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After the Second World War, Hungary adopted the so-called Soviet model, which gave rise to significant changes in the state organisation. “Centralisation” and “democratic centralism” are the keywords which described the operation of government and local bodies in the four decades between 1945 and 1990.

Through the change of the townscape of one settlement, this study throws light on how the change in administrative status and the centrally determined settlement policy affected urban development in Hungary, similarly to other former socialist states.

Our highlighted example is Berettyóújfalu, whose administrative status changed from period to period in its 19–20th century history. Today, Berettyóújfalu’s townscape is basically determined by three architectural periods: the era of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy (1867–1918), the period between the two world wars (1918–1944) and the age of state socialism (1949–1989). Out of these periods, the third one was the most significant, as the most important interventions into the townscape occurred at that time.

It seems that in Berettyóújfalu, the appearance of urban buildings has not been brought about by economic forces, but expressly by the change in the settlement’s administrative status. It was this change that influenced the town’s architectural character, which consists of two components: the official buildings and the residential building stock.

In the era of socialism, the construction of housing estates also falls into the category of public developments, as after the Second World War, the system of state organisation changed fundamentally. Local governments ceased to exist, their role was taken over by hierarchical councils. Consequently, urban policy and urban construction became central duties according to the socialist state concept.

The centrally developed industry and the resulting increase in the population was served by building housing blocks with system-building technology. These panel apartment blocks occupied the urban fabric that had been an integral part of the former townscape.

In this way, this changed townscape could become a kind of architectural reader on Central and Eastern European history and urban development of the 19–20th centuries.

Open access

Concert visits with the music class: A Salzburg case study

A Cooperation project with varying goals, tasks and expectations

Author: Andreas Bernhofer

Abstract

Many European cities offer a vivid cultural landscape and numerous live-music opportunities. Some of the events aim at young audiences and develop cooperation projects with schools (Schwanse, 2003). The Schools@Concerts research project focuses on long-established cooperation projects between schools and concert hosts and tries to give insights into the structure of them. This article describes the Salzburg single case study, where besides the music teacher, the school students and the concert host also a didactics course from the music teacher training at the university is involved. By collecting data with interviews and questionnaires with all participating partners, the research group tries to outline the different roles within the cooperation project and compares the varying goals, tasks and expectations of the participating partners.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Money plays a central role in gambling, and understanding the different attitudes of gamblers towards it might benefit both prevention and treatment of gambling-related problems. This study describes the development of a new German measure of attitudes to money and the differences in these attitudes between male non-gamblers, occasional, frequent and problem gamblers. Furthermore, it investigates the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between attitudes towards money and the severity of gambling disorder.

Methods

An online study was conducted among 2,584 men aged 18–25 years, recruited via the Munich citizen registry. Additionally, a sample of n = 105 Facebook users was included in part of the analyses. Frequent and problem gamblers were invited to a 12-month follow-up. Apart from gambling participation and related problems, the questionnaire included items from existing scales measuring attitudes to money.

Results

Three factors underlying a new 12-item German Scale of Money Attitudes (SMAG) were identified: success, budgeting and evil. Compared with other groups, participants reporting any gambling problems scored highest in success and lowest in budgeting. Budgeting was associated with gambling-related problems in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses and strengthened the relationship between associating money with success and gambling disorder.

Discussion

For problem gamblers, money is important as a personal symbol of success. This attitude has an especially negative effect on gambling-related problems in individuals who handle money irresponsibly. Spending and winning money might play an important role in maintaining self-esteem among gamblers and thus hinder their attempts to quit.

Open access

Abstract

In the last 30 years Croatia has been involved in an intensive period of educational reforms. Music teaching, as a compulsory subject, underwent some positive and negative changes. The so-called open model and contents remake bring the possibility for teachers to be more creative and for students to be involved to a greater extent, but unfortunately, music lessons come to just 1 h per week. As a part of the Croatian school system, the extracurricular music activities are implemented in the school curriculum which affects the acquisition of new knowledge developing students’ musical skills. This paper aims to present the today’s situation of attending music classes in regular and extracurricular lessons in Croatia. Moreover, it discusses the international research project Schools@Concerts: Tuning up for the Music Experience which influences the idea how to carry out another kind of extracurricular musical activity which suits the worldwide environment. The intention is to familiarize students with (classical) music during the work in the extracurricular activity and by visiting to a concert. The author presents her own idea how to realize the extracurricular music activity Listening to Music with Concert Experience carried out by a cognitive – emotional approach to listening to music which contributes to the students’ music appreciation and preservation, transfer, renewal and dissemination of cultural heritage.

Open access

Abstract

A sensitive RP-HPLC method is presented for the simultaneous quantification of Fluorometholone (FLM) and Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride (THZ). The method has the advantages of being rapid, accurate, reproducible, ecologically acceptable and sensitive. The separation utilized C8 Xbridge® column and mobile phase mixture of Acetonitrile/phosphate buffer pH 3 ± 0.1 (70:30, v/v) with UV detection at 230 nm. Stepwise optimization and factors affecting separation are properly discussed. Different factors were optimized such as stationary phase, selection of organic solvent and its content, buffer pH and concentration, flow rate, elution type and detection wavelength. The studied drugs were efficiently separated in 3.4 min with high resolution. Also, two univariate spectrophotometric methods have been optimized for the quantification of the studied drugs. Method 1: dual wavelength for THZ and iso-absorptive point for FLM, Method 2: ratio difference (RD) for THZ and first derivative FLM utilizing methanol as a solvent. These methods are accurate, precise with minimal data manipulation. Greenness of the methods was estimated using eco-scale tool where the presented methods were found to be excellent green with eco-score of 83 for HPLC and 80 for spectrophotometry. The methods are validated in conformance with ICH guidelines, with acceptable accuracy, precision, and selectivity. The suggested methods can be employed for the economic analysis of THZ and FLM in their pure form and binary ophthalmic formulation, that can be employed by quality control laboratories.

Open access
Authors: E. Kovács, D. Pilecky, Z. Szakál-Tóth, A. Fekete-Győr, V.A. Gyarmathy, L. Gellér, B. Hauser, J. Gál, B. Merkely and E. Zima

Abstract

Aim

We investigated the effect of age on post-cardiac arrest treatment outcomes in an elderly population, based on a local database and a systemic review of the literature.

Methods

Data were collected retrospectively from medical charts and reports. Sixty-one comatose patients, cooled to 32–34 °C for 24 h, were categorized into three groups: younger group (≤65 years), older group (66–75 years), and very old group (>75 years). Circumstances of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), patients' characteristics, post-resuscitation treatment, hemodynamic monitoring, neurologic outcome and survival were compared across age groups. Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and binary logistic regression (BLR) were applied. In addition, a literature search of PubMed/Medline database was performed to provide a background.

Results

Age was significantly associated with having a cardiac arrest on a monitor and a history of hypertension. No association was found between age and survival or neurologic outcome. Age did not affect hemodynamic parameter changes during target temperature management (TTM), except mean arterial pressure (MAP). Need of catecholamine administration was the highest among very old patients. During the literature review, seven papers were identified. Most studies had a retrospective design and investigated interventions and outcome, but lacked unified age categorization. All studies reported worse survival in the elderly, although old survivors showed a favorable neurologic outcome in most of the cases.

Conclusion

There is no evidence to support the limitation of post-cardiac arrest therapy in the aging population. Furthermore, additional prospective studies are needed to investigate the characteristics and outcome of post-cardiac arrest therapy in this patient group.

Open access

Abstract

Aim

To investigate the ratio of cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) to peripheral muscle tissue oxygenation index (pTOI) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in cardio-circulatory stable preterm neonates without signs of inflammation/infection on the first day after birth.

Methods

Observational study analysing secondary outcome parameters of the ‘Avoiding Hypotension in Preterm Neonates (AHIP)’ trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01910467). Preterm neonates, who had cTOI and pTOI measurements during 24 h after birth, were included. In each neonate the mean of the cTOI/pTOI-ratio, cTOI, pTOI and routine monitoring parameters were calculated for each hour and for the 24-h measuring period. Courses of all measured parameters were analysed.

Results

Eighty-seven stable preterm neonates (33.1 [32.1–34.1] weeks of gestation) were included. The mean value over the 24-h measuring period for the cTOI/pTOI-ratio was 0.96 ± 0.02, for cTOI 70.1 ± 1.4 and for pTOI 73.4 ± 0.9. Routine monitoring parameters were in the normal ranges over 24 h. The courses of the cTOI/pTOI-ratio and cTOI showed significantly lower values from hour 5 to 15 compared to the first hours after birth. Heart rate decreased significantly over time, whereas mean arterial blood pressure increased significantly. pTOI, arterial oxygen saturation and body temperature showed no significant change over time.

Conclusion

We are the first to report on cTOI/pTOI-ratios for cardio-circulatory stable preterm neonates over a 24-h period after birth, showing significantly lower values from hour 5 to 15 compared to the first hours after birth.

Restricted access
Authors: Munaf Fathi Badr, Ekhlas Hameed Karam and Noor Mohammaed Mjeed

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to present a proposed control model for the electromechanical damper mass spring system including the backstepping technique in comparison with the conventional proportional–derivative–integral (PID) controller unit to realize the best performance of the control systems. The suggested approach demanded the construction in laboratory arrangement of damper mass spring system which linked with electrical position sensor, and the theoretical work involved the derivation of the required mathematical equations in order to formulate the simulation models in Matlab software package. The obtained results show that the backstepping control technique provides the better performance associated with stable control system especially with increasing the value of selected mechanical load.

Open access

Abstract

A method for simultaneous determination of trace of four organophosphorus pesticides residues in animal liver samples has been developed and validated. This method is based on the preliminary sample preparation using extraction of target compound with a mixture of toluene-cyclohexane by means of up-to-date accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile and hexane, additional clean up step using QuEChERS method. Further the obtained analytes are determined by gas chromatography with ion-trap detector. The validation of the method is performed in accordance with the recommendations in Document SANTE/11945/2015 and it meets the acceptability criteria for precision, mean recovery and limits of quantification. The samples were investigated by analysing blank liver samples and samples spiked with the target analytes chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion and pirimiphos-methyl at levels of 25, 50, and 75 ng/g and with diazinon at levels of 15, 30, and 45 ng/g. The recovery for all compounds were in the range from 73 to 104% which perfectly fit with requirements of documents and European legislations. The repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility also reveal acceptable in documents coefficient of variation and uncertainty less than 20 and 18%, respectively. The limits of quantification were less than 3 ng/g for all compounds and allowed determination of residues below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set in Regulation (EC) Nº 396/2005.

Open access