Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 2,417 items for :

  • Behavioral Sciences x
  • All content x
Clear All

Abstract

Background and aims

Impulsiveness is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and regional brain functions can be different depending on the level of impulsiveness. This study aimed to demonstrate that different brain mechanisms are involved depending on the level of impulsiveness among patients with IGD.

Methods

Resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 23 IGD patients with high impulsivity, 27 IGD patients with low impulsivity, and 22 healthy controls, and seed-based functional connectivity was compared among the three groups. The seed regions were the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and amygdala.

Results

Connectivity of the vmPFC with the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and NAcc-left insula connectivity were significantly decreased in the patients with high impulsivity, compared with the patients with low impulsivity and healthy controls. On the other hand, amygdala-based connectivity with the left inferior frontal gyrus showed decreases in both patient groups, compared with the healthy controls.

Conclusion

These findings may suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity and deficits in reward-related social cognition processes in patients with IGD. In particular, certain interventions targeted at vmPFC-TPJ connectivity, found to be impulsivity-specific brain connectivity, are likely to help with addiction recovery among impulsive patients with IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Loot boxes are a common feature in video games where players win, buy or are gifted a virtual box or other container that is unwrapped to reveal virtual items of value, such as skins, weapons, in-game currency or special abilities. The current study aimed to relate the use of loot boxes to gambling problems and harm.

Methods

An online survey was conducted with 1,954 adolescents and young adults from NSW Australia, 59.9% female (aged 12–24), recruited by online panel aggregator, Qualtrics.

Results

Buying and selling loot boxes was associated with higher 12-month gambling frequency and gambling problems in young adults, aged 18–24 (Problem Gambling Severity Index). Young adults who bought loot boxes additionally had more gambling-related harms (Short Gambling Harms Screen). Young women, aged 18–24, who opened, bought and/or sold loot boxes spent more money in the last 12 months on gambling. In adolescents, aged 12–17, buying loot boxes was similarly associated with gambling problems (DSM-IV-MR-J). Furthermore, adolescent girls who bought and/or sold loot boxes viewed gambling more positively than other girls (Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale). There was no evidence, however, that longer-term experience in opening or purchasing loot boxes, a differentiating feature of the survey, is associated with current gambling problems.

Discussion and conclusions

This study suggests that loot boxes may be attractive to people who are already predisposed to engage in other gambling, and females who use loot boxes may have unique vulnerabilities to gambling problems that could be explored in future research.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a global health problem. The self-regulation model noted that a shift to reward system, whether due to overwhelming reward-seeking or impaired control, can lead to self-regulation failures, e.g., addiction. The present study focused on the reward processing of IGD, aiming to provide insights into the etiology of IGD. Reward processing includes three phases: reward anticipation, outcome monitoring and choice evaluation. However, it is not clear which phases of reward processing are different between individuals with IGD and healthy controls (HC).

Methods

To address this issue, the present study asked 27 individuals with IGD and 26 HC to complete a roulette task during a functional MRI scan.

Results

Compared with HC, individuals with IGD preferred to take risks in pursuit of high rewards behaviorally and showed exaggerated brain activity in the striatum (nucleus accumbens and caudate) during the reward anticipation and outcome monitoring but not during the choice evaluation.

Discussion

These results reveal that the oversensitivity of the reward system to potential and positive rewards in college students with IGD drives them to approach risky options more frequently although they are able to assess the risk values of options and the correctness of decisions properly as HC do.

Conclusions

These findings provide partial support for the application of the self-regulation model to the IGD population. Moreover, this study enriches this model from the perspective of three phases of reward processing and provides specific targets for future research regarding effective treatment of IGD.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Due to the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), policies based on the nature of “spatial distancing” have been implemented and have resulted in school suspensions and online learning among schoolchildren. In order to examine the impact of such policies on schoolchildren, the aims of the present study were to (i) assess changes in the level of engagement in three internet-related activities (smartphone use, social media use, and gaming) before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, including prolonged and problematic engagement in these activities; (ii) investigate the differences of psychological distress before and after COVID-19 outbreak; and (iii) to use structural equation modeling to investigate the mediating roles of problematic internet-related behaviors in the causal relationships of psychological distress and time spent on internet-related activities.

Methods

Self-report measures were used to assess internet-related activities and psychological distress. Time spent on internet-related activities, problematic use of internet-related activities, and psychological distress were collected from primary school students (N = 535; 265 boys; M age = 10.32 years [SD = 0.84]). The data were first collected before the COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., early November 2019) and then collected again during the school suspension due to COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., end of March 2020) for comparisons of changes.

Results

Schoolchildren spent significantly more time on the smartphone (increased 1.02 h daily; P < 0.001) and social media (increased 0.73 h daily; P < 0.001) but not gaming (increased 0.14 h daily; P = 0.07) during the school suspension compared to the baseline. Schoolchildren who increased by 15 or 30 min daily on internet-related activities showed an increased level of psychological distress. The association between problematic use of social media and psychological distress was stronger during the school suspension (β = 0.584) than at the baseline (β = 0.451; P < 0.001).

Conclusion

Increased problematic use of internet-related activities among schoolchildren was associated with greater psychological distress. Parents should therefore monitor internet-related activities and psychological distress of their children to support their mental health.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Even though the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) was added to the ICD-11 under the impulse control category in 2019, its neural mechanisms are still debated. Researchers have noted its similarity both to addiction and to Obssesive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The aim of our study was to address this question by investigating the pattern of anatomical brain abnormalities among CSBD patients.

Methods

Reviewing 39 publications on Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) we have identified main abnormalities specific for addictions and OCD. Than we have collected DTI data from 36 heterosexual males diagnosed with CSBD and 31 matched healthy controls. These results were then compared to the addiction and OCD patterns.

Results

Compared to controls, CSBD individuals showed significant fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in the superior corona radiata tract, the internal capsule tract, cerebellar tracts and occipital gyrus white matter. Interestingly, all these regions were also identified in previous studies as shared DTI correlates in both OCD and addiction.

Discussion and conclusions

Results of our study suggest that CSBD shares similar pattern of abnormalities with both OCD and addiction. As one of the first DTI study comparing structural brain differences between CSBD, addictions and OCD, although it reveals new aspects of CSBD, it is insufficient to determine whether CSBD resembles more an addiction or OCD. Further research, especially comparing directly individuals with all three disorders may provide more conclusive results.

Open access
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Hargitai Rita, Rózsa Sándor, Hupuczi Ernő, Birkás Béla, Hartung István, Hartungné Somlai Eszter, Tiringer István, Martin László, and Kállai János

Elméleti háttér

A Campbell és munkacsoportja (1996) által kidolgozott Énkép Egyértelműség Skála (Self-Concept Clarity Scale; SCCS) az énkép egyik strukturális jellemzőjének, önfogalmunk világosan és határozottan defi niált jellegének mérésére alkalmas eszköz.

Cél

A tanulmányban bemutatjuk a kérdőív magyar változatát, és értékeljük annak pszichometriai jellemzőit. Módszer: Önbeszámolón alapuló, kérdőíves, keresztmetszeti vizsgálatban 1205 fő (245 férfi , 960 nő; átlagéletkor 27,05 év, SD = 9,8 év) vett részt. Az SCCS mellett a Rosenberg Önbecsülés Skálát (RSES-H), a Szorongásérzékenység Indexet (ASI), a Bizonytalansággal Szembeni Intolerancia (IUS) és a Szkizotípia Személyiség Kérdőívet (SPQ-BH) vettük fel.

Eredmények

A feltáró faktoranalízis egy faktort jelez, amely a variancia 50,8%-át magyarázza. Ezen egydimenziós modell illeszkedése elfogadhatónak bizonyult (CFI = 0,939; TLI = 0,925; RMSEA = 0,079; CI90 = 0,072–0,085). A skála belső konzisztenciája jó (Cronbach-alfa: 0,88). A validitásra vonatkozó eredmények igazolták a nemzetközi adatokat: az önértékelés és az énkép egyértelműség egymással közepesen erősen, pozitívan kapcsolódó, ugyanakkor egymást nem helyettesíthető konstruktumok. Az énkép egyértelműsége közepesen erős mértékben, negatív módon asszociálódik a szorongáshoz kötődő szomatikus és kognitív tünetekkel (ASI), valamint a bizonytalan, kétértelmű helyzetekre/eseményekre vonatkozó negatív reagálási módokkal (IUS). A szorongáson alapuló személyiségvonások mellett igazoltuk az SCCS szkizotípiás érintettség mértékével (SPQ) való negatív kapcsolatát is. Következtetések: Az SCCS magyar verziója az énkép egyértelműségének, világosan artikulált jellegének megbízható és érvényes mérőmódszere, amely általános, pszichés sebezhetőséget, sérülékenységet jelző mérőeszközként támpontul szolgálhat pszichopatológiai tárgyú kutatások mellett a terápiás hatékonyság megítélésében.

Theoretical background

The Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS) developed by Campbell et al. (1996) is suitable for measuring one structural feature of the self-concept, its clearly and fi rmly defi ned nature. Purpose: In this study we present the Hungarian version of the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS-H) and evaluate its psychometric characteristics. Method: 1205 persons (245 men, 960 women; average age 27.05 years, SD = 9.8 years) participated in a cross-sectional, self-reporting questionnaire-based research. Besides SCCS, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-BH) were also administered. Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed one factor, which explained 50.8% of the total variance. The fi t of our one-dimensional model was acceptable (CFI= 0.939; TLI=0.925; RMSEA=0.079; CI90=0.072-0.085). The reliability analysis indicated good internal consistency for the instrument (α=0.88). Construct-validity results are consistent with the literature: self-concept clarity moderately positively correlated with self-esteem, however they are not replaceable constructs. Self-concept clarity is moderately negatively associated with anxiety-based somatic and cognitive symptoms (ASI) and with negative responses to uncertain, ambiguous events/situations (IUS). In addition to anxiety-based personality traits we also verifi ed the negative correlation of SCCS with the degree of schizotypic involvement (SPQ). Conclusion: The Hungarian version of Self-Concept Clarity Scale can be considered a reliable and valid measurement tool for the clear and confi dent nature of self-concept. Being an indicator of general, psychological vulnerability, SCCS may serve both as a reference point for psychopathological research and as a screening tool for mental patients, furthermore for assessing psychotherapeutic effi cacy too.

Open access

Háttér és célkitűzés

A vizsgálat célja a társadalmi problémák megoldására vonatkozó viselkedéses szándékok felmérése, a vizsgálati személyek megküzdési stílusának és szociálisprobléma-megoldó képességeinek függvényében. A vizsgálat elméleti alapjául az attitűdök és a viselkedéses szándékok kapcsolatát tárgyaló Tervezett Viselkedés Elmélete (TVE, Ajzen, 1991), valamint a megküzdés és a szociálisprobléma-megoldás irodalma szolgál; korábbi kutatási eredményeink a vizsgálat empirikus előzményeinek tekinthetők (pl. Nagy és Balázs, 2018a).

Módszer

A vizsgálat kérdőíves módon zajlott, a személyek online felületen vagy papíralapon jelölték meg válaszaikat, célcsoportunk a felnőtt korosztály volt. A vizsgálati személyek a szociálisprobléma-megoldás felmérésére alkalmas SPSI-R (Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, D’Zurilla, Nezu és Maydeu-Olivares, 2002, adaptálta Kasik, Nagy és Fűzy, 2009) skála, illetve a megküzdési stílusokat felmérő CISS-48 (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Endler és Parker, 1994) kérdéseit válaszolták meg. Továbbá, a klímaváltozás, a természetes élőhelyek védelme, a diabétesz, az egészséges életmód, a nélkülöző gyermekek megsegítése és a családon belüli erőszak megelőzése kapcsán a problémák kezelésére irányuló viselkedéses szándékukról nyilatkoztak. A mintát 275 fő, 109 férfi és 166 nő alkotja; átlagéletkoruk 30 év, többségében gimnáziumi és felsőfokú végzettséggel rendelkeznek.

Eredmények

A vizsgálat eredményei alapján a különböző társadalmi problémák kezelésére vonatkozó viselkedéses szándékaik alapján a személyek három csoportja képezhető, mely csoportok életkoruk, megküzdési stílusaik és szociálisprobléma-megoldási képességeik tekintetében egyértelműen elkülönülnek. Következtetések: Habár a társadalmi problémák megoldására vonatkozó viselkedéses szándékok alakulását egyéb tényezők is befolyásolhatják, eredményeink alapján mindenképpen hatással van rájuk az életkor, a jellemző megküzdési stílus, valamint a szociálisprobléma-megoldás képessége.

Background and purpose

The purpose of this study is to measure the behavioral intentions toward social problem-solving in line with coping styles and social problem-solving abilities. Attitudes and behavioral intentions of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Ajzen, 1991), and the literature of coping and of social problem-solving give the basis of the research. The empirical antecedents are our studies.

Method

The target group of the study was adults’ age group. Respondents fi lled out questionnaires online or paper-pencil forms and answered the items of SPSI-R (Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, D’Zurilla, Nezu and Maydeu-Olivares, 2002, adapted by Kasik, Nagy and Fűzy, 2009) that investigate social problem-solving and CISS-48 (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Endler and Parker, 1994) that measures coping styles. After that, they indicated their intentions regarding the solution of climate change, protection of natural habitat, diabetes, healthy lifestyle, donation to indigent children and prevention of violence. The sample of the study consisted of 275 participants, consisting 109 men and 166 women. The mean age was 30 years. Most of the participants had fi nished secondary education or had a college degree.

Results

According to the results, three groups of participants can be identifi ed based on their behavioral intentions, and these groups can be characterized by different mean age, variant patterns of coping styles and social problem-solving abilities.

Conclusion

Although there are other factors which can affect behavioral intentions toward social problem-solving, coping and social problem-solving abilities could infl uence them together with the variable of age.

Open access

Célkitűzés

Jelen tanulmány célja, hogy bemutassa a kognitív kontrollal kapcsolatos elméleti koncepciókat, kiemelve azokat a fő komponenseket, amelyek szoros összefüggést mutatnak a nyelvi folyamatokkal. Rámutatunk többek között arra, hogy a nyelvi kompetencia és performancia egyes faktorai milyen összefüggést mutatnak a kognitív kontroll funkciókkal.

Módszer

Tanulmányunkban egynyelvű nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató és tipikusan fejlődő kétnyelvű gyermekek kognitív kontroll teljesítményét elemezzük a legújabb kutatási eredmények alapján. Az áttekintésbe bevont tanulmányok kiválasztása során a következő szempontokat vettük fi gyelembe: a célcsoportot iskoláskorú, egynyelvű nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató gyermekek vagy iskoláskorú, tipikus fejlődésű kétnyelvű gyermekek alkossák; a használt vizsgálóeljárások a válaszgátlás, az interferenciával szembeni ellenállás, a munkamemória-frissítés és a kognitív fl exibilitás fejlettségéről nyújtsanak információkat.

Eredmények

Összességében elmondható, hogy a két vizsgált csoport heterogenitásának és az eltérő módszertani megközelítéseknek köszönhetően a szakirodalomban számos ellentmondással találkozhatunk. Mégis az általunk vizsgált kognitív kontroll funkciók tekintetében az a tendencia fi gyelhető meg, hogy míg az interferenciával szembeni ellenállás, a munkamemória-frissítés és a kognitív fl exibilitás gyengébb a nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató gyermekeknél egynyelvű, tipikusan fejlődő társaikhoz képest, addig a kétnyelvű gyermekek ezekben a funkciókban többnyire jobb teljesítményt nyújtanak az egynyelvűekhez viszonyítva, kivéve a válaszgátlást.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján elmondható, hogy az interferenciával szembeni ellenállás és a kognitív fl exibilitás szorosabb összefüggést mutat a nyelvi fejlettséggel, mint a válaszgátlás. Ez az interakció azonban eltérő irányt mutat a fenti két nyelvi csoportban. Míg a nyelvfejlődési zavart mutató gyermekek gyengébb kognitív kontroll teljesítménye hozzájárul az alacsonyabb szintű nyelvi teljesítményeikhez, addig a kétnyelvű gyermekek előnye e kognitív funkciók terén a speciális nyelvhasználati szokásoknak és a két nyelv közötti folyamatos versengésnek köszönhető.

Purpose

The goal of this study is to present the theoretical conceptions related to cognitive control, highlighting those main components that show a close relationship with language processing. Further, our goal was to review these functions in two distinct language groups: children with developmental language disorders and typically developing bilingual children. Specifi cally, we were interested in the way certain factors of language competence and performance interact with the cognitive control functions.

Method

We compared the cognitive control functions between monolingual children with developmental language disorders and their typically developing peers, as well as between bilingual children and their monolingual peers. The following aspects were considered for our review: the target population - school-age monolingual children with developmental language disorders or school-age typically developing bilingual children; studies that employed tasks that measure response inhibition, resistance to interference, working memory updating and cognitive fl exibility.

Results

Overall, there are many confl icting results in the literature due to the heterogeneity of the groups and the differences across methodological approaches. Despite these inconsistencies, children’s cognitive control functions are highly associated with their language skills; while the children with developmental language disorders show defi cits in resistance to interference, working memory updating, and cognitive fl exibility compared to their typically developing peers, the bilingual children show superior performance in these functions compared to their monolingual peers. Response inhibition was the only function that did not differ across groups.

Conclusions

Based on the above, language development shows a close relationship with a number of cognitive control functions. The interaction between cognitive control and language, however, indicates different directions in the two target groups. Whereas poor cognitive control in children with developmental language disorders may contribute to their lower level of language skills, the cognitive advantage of bilingual children is the result of their bilingual language use and practice across different social contexts.

Open access