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Authors: Kisantini Murugesu, Sultan Ayesh Mohammed Saghir, Amirin Sadikun, Kooi-Yeong Khaw and Vikneswaran Murugaiyah

Abstract

A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was developed by exploiting the benefits of phenyl-hexyl column for the simultaneous determination of mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids in Gynura procumbens plant samples. An optimal chromatographic separation was achieved by using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 0.25% acetic acid in water (12.5:78.5, v/v) and detection at 330 nm. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for the six caffeoylquinic acid standards were in the range of 0.078–0.653 and 0.259–1.795 μg/mL, respectively. The accuracies of the developed method were in the range of 96.84–103.08%, while the corresponding precisions were between 0 and 2.94% for both within-day and between-day analyses, indicating that the method is repeatable and reliable. The mean recoveries were between 87.08 and 117.83%. The method was successfully applied for quantification of caffeoylquinic acids in G. procumbens plant samples. This is the first study on di-caffeoylquinic acids quantification in G. procumbens. Leaves samples contained higher amount of the caffeoylquinic acids compared to stem samples. Of the compounds, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid was found to be the major compound in almost all G. procumbens samples. The method has advantages such as sensitive ultraviolet (UV) detection, short run time with simple isocratic elution system compared to other methods which involved the use of costly instruments, laborious procedures with long run time and complex gradient system. This method can be further extended for routine quality control and analysis of plants or herbal products containing the caffeoylquinic acids.

Open access
Authors: Zs. Sári, T. Kovács, T. Csonka, M. Török, É. Sebő, J. Toth, D. Tóth, E. Mikó, B. Kiss, D. Szeőcs, K. Uray, Zs. Karányi, I. Kovács, G. Méhes, P. Árkosy and P. Bai

Abstract

Breast cancer is characterized by oncobiosis, the abnormal composition of the microbiome in neoplastic diseases. The biosynthetic capacity of the oncobiotic flora in breast cancer is suppressed, as suggested by metagenomic studies. The microbiome synthesizes a set of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites that are downregulated in breast cancer, including cadaverine, a microbiome metabolite with cytostatic properties. We set out to assess how the protein expression of constitutive lysine decarboxylase (LdcC), a key enzyme for cadaverine production, changes in the feces of human breast cancer patients (n = 35). We found that the fecal expression of Escherichia coli LdcC is downregulated in lobular cases as compared to invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) cases. Lobular breast carcinoma is characterized by low or absent expression of E-cadherin. Fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression is downregulated in E-cadherin negative breast cancer cases as compared to positive ones. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of LdcC expression in lobular and NST cases revealed that fecal E. coli LdcC protein expression might have predictive values. These data suggest that the oncobiotic transformation of the microbiome indeed leads to the downregulation of the production of cytostatic and antimetastatic metabolites. In E-cadherin negative lobular carcinoma that has a higher potential for metastasis formation, the protein levels of enzymes producing antimetastatic metabolites are downregulated. This finding represents a new route that renders lobular cases permissive for metastasis formation. Furthermore, our findings underline the role of oncobiosis in regulating metastasis formation in breast cancer.

Open access
Authors: Leyla Semiha Şen, Zarife Nigar Özdemir Kumral, Gülsün Memi, Feriha Ercan, Berrak C. Yeğen and Cumhur Yeğen

Abstract

In order to investigate the role of the vagus nerve in the possible gastroprotective effect of obestatin on the indomethacin-induced acute oxidative gastric injury, Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were injected subcutaneously with indomethacin (25 mg/kg, 5% NaHCO3) followed by obestatin (10, 30 or 100 μg/kg). In other sets of rats, surgical vagotomy (Vx) or selective degeneration of vagal afferent fibers by perivagal capsaicin was performed before the injections of indomethacin or indomethacin + obestatin (30 μg/kg). Gastric serosal blood flow was measured, and 4 h after ulcer induction gastric tissue samples were taken for histological and biochemical assays. Obestatin reduced the severity of indomethacin-induced acute ulcer via the reversal of reactive hyperemia, by inhibiting ulcer-induced neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation along with the replenishment of glutathione (GSH) stores, whereas Vx abolished the inhibitory effect of obestatin on blood flow and lipid peroxidation, and worsened the severity of ulcer. On the other hand, serosal blood flow was even amplified by the selective denervation of the capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent fibers, but obestatin-induced reduction in ulcer severity was not altered. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of obestatin on indomethacin-induced ulcer appears to involve the activation of the vagovagal pathway.

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Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease, characterized by increased vascular resistance leading to right ventricle (RV) failure. The extent of right ventricular dysfunction crucially influences disease prognosis; however, currently no therapies have specific cardioprotective effects. Besides discussing the pathophysiology of right ventricular adaptation in PAH, this review focuses on the roles of growth factors (GFs) in disease pathomechanism. We also summarize the involvement of GFs in the preservation of cardiomyocyte function, to evaluate their potential as cardioprotective biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets in PAH.

Open access

Abstract

This paper demonstrates that cannabis can evoke “peak-experiences”—the name psychologist Abraham Maslow gave to fleeting moments of expanded perception indicative of self-transcendence—when used alongside more traditional religious practices such as meditation, fasting, contemplative prayer, and sacramental ritual. For that reason, religious seekers around the globe have deployed cannabis as a deliberate psychoactive to trigger the peak-experiences that stir feelings of ecstasy, wonder, and awe and resolve the “dichotomies, polarities, and conflicts of life.” As such, peak-experiences exemplify a form of spiritual revelation that has played a pivotal role in the history of religion, and because of its ability to elicit unitive consciousness at the heart of mystical insight, cannabis has been utilized as a mild entheogen across culture and tradition for millennia.

Open access

Abstract

The recent revivification of interest in the therapeutic use of psychedelics has had a particular focus on mood disorders and addiction, although there is reason to think these drugs may be effective more widely. After outlining pertinent aspects of psilocybin and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the current review summarizes the evidence indicating that there may be a role for psilocybin in the treatment of OCD, as well as highlighting a range of potential therapeutic mechanisms that reflect the action of psilocybin on brain function. Although the current evidence is limited, that multiple signals point in directions consistent with treatment potential, alongside the psychological and physiological safety of clinically administered psilocybin, support the expansion of research, both in animal models and in further randomized controlled trials, to properly investigate this potential.

Open access

This paper presents the results of a reexamination of Column V verse 8 of the British Museum Papyrus 134 (Hypereides against Philippides). On the basis of the seemingly unquestioned previous readings (Kenyon, Blass, Jensen) there has developed a more than one-hundred-years-long debate on the dating of the speech in question. But the crucial word, the starting point of the different interpretations (ύπείληφας) cannot be read as it was. All we can see is: [[o]]†προσφας†. By considering some possible emendations any reconstructed verbum finitum is likely to be in the past tense, which determines the questioned date of origin, i.e. post mortem Philippi.

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Abstract

Sodium induced volume loading may alter pressor responses to physical stress, an early symptom of cardiovascular disease. Purpose: Study 1: Determine the time point where total blood volume and serum sodium were elevated following saline consumption. Study 2: Examine the BP response to isometric handgrip (HG) and the cold pressor test (CPT) following saline consumption. Methods: Study 1: Eight participants drank 423 mL of normal saline (sodium 154 mmol/L) and had blood draws every 30 min for 3 h. Study 2: Sixteen participants underwent two randomized data collection visits; a control and experimental visit 90 min following saline consumption. Participants underwent 2 min of isometric HG, post exercise ischemia (PEI), and CPT. Results: Study 1: Total blood volume (3.8 ± 3.0 Δ%) and serum sodium (3.5 ± 3.6 Δ%) were elevated (P < 0.05) by the 90 min time point. Study 2: There were no differences in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during HG (EXP: 17.4 ± 8.2 ΔmmHg; CON: 19.1 ± 6.0 ΔmmHg), PEI (EXP: 16.9 ± 11.7 ΔmmHg; CON: 16.9 ± 7.8 ΔmmHg), or the CPT (EXP: 20.3 ± 10.8 ΔmmHg; CON: 20.9 ± 11.7 ΔmmHg) between conditions (P > 0.05). MAP recovery from the CPT was slower following saline consumption (1 min recovery: EXP; 15.7 ± 7.9 ΔmmHg, CON; 12.3 ± 8.9 ΔmmHg, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Data showed no difference in cardiovascular responses during HG or the CPT between conditions. BP recovery was delayed by saline consumption following the CPT.

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Summary

This article discusses the verse 13 of Pindar's sixth Pythian ode. The manuscripts have «χεράδι», but editors generally accept C. D. Beck's conjecture «χεράδει». The text of the manuscripts is also attested in numerous ancient sources, but «χεράδει» also circulated in antiquity as a varia lectio. The ancient criticism on the Pindaric verse is then examined, taking into consideration the possible reading of Aristarchus of Samothrace (fr. 55 Schironi) and the text of P.Oxy. 5039, which probably had χεράδι.

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Abstract

In public education the main emphasis is on conveying lexical knowledge instead of making students love music, play music together and do creative musical exercises. Teaching music has become too theoretical, and it is almost entirely dominated by literary data. Although teachers have some freedom to make slight changes in the curriculum, the number of music lessons is very low. Concert pedagogy is a progressive pedagogical initiative of the 20th–21st century, which aims to present the values of art at the original location of artistic activity, in an experience-filled environment, just as other branches of experience pedagogy do. The educational activity of experience pedagogy takes place in an extracurricular framework to complement public education. Art education is based on going through and enjoying an experience, which, however, cannot be taught, only explored and reinforced. In the traditional approach, intellectual education comprises two tasks: intellectual informing and formation (). Intellectual development occurs through the process of transferring and internalising scientific knowledge, which is presented in the form of subjects. Bábosik highlights that intellectual and cultural needs can evolve when it is achieved that children like to learn, which generates the desire for novel knowledge.

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