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Authors: O.M. Einhorn, K. Georgiou and A. Tompa

Abstract

A considerable number of patients arriving in dental offices are being treated with ongoing medication for a variety of chronic diseases. As a result, dentists must be familiar with the potential side effects these therapeutic agents may have on the tissues of the oral cavity, and in particular on the salivary gland. Salivary gland function may be altered by a wide range of medications, leading to effects such as xerostomia, hyposalivation, hypersalivation or even swelling of the glands. These disorders can cause a variety of other health complications. This review will focus on the most common groups of drugs responsible for salivary gland dysfunction, including psychoactive drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihypertensives, and antihistamines.

Open access

Abstract

Due to the extensive development of high-speed railway lines which are operating at increasing velocities, the dynamic performance of railway bridges has become an important issue of scientific research. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of reducing the vertical acceleration and displacement of pre-stressed reinforced concrete bridges beams by using passive nonlinear viscoelastic dampers to retrofit them. The proposed solution is based on connecting the dampers directly to the abutments and the bottom surface of the bridge deck with an eccentricity between the neutral axis of the bridge and the contact point of the viscoelastic dampers. First, the dampers are modeled through the concept of linearized fractional derivatives to obtain energetic equivalent linear viscoelastic dampers. Optimization of the configuration of these dampers was performed then as function of the orientation angle and the eccentricity. Considering two bridges having different length that were studied in the literature with other systems of damping, it was found that the best orientation angle of dampers is close to 60°. It was found also that, in order to satisfy Eurocode 1 requirements, the total equivalent damping coefficient for the actual damping system is less than half of that required for systems using auxiliary beam to fix dampers, which indicates higher efficiency of the proposed solution.

Open access

Cells and building structures. Part I.

Cells – point-like, line-like and surface-like bodies – building structures

Author: Géza Lámer

Abstract

The rooms of each building can be interpreted as three-dimensional cells. Borders (sides, edges) of rooms can be identified as the two-, one-, or zero-dimensional boundary cells of the three dimensional cell. The building structures identified as two-, one-, or zero-dimensional cells can be modeled by distinguished geometrical forms, surface-, line-, and point-like bodies. In accordance with the latter, building materials (finished products) can also be considered as surface-, line-, and point-like bodies.

The aim of the study is to create compliance between the cell elements and the building structures. It will be done at different levels:

  • – interpretation of relationship between building construction and cells,
  • – interpretation of relationship between building construction and selected bodies,
  • – interpretation the loadbearing's structure using cells,
  • – structure of the surface-construction and the cells,
  • – interpretation building types using cells.

In this paper (as part I) the first two items will be studied. The other three cases will be studied in another paper (as part II).

Open access
Authors: Jérémie Richard, Émilie Fletcher, Stephanie Boutin, Jeffrey Derevensky and Caroline Temcheff

Abstract

Background and aims

Behavioral addictions such as gambling and gaming disorder are significant public health issues that are of increasing importance to policy makers and health care providers. Problem gambling and gaming behaviors have been identified as being associated with externalizing and internalizing problems, with theoretical models suggesting that both conduct problems and depressive symptoms may be significant risk factors in the development of problem gambling and gaming. As such, the purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of research identifying the relationship between conduct problems, depressive symptoms and problem gambling and gaming among adolescents and young adults.

Methods

Systematic literature searches in accordance with PRISMA guidelines found 71 eligible studies that met the inclusion criteria, 47 for problem gambling, 23 for problem gaming and one for both problem behaviors.

Results

Based on cross-sectional evidence, both problem gambling and gaming are consistently concurrently associated with conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal evidence appears to be clearer for conduct problems as a risk factor for problem gambling, and depressive symptoms as a risk factor for problem gaming. However, both risk factors appear to increase the risk for these problem behaviors.

Discussion and Conclusions

Results from the literature review suggest that problem gambling and gaming are associated with the presence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms, with the potential of sharing common etiological factors. Additional research is necessary to confirm these longitudinal relationships with an emphasis on investigating the interaction of both early conduct problems and depressive symptoms.

Open access
Open access

Abstract

The research team has developed a complex system that is capable to record and analyse various psychophysiological data. This article represents the program created in NI DIAdem which can automatically identify illnesses and generate reports based on the input and saved parameters. The created program can import data from different types of file formats. It is converted and saved in a new standardized format for further processing. It can play-back the processed data synchronized with adjustable speed, and visualize them on customized display areas. It can analyse the data based on the input parameters and the pre-defined mathematical equations. The program displays the input and calculated parameters, the results and the detected illnesses on automatically generated reports.

Open access

Abstract

Despite the popular support for psychedelics as aids for depression, academics and the public frequently overestimate the efficacy of available medications and psychotherapies. Metaanalyses reveal that antidepressant medications alone help only one in four patients and rarely surpass credible placebos. Their effects, though statistically significant, might not impress depressed patients themselves. Psychotherapies create better outcomes than antidepressant drugs alone; combining the two provides measurable advantages. Nevertheless, the best combinations help only 65% of the clients who complete treatment. The drugs create side-effects and withdrawal surprisingly more severe than professional guidelines imply, too. Psychedelics appear to improve depression through some of the same mechanisms as psychotherapy, as well as some novel ones, suggesting that the combination could work very well. In addition, subjective experiences during the psychedelic sessions covary with improvement. Guiding clients to focus on these targeted thoughts and feelings could improve outcome. These data underscore the serious need for clinical trials of psychedelic-assisted, empirically supported treatment for depression with guided experiences during the psychedelic session. These trials would require important components to maximize their impact, including meaningful preparatory sessions designed to enhance motivation and explain empirically supported approaches, guided administration sessions that focus on oceanic boundlessness, integration sessions that support progress, and follow-up sessions consistent with established research. This combination involves markedly more than a simple pairing of medication and talk therapy, but proper application could have an unparalleled impact on public health.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction (IA) is common among young students. This study aimed to examine the influence and mechanisms of IA and susceptible personality traits on the impact of suicidal ideation in adolescent students in China.

Methods

This cross-sectional study (09/2012–09/2015) used stratified cluster sampling with “school type” for stratification; 136,266 students from 63 schools completed the questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of IA (Young's Internet Addiction Test) and susceptible personality (Barratt impulsiveness scale, Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire; and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R Short Scale) on suicidal ideation (Scale of Suicidal Ideation).

Results

Suicidal ideation was observed in 20,218 (14.77%) of the students, and IA was detected in 28,836 (21.16%) subjects. Compared with those without IA, students with IA had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation (P < 0.0001). No planning impulsiveness had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation in the impulsive personality trait, while in the aggressive personality trait, hostility and self-aggression had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation (all P < 0.0001). High psychoticism and neuroticism were impact factors for suicidal ideation, but extroversion was a protective factor (all P < 0.0001).

Discussion

These results highlight the importance of assessing personality traits and reducing IA as a possible means of lessening suicidal ideation. Susceptible personality (such as high psychoticism, high neuroticism, and low extroversion) play a prominent role in influencing the probability of having suicidal behavior among those recently exposed to IA.

Conclusions

IA and susceptible personality traits were significantly correlated with suicidal and self-harm ideation among adolescent students.

Open access
Authors: Claudia Marino, Natale Canale, Alessio Vieno, Gabriele Caselli, Luca Scacchi and Marcantonio M. Spada

Abstract

Background and aims

In recent years, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a mental health problem. Although research has found that social anxiety, motives, the preference for online social interactions (POSI), and metacognitions about online gaming are independent predictors of IGD, less is known about their relative contribution to IGD. The aim of the current study was to model the relationship between social anxiety, motives, POSI, metacognitions about online gaming, and IGD.

Methods

Five hundred and forty three Italian gamers who play more than 7 h a week (mean age = 23.9 years; SD = 6.15 years; 82.5% males) were included in the study. The pattern of relationships specified by the theoretical model was examined through path analysis.

Results

Results showed that social anxiety was directly associated with four motives (escape, coping, fantasy, and recreation), POSI, and positive and negative metacognitions about online gaming, and IGD. The Sobel test showed that negative metacognitions about online gaming played the strongest mediating role in the relationship between social anxiety and IGD followed by escape, POSI, and positive metacognitions. The model accounted for 54% of the variance for IGD.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, our findings show that, along with motives and POSI, metacognitions about online gaming may play an important role in the association between social anxiety and IGD. The clinical and preventive implications of these findings are discussed.

Open access