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Adaptív algoritmusok a párválasztásban: A Szerelmi Attitűdök Kérdőív magyar rövid változata (LAS-HSF)

Adaptive algorithms in human mating: The Hungarian version of Love Attitudes Scale Short Form (LAS-HSF)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Norbert Meskó and András Norbert Zsidó

Theoretical background

Love is a complex emotion, a psychological phenomenon known in most human cultures. From an evolutionary perspective, love is a psychological adaptation that evolved to solve specific problems of survival and reproduction. Love styles are attitudes associated with romantic relationships: Eros (passionate, erotic love); Ludus (playful love); Storge (friendly love); Pragma (pragmatic, logical love); Mania (possessive, dependent love); and Agape (self-sacrificing, selfless love). Based on the short version of the Love Attitudes Scale (LAS SF; Hendrick et al., 1998), Meskó and colleagues (2021) created a Hungarian version of the instrument (LAS-HSF).

Methods

In the present study, the 18-item (3 items per factor) version was created based on the 24-item (4 items per factor) version and analysed psychometrically on a Hungarian sample of 800 (439 women, mean age = 38.6 years).

Results

Both versions have identical factor structures and are very similar in terms of both sex differences and correlations with age.

Conclusions

The Hungarian Short Version of the Love Attitudes Scale (LAS-HSF) is a valid instrument with the same factor structure as the original, with high internal reliability, and may be suitable for measuring love attitudes in Hungarian-language research. Both the 18- and 24-item solutions have very similar indicators, and both are considered to be equally useful equipment.

Open access

Az evolúciós pszichológia paradigma újragondolása: A továbblépés irányai

Re-thinking of the evolutionary psychology paradigm: Trends of the advancement

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Lajos Szabó and Tamás Bereczkei

A great virtue of evolutionary psychology (EP) is a demonstration of strict relationship between Darwinian evolution as a metatheory and psychology. The adaptationist approach of EP has contributed to the investigation and explanation of a large variety of psychological phenomena, in an entirely new way. From the other perspective, however EP remained one-sided to a certain degree, that is partly due to an uncritically acceptance of cognitive theories (e.g. Chomsky's innatism, Fodor's modularism) which were dominant ideas during the previous decades. The onset of one-sidedness is also resulted from an ignorance: the scholars of EP paid a little attention to the huge development in the areas of human genetics, comparative psychology, and cultural anthropology. The resulting limits and simplification has been frequently pointed out by the critis opposite to EP. Criticism, however does not involve renewal in itself. Therefore, in this paper we rather examine the possibilities of updating evolutionary psychology and the trends of advancements. The recent scientific results concerning genetic influence, animal cognition, and the cultural backgrounds of psychological differences give good opportunity to re-thing and complete the original assumptions of evolutionary psychology – using the explanatory framework described by Tinbergen's „four questions”.

Open access

Abstract

A new method for the analysis of four target flavonoids in two kinds of citrus samples by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) method was developed. Main variables affecting the UHPSFC separation were optimized, and under the optimized conditions the four target compounds (tangeretin, nobiletin, hesperetin and naringenin) can be separated within 10 min. The UHPSFC method allowed the determination of the four target compounds in the diluted stock solutions with limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 1.08 to 2.28 μg mL−1, and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranging from 1.45 to 4.52 μg mL−1, respectively. The coefficients of determination (R 2) of the calibration curves were higher than 0.9950. The recoveries of the four target compounds at three different concentrations were in the range of 82.4–117.6%. The validation results demonstrated that the proposed method is simple, accurate, time-saving and environment friendly, and it is applicable to a variety of complex samples such as medicine-food dual purpose herbs and functional foods.

Open access

Együtt a bajban: a Sötét Triád tagjainak döntési mintázatai egy új társas dilemma helyzetben

Together we can: the Effect of Dark Triad Personality Traits on the Economic Decisions in a New Social Dilemma Game

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Ádám Putz, Adrián Fehér, Tas Ferencz, András Láng, Ferenc Kocsor, and Tamás Bereczkei

Theoretical background

The phenomenon of within as well as between group cooperation has been a prominent topic in both the evolutionary and social psychology research. There is an extensive literature regarding the decisions of Dark Triad individuals in social dilemma situations, too. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of “we-feeling” on the tendency of between group cooperation among individuals differing in Dark Triad traits.

Method

Participants were invited to play a new experimental game developed by the authors depicting two villages of different (Study 1, n = 236) or the same colour (Study 2, n = 147) threatened by a natural disaster (flood). In both rounds of the game participants had to decide how to allocate their sandbags among three possible locations (around their own house, at the border of their own village, or at the common dam). Participants' Dark Triad traits were assessed with the SD3 questionnaire.

Results

Participants of the same colour (in-group) condition allocated significantly more sandbags to the common dam during the second round of the game relative to participants of the different colour (out-group) condition. Participants' allocations were significantly affected by their dark personality traits; high Dark Triad scores did not always correlate with selfish strategies, however.

Conclusion

Our study confirmed that providing minimal information – i.e. group colour – can influence the tendency of between group cooperation in a social dilemma game. The results are discussed in the light of the tribal instinct hypothesis and the minimal group paradigm.

Open access

A genetikai rokonság és a szülői kapcsolati minőség hatása a testvérkapcsolatokra

The effect of genetic relatedness and parental relationship quality on sibling relationships

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Ferenc Kocsor, András Láng, Andreas Babós, and Petra Gyuris

Background and objectives

The complex relationships within patchwork families can be examined in the light of various intermediate-level evolutionary theories, such as kin selection theory, parental investment theory, and parent-offspring conflict theory. These together with recent findings that shed light on the functioning of family subsystems, can contribute to a better understanding of how patchwork families work today. In the current research, we attempted to examine the extent to which these models successfully predict the functioning of mosaic families in Hungary.

Methods

In the first part of the data collection, both members of adult sibling – including both full and half siblings – completed questionnaires about their childhood relationship. The second set of questionnaires was completed by parents who had raised at least two children with their partner, either as genetically related or stepparents. We wanted to know whether parents perceive their children's relationship as it follows from evolutionary theories. We also investigated whether couple functioning between parents could affect the relationship between siblings.

Results

The results partly contradict our hypotheses. Only age difference had a significant effect on conflicts between siblings and parental partiality, and degree of kinship did not play a role. When parents were more dissatisfied with their relationship, they perceived the relationship of half-siblings to be less close, whereas more cooperative parents perceived the relationship of full siblings to be closer.

Conclusions

The internal functioning of patchwork families cannot be directly derived from evolutionary theories. It seems that fitness interdependence and the need for the family members to meet each other's expectations tend to overshadow biased behaviours in everyday relationships that could result from increasing inclusive fitness and allocating parental efforts according to genetic interests. Although these results are not conclusive, age differences may be more important than kinship in the relationship between half- and full siblings.

Open access

Abstract

Morbidity and mortality rates during the COVID-19 pandemic have been particularly high among elderly people (>65 years). This review summarises some of the important physiological and clinical aspects in the background of augmented risk. Airway clearance provides defence against inhaled particles, including viruses. Some relevant studies have indicated that clearance from the small and large airways is slower in elderly people. Cough peak flow (the speed of expiratory airflow during coughing, or cough power) is another important parameter that reflects the defence capacity of the respiratory system. Age has likewise been shown to induce inspiratory and expiratory muscle weakness and, as a consequence, a low cough peak flow. In addition to the weakening of these non-specific defences in elderly people, the specific immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been found to be nearly blocked in aged mice, and the augmented synthesis of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) was found to play a role in this phenomenon. Aged animals were protected from death by a specific antagonist of PGD2. Among aged people suffering from COVID-19, there were disproportionally more patients with low CD8 T lymphocyte counts and high plasma concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6). This combination of deficient cellular immunity and overt inflammatory response in COVID-19 has been identified as a significant risk factor of mortality.

Open access

A Sötét Triád személyiségvonások mint a gyors életmenet-stratégiák indikátorai: A korai stresszhatások, a kedvezőtlen körülményekhez való alkalmazkodás hatása a személyiségfejlődésre

The dark triad as indicator of fast life history strategies: The impact of early stressors and adaptation to adverse circumstances on personality development

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Béla Birkás and Árpád Csathó

Life history theory posits that behavioural adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social) conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioural strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterised by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only affect dispositional social and emotional functioning, it may also promote the development of personality traits linked to higher rates of instability in social relationships or more self-interested behaviour. Similarly, detrimental childhood experiences, such as poor parental care or high parent-child conflict affect personality development and may create a more distrustful, malicious interpersonal style. The aim of this brief review is to survey and summarise findings on the impact of negative early-life experiences on development of personality and fast life history strategies. By showing that there are parallels in adaptations to adversity in these two domains we hope to lend weight to current and future attempts to provide a comprehensive insight of personality traits and functions on the ultimate and proximate levels.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet video streaming (VS) has become a popular leisure activity among the majority of adolescents, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic. Research on binge watching patterns in adults suggests an addictive potential of VS. To date, no unified conceptualization on problematic VS and no standardized assessment tools for adolescents exist even though they might be especially vulnerable.

Methods

STREDIS-A is based on the ICD-11 criteria of gaming disorder. It was validated in a representative sample of 959 dyads of 10- to 17-year old adolescents with frequent VS and a respective parent using standardized questionnaires on Internet addiction, depressive and anxiety symptoms, insomnia, loneliness, and academic performance in an online survey. Item structure was investigated by factorial analyses. Cutoffs were estimated and latent profile analysis was performed.

Results

The two-factorial structure of STREDIS-A describes cognitive-behavioral symptoms and negative consequences of VS. Internal consistency and criterion validity were good to excellent. It could excellently discriminate between affected and non-affected adolescents.

Discussion and conclusions

The present study makes a significant contribution to the conceptualization of a new phenomenon. It provides the very first tool to assess streaming disorder in adolescents for clinical and research settings. Clinical validation is highly warranted.

Open access

In this paper we study the sum px τ(np), where τ(n) denotes the number of divisors of n, and {np} is a sequence of integers indexed by primes. Under certain assumptions we show that the aforementioned sum is  x as x . As an application, we consider the case where the sequence is given by the Fourier coefficients of a modular form.

Open access

Az ismeretfogyasztói attitűd mint jelenkori probléma

Knowlewdge Consumer Attitude As a Contemporary Problem

Educatio
Author: Gábor Kutrovátz

A tanulmány a modern korok emberének tudáshoz való viszonyát fogyasztói attitűdként elemzi. Ennek központi elemei a felhasználói szemlélet, a szükségletkielégítő hozzáállás, a megszerző attitűd, a megrendelői mentalitás és a válogató attitűd. Igyekszem megmutatni, hogy ezek a jellegzetességek a megismerői magatartásban is tetten érhetők. Elemzésem új megvilágításba kíván helyezni olyan jelenségeket, melyeket a tudományos világképbe vetett bizalom megrendülésével, illetve a tudománytól való elidegenedéssel szokás összefüggésbe hozni. Felvázolom, hogy mely pontokon ütközik ez a hozzáállás a tudás közkeletű normatív koncepciójával, és megvizsgálom, hogy a tanulmány értelmezési kerete milyen konstruktív gondolkodási irányokat jelöl ki a megoldások kereséséhez.

Open access