnemius muscle at 3 m s−1 speed (r = −0.62, P = 0.02). Our finding supports the concept that a longer moment arm could be beneficial for distance runners.

Open access

Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Abstract

The present case report describes the clinical signs and case resolution of an intact 9-year-old male crossbreed dog with spontaneous constipation. The dog presented with abdominal pain, lack of appetite, tenesmus and without signs of defecation in the last 4 days. No important alterations were observed in the complete blood count and biochemistry. A substantial obstruction caused by a faecaloma and a prostate with increased size was observed on X-rays. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was confirmed by ultrasonography (size: 48.29 cm3) and by testing the serum canine prostate-specific arginine esterase concentration (105.97 ng/mL). Colon impaction was resolved with rectal enemas within two days. BPH was treated with osaterone acetate. Ultrasonographic checks were performed after 60 and 180 days from the demission and a concrete constant reduction of prostatic volume and of the clinical signs was established. Faecaloma is an uncommon finding in male dogs, and it occurs especially as a consequence of BPH. Colon impaction in patients with BPH is usually subclinical, but it is important to underline how, in severe cases, perforation of the colon and faecal peritonitis can occur, leading to fatal conditions for the animal. In conclusion, prostatic enlargement should always be considered in male dogs suffering from colonic impaction.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Zoltán Szekanecz, Krisztina Bogos, Tamás Constantin, Béla Fülesdi, Veronika Müller, Éva Rákóczi, István Várkonyi, and István Vályi-Nagy

Összefoglaló. Az új típusú koronavírus-fertőzés (COVID–19) nagy terhet ró az egészségügyi ellátórendszerre és a társadalomra. A betegségnek három nagy szakasza van, melyek alapvetően meghatározzák a kezelést. Az I–IIA fázisban az antivirális, míg a IIB–III. fázisban a gyulladásgátló kezelés áll előtérben, melyhez intenzív terápiás, szupportív kezelés csatlakozik. A jelen ajánlás kizárólag a gyógyszeres kezelésre vonatkozik, és a rendelkezésre álló bizonyítékok alapján foglalja össze a terápiás lehetőségeket. Emellett egy javasolt kezelési algoritmust is tartalmaz. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 643–651.

Summary. The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) places a heavy burden on the health care system and our society. There are three major stages in the disease that fundamentally determine treatment approaches. Phases I–IIA require primarily antiviral treatment. In phases IIB–III, anti-inflammatory treatment is needed accompanied by intensive and supportive care. This recommendation applies only to pharmacotherapy and summarizes the therapeutic options based on the available evidence. It also includes a proposed treatment algorithm. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 643–651.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Zsuzsanna Gurdán, József Szalma, and Pálma Benedek

Összefoglaló. Az achondroplasia kialakulásáért az FGFR3-gén mutációja tehető felelőssé, mely a porc növekedési lemezében található chondrocyták érésében okoz zavart. Az esetbemutatásban szereplő lánygyermeknél a születést követő első hónapban a klinikai, laboratóriumi és röntgenvizsgálatok alapján achondroplasia igazolódott. A klinikai tünetek közé tartoznak a rövid végtagok – különösen a proximalis szegmensben –, a macrocephalia, a hypotonia és a horkolás. Szembetűnő a középarc hypoplasiája. A középfül diszfunkciója tovább súlyosbítja a kórképet, sok esetben megfigyelhető a hallás nagyfokú csökkenése, illetve kezelés hiányában akár a hallás elvesztése. A közlemény részletesen bemutatja az obstruktív alvási apnoe szindróma diagnózisrendszerét és kezelési alternatíváit, hangsúlyozva az orthodontiai szempontokat. A fül-orr-gégészeti és a fogszabályozó terápiának köszönhetően, a diagnózistól számított harmadik évre, az alvási apnoe szindróma megszüntetésével a folyamatos pozitív nyomású lélegeztetést el lehetett hagyni. A horkolás és az alvási apnoe szindróma kezelése napjainkban egyre nagyobb hangsúlyt kap, melynek komplex kezelésében a fogszabályozás is jelentős lehet. A harmonikus együttműködés és teamkezelés betegünknél jelentős életminőség-javulást eredményezett. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 683–688.

Summary. Development of achondroplasia is due to the mutation of FGFR3 gene, which disrupts the maturation of chondrocytes found in the growth plate. The diagnosis of the girl in the present case study was established based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and X-ray imaging in the first month following childbirth. Clinical symptoms include shorter limbs especially in the proximal segments, macrocephaly, hypotonia and snoring. Hypoplasia of the midface is apparent. Dysfunction of the middle ear further worsens the condition, in many cases severe hearing loss and, without treatment, even deafness can be observed. The publication describes the diagnostic criteria and therapeutic options of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in detail, with an emphasis on the orthodontic aspects. A comprehensive combined three-year oto-laryngological and orthodontic treatment finally succeeded in controlling the sleep apnea syndrome and it was possible to discontinue the continuous positive airway pressure therapy by the end of the orthodontic therapy. Nowadays, even more alternative therapeutic approaches are available to treat snoring and sleep apnea syndromes, in which the role of orthodontics must not be neglected. Harmonic collaboration and team work treatment resulted in a significant improvement in the quality of life of our patient. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 683–688.

Open access

Abstract

Prion disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a broad host range in humans and animals. It is caused by proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres). In previous studies, a heterogeneous infection in Cervidae and Caprinae was reported. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been frequently reported as the only prion disease in Korea that occurs in livestock. Thus, there is a possibility of transmission of CWD to Korean native black goats. However, PrPres has not been investigated thus far in Korean native black goats. We found strong linkage disequilibrium between c.126G>A and c.414T>C (r2 = 1) and between c.718C>T and c.126G>A (r2 = 0.638). In addition, the haplotype GTGTAAAC (representing codons 42, 102, 127, 138, 143, 146, 218 and 240) showed the highest frequency with 45.1%. Among 41 Korean native black goats, 20 animals (48.78%) were homozygous for the susceptible haplotypes (histidine at codon 143, asparagine at codon 146 and arginine at codon 154). Interestingly, we did not detect PrPres bands in any of the tested animals, including the 20 animals carrying potential scrapie susceptible haplotypes.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Tamás Constantin, Noémi Andrási, Andrea Ponyi, Ádám Goschler, László Ablonczy, Judit Kincs, Monika Csóka, Bálint Egyed, Zsuzsanna Horváth, Krisztina Kalocsai, Rita Káposzta, Kinga Kardics, Viktória Kemény, Bernadett Mosdósi, Tamás Pék, Zsófia Szabó, Attila Tóth, Kálmán Tory, Andrea Tölgyesi, Beáta Ónozó, Hajnalka Vágó, Csaba Vilmányi, Weiser Peter, Zoltán Szekanecz, Gábor Kovács, and Attila Szabó

Összefoglaló. A SARS-CoV-2-fertőzés ritka gyermekkori szövődménye a sokszervi gyulladás, angol terminológiával paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). Két vagy több szerv érintettségével járó, súlyos tünetekkel induló betegségről van szó, amelynek tünetei átfedést mutatnak a Kawasaki-betegséggel, a toxikus sokk szindrómával és a makrofágaktivációs szindrómával. A PIMS-betegek intenzív terápiás osztályon vagy intenzív terápiás háttérrel rendelkező intézményben kezelendők, ahol biztosítottak a kardiológiai ellátás feltételei is. A szükséges immunterápia a klinikai prezentációtól függ. A jelen közleményben a szerzők a releváns nemzetközi irodalom áttekintését követően ajánlást tesznek a PIMS diagnosztikai és terápiás algoritmusára. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 652–667.

Summary. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) is a rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. PIMS is a severe condition, involving two or more organ systems. The symptoms overlap with Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome and macrophage activation syndrome. PIMS patients should be treated in an intensive care unit or in an institution with an intensive care background, where cardiological care is also provided. The required specific immunotherapy depends on the clinical presentation. In this paper, after reviewing the relevant international literature, the authors make a recommendation for the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for PIMS. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 652–667.

Open access
Imaging
Authors: Máté Magyar, Tibor Glasz, Tekla Kovács, András Bálint Deák, Pál Maurovich-Horvat, and Balázs Futácsi

Gastroparesis, a form of gastrointestinal dysfunction and the increased risk for aspiration pneumonia are well known complications in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In our case report we demonstrate the case of an 83-year-old, bedridden male patient with Parkinson’s disease, who had a slowly progressing stomach dilation, gradually pushing the otherwise normal liver to a highly unusual craniodorsally rotated position.

Open access
Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Zsuzsanna Szilasi, Valéria Jósa, Zsombor Zrubka, Tünde Mezei, Keresztély Merkel, Frigyes Helfferich, and Zsolt Baranyai

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Régóta ismert, hogy a daganatokhoz társuló emelkedett vérlemezkeszám rosszabb túléléssel társul. Fej-nyak tumoros betegek esetében kevés információ áll rendelkezésünkre ezzel az összefüggéssel kapcsolatban. Célkitűzés: Vizsgálatunk célja a fej-nyak daganatos betegek prognózisa és a thrombocytosis közötti összefüggés tanulmányozása volt. Módszer: Különféle stádiumú és lokalizációjú, 312, fej-nyak tumoros beteg retrospektív adatait elemeztük. A műtét előtti vérlemezkeszámokat vizsgáltuk, a 300 G/l feletti értéket tekintettük emelkedett thrombocytaszámnak. A vérlemezkeszám és a túlélés közötti kapcsolatot Kaplan–Meier-módszerrel és multivariáns Cox-regresszióval elemeztük. Eredmények: Emelkedett thrombocytaszám mellett szignifikánsan rosszabb túlélést észleltünk (5 éves túlélés: p = 0,007, betegségmentes túlélés: p = 0,192). Ez az összefüggés még akkor is fennállt, amikor multivariáns analízissel nemre, korra, stádiumra, differenciáltsági fokra, lokalizációra, valamint fehér- és vörösvérsejtszámra korrigáltuk az elemzést (5 éves túlélés: p = 0,027). A különféle anatómiai lokalizációkban eltérő mértékben észleltünk 300 G/l feletti vérlemezkeszámot (algarat: 43,6%, sub- és supraglottis: 35,8%, szájüreg: 35,7%, hangszalag: 22,5%, szájgarat: 19%, multiplex: 50%), ez azonban nem befolyásolta szignifikánsan a túlélést (p = 0,603). Következtetés: A daganathoz társuló thrombocytosis összefüggésbe hozható a fej-nyak tumoros betegek rosszabb túlélésével. Az egyes lokalizációkban talált különböző vérlemezkeszámok nem befolyásolják eltérő mértékben a túlélést. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 676–682.

Summary. Introduction: The association between cancer-related thrombocytosis and worse survival has been described with a variety of solid neoplasms. However, only limited data are available on the prognostic significance of elevated platelet count in head and neck tumours. Objective: We aimed to investigate the correlation between the survival of patients with head and neck cancer and thrombocytosis. Method: We conducted an analysis of the data from 312 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of various stages and locations. Preoperative platelet counts were analysed; elevated platelet count was defined as 300 G/l or higher. The influence of platelet count on survival was calculated with the Kaplan–Meier method as well as with multivariate Cox regression. Results: In patients with excessive thrombocytosis, survival was significantly worse (overall survival: p = 0.007, disease-free survival: p = 0.192). This association remained significant even after adjusting the multivariate analysis for age, gender as well as tumour stage, grade, location, red and white blood cell count (overall survival: p = 0.027). The magnitude of thrombocytosis differed among tumours of different anatomical locations (hypopharynx: 43.6%, sub- and supraglottis: 35.8%, oral cavity: 35.7%, vocal cord: 22.5%, oropharynx: 19%, multiple: 50%), but this did not affect survival significantly (p = 0.603). Conclusion: Elevated platelet count may be related to a worse prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. The impact of thrombocytosis does not vary with the anatomical location of the tumour. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(17): 676–682.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Tábata Maués, Táya Figueiredo de Oliveira, Kênia Balbi El-Jaick, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Maria De Lourdes Gonçalves Ferreira, and Ana Maria Reis Ferreira

Abstract

TP53 and PGAM1 genes play a key role in glycolysis which is an essential metabolic pathway of cancer cells for obtaining energy. The purpose of this work was to evaluate PGAM1 and TP53 mRNA expressions in canine mammary carcinomas (CMC) and to correlate them with animal data and tumour histological features. None of the nine samples analysed revealed PGAM1 DNA sequence variations. PGAM1 and TP53 RNA expressions from 21 CMC were analysed using a one-step reverse transcription-PCR kit and its platform system. Most CMC samples had low levels of PGAM1 mRNA (71.5%) and normal expression of TP53 mRNA (95.2%). Our results suggest a different feature of the Warburg effect on canine mammary cancer cells compared to human cells.

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