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Clear All  # On Self-Adjoint Linear Relations

Mathematica Pannonica
Author: Péter Berkics

A linear operator on a Hilbert space $ℍ$, in the classical approach of von Neumann, must be symmetric to guarantee self-adjointness. However, it can be shown that the symmetry could be omitted by using a criterion for the graph of the operator and the adjoint of the graph. Namely, S is shown to be densely defined and closed if and only if $k+l:k,l∈GS∩GS*=ℍ$.

In a more general setup, we can consider relations instead of operators and we prove that in this situation a similar result holds. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear relation to be densely defined and self-adjoint.

Open access

# On Self-Adjoint Linear Relations

Mathematica Pannonica
Author: Péter Berkics

A linear operator on a Hilbert space $ℍ$, in the classical approach of von Neumann, must be symmetric to guarantee self-adjointness. However, it can be shown that the symmetry could be omitted by using a criterion for the graph of the operator and the adjoint of the graph. Namely, S is shown to be densely defined and closed if and only if $k+l:k,l∈GS∩GS*=ℍ$.

In a more general setup, we can consider relations instead of operators and we prove that in this situation a similar result holds. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear relation to be densely defined and self-adjoint.

Open access

# Conceptions of Topological Transitivity on Symmetric Products

Mathematica Pannonica
Authors: Franco Barragán, Sergio Macías, and Anahí Rojas

Let X be a topological space. For any positive integer n, we consider the n-fold symmetric product of X, ℱn(X), consisting of all nonempty subsets of X with at most n points; and for a given function ƒ : XX, we consider the induced functions ℱn(ƒ): ℱn(X) → ℱn(X). Let M be one of the following classes of functions: exact, transitive, ℤ-transitive, ℤ+-transitive, mixing, weakly mixing, chaotic, turbulent, strongly transitive, totally transitive, orbit-transitive, strictly orbit-transitive, ω-transitive, minimal, I N, T T ++, semi-open and irreducible. In this paper we study the relationship between the following statements: ƒM and ℱn(ƒ) ∈ M.

Open access

# Conceptions of Topological Transitivity on Symmetric Products

Mathematica Pannonica
Authors: Franco Barragán, Sergio Macías, and Anahí Rojas

Let X be a topological space. For any positive integer n, we consider the n-fold symmetric product of X, ℱn(X), consisting of all nonempty subsets of X with at most n points; and for a given function ƒ : XX, we consider the induced functions ℱn(ƒ): ℱn(X) → ℱn(X). Let M be one of the following classes of functions: exact, transitive, ℤ-transitive, ℤ+-transitive, mixing, weakly mixing, chaotic, turbulent, strongly transitive, totally transitive, orbit-transitive, strictly orbit-transitive, ω-transitive, minimal, I N, T T ++, semi-open and irreducible. In this paper we study the relationship between the following statements: ƒM and ℱn(ƒ) ∈ M.

Open access

# Dual Pairs of Matroids with Coefficients in Finitary Fuzzy Rings of Arbitrary Rank

Mathematica Pannonica
Author: Walter Wenzel

Infinite matroids have been defined by Reinhard Diestel and coauthors in such a way that this class is (together with the finite matroids) closed under dualization and taking minors. On the other hand, Andreas Dress introduced a theory of matroids with coefficients in a fuzzy ring which is – from a combinatorial point of view – less general, because within this theory every circuit has a finite intersection with every cocircuit. Within the present paper, we extend the theory of matroids with coefficients to more general classes of matroids, if the underlying fuzzy ring has certain properties to be specified.

Open access

# Dual Pairs of Matroids with Coefficients in Finitary Fuzzy Rings of Arbitrary Rank

Mathematica Pannonica
Author: Walter Wenzel

Infinite matroids have been defined by Reinhard Diestel and coauthors in such a way that this class is (together with the finite matroids) closed under dualization and taking minors. On the other hand, Andreas Dress introduced a theory of matroids with coefficients in a fuzzy ring which is – from a combinatorial point of view – less general, because within this theory every circuit has a finite intersection with every cocircuit. Within the present paper, we extend the theory of matroids with coefficients to more general classes of matroids, if the underlying fuzzy ring has certain properties to be specified.

Open access

# Lower Estimate of Clique Size via Edge Coloring

Mathematica Pannonica
Authors: Balázs Király and Sándor Szabó

In many clique search algorithms well coloring of the nodes is employed to find an upper bound of the clique number of the given graph. In an earlier work a non-traditional edge coloring scheme was proposed to get upper bounds that are typically better than the one provided by the well coloring of the nodes. In this paper we will show that the same scheme for well coloring of the edges can be used to find lower bounds for the clique number of the given graph. In order to assess the performance of the procedure we carried out numerical experiments.

Open access

# Lower Estimate of Clique Size via Edge Coloring

Mathematica Pannonica
Authors: Balázs Király and Sándor Szabó

In many clique search algorithms well coloring of the nodes is employed to find an upper bound of the clique number of the given graph. In an earlier work a non-traditional edge coloring scheme was proposed to get upper bounds that are typically better than the one provided by the well coloring of the nodes. In this paper we will show that the same scheme for well coloring of the edges can be used to find lower bounds for the clique number of the given graph. In order to assess the performance of the procedure we carried out numerical experiments.

Open access

# Pascal’s Hexagram and Desargues Configurations

Mathematica Pannonica
Author: Jaydeep Chipalkatti

This paper solves an enumerative problem which arises naturally in the context of Pascal’s hexagram. We prove that a general Desargues configuration in the plane is associated to six conical sextuples via the theorems of Pascal and Kirkman. Moreover, the Galois group associated to this problem is isomorphic to the symmetric group on six letters.

Open access

# Pascal’s Hexagram and Desargues Configurations

Mathematica Pannonica
Author: Jaydeep Chipalkatti

This paper solves an enumerative problem which arises naturally in the context of Pascal’s hexagram. We prove that a general Desargues configuration in the plane is associated to six conical sextuples via the theorems of Pascal and Kirkman. Moreover, the Galois group associated to this problem is isomorphic to the symmetric group on six letters.

Open access  