Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a rare condition with no identifiable cause, accounting for 3%–5% of all HOA cases. It is challenging to identify incomplete primary HOA, which can be misdiagnosed as other hypertrophic periostitis diseases. At least two of the four criteria set by Borochowitz and Rimoin (1990) must be present to diagnose primary HOA. Diagnostic difficulties due to incomplete or atypical manifestations are common. We present a case of incomplete primary PHOA at Hanoi Medical University Hospital in Vietnam. A 37-year-old male presented with ankle joint pain for nearly four years. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging showed periostitis in the tibias and fibulas, which could not exclude Camurati–Engelmann disease. Finally, gene sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq system identified a missense mutation (c.295C>T) in the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1) gene on chromosome 3. Our case report and literature review aim to improve specialists' understanding of incomplete primary HOA and reduce the frequency of missed diagnoses.
The Tangut character
'ja¹ (#1718) is usually glossed as Chin. nuò 诺 ‘(to) promise; yes’ in dictionaries. Given the fact that it does occur in rhetorical questions, this article argues that Tangut
'ja¹ is instead a constituent question particle and thus not restricted in rhetorical use. The conclusion is based on a detailed philological investigation, employing multilingual parallel texts where applicable. Comparisons with other Qiangic languages reveal several candidates for cognates. Nonetheless, their similarity is more likely to be an areal typological feature, rather than an etymological relation.
The paper examines some features of Chekhov’s early poetics (1880–1885) in comparison with the newspaper as a discourse contemporary to his time. In the first half of the 1880s, the daily newspaper emerged as the dominant organ in the new system of the press. This was also the birth of mass communication in Russia, a necessary part of which was the emergence of “the small press”, i.e. the sphere of humorous journals, thin magazines, and daily newspapers in which Chekhov began to publish his works.
The paper also summarizes the outcomes of the studies that reconstructed the cultural space of Russian newspapers and magazines of the period in question. The concept of “newspaper discourse” is introduced for the purposes of comparison and understood in the paper as a new and unified space that aims towards a universal modelling of the world through the production of texts. Newspaper discourse as a term is different from the concepts of “the small press” and “journalism”. At the end of the first part, the paper discusses the notions of discursive practice and interdiscursivity as one of the types of intertextuality defined by N. Fairclough.
The second part summarizes the typology created by A. Stepanov for Chekhov’s early texts based on mixing or displacing statements of different speech genres. Using this typology, the paper identifies the humorous texts in which newspaper speech genres are used. In comparison with the practice of newspapers, the most interesting structural type is the metonymic arrangement of utterances belonging to different speech genres or those belonging to the same speech genre. In these cases, the juxtaposed statements also lack a common referent. I. Sukhikh argues that it is a demand by newspapers and magazines of that time that manifests itself in the principle of metonymic ordering of trifles (creating cycles, series, and lists). Thoughts of Readers of Newspapers and Magazines and A Memo are interpreted as humorous pieces built on the principle of a list, mocking the common practice of newspaper discourse: its ambition for universality.
In the two humorous pieces, an element of parodic interdiscourse is highlighted: the composition is based on the principle of a list. This structural type leads, more in Chekhov’s creative evolution in general terms, to more complex, composite structures such as The Complaints Book. The newspaper genre of advertisements often used by the young Chekhov can also be reinterpreted as a composite structure of the series or the list type. In the creative laboratory of Chekhov, this element of interdiscourse is transformed into an artistic technique: the metonymic logic of the list becomes an index of the moral state and atmosphere of the depicted reality.
The paper examines the figurative component of the concept “God” on the material of phraseological units of Russian and other Slavic languages with the involvement of Hungarian phraseological parallels. Phraseological units whose images reflect the interaction of God and man are selected for analysis. The purpose of the paper is to show how in the associative mechanisms of idiom formation and in the situations reflected by the prototypes of idioms and proverbs, general Christian ideas about the world order and nationally specific interpretations of the interaction of man and God are realized.
Idioms dating back to the texts of the Bible and representing scenes of Christ’s earthly life, his contacts with followers and persecutors are analyzed. In folk phraseological units which have also become the object of comparative analysis, the situations of interaction between God and the ordinary person are metaphorically reinterpreted. Clichéd appeals of a person to God as another type of interaction between man and God contain requests for family well-being, health, and luck.
Common ideologemes transmitted by confessionally marked phraseological units and paroemias of Slavic languages and Hungarian are revealed. This material testifies that God in popular representations is a caring patron, a helper of man. God determines his fate, the terms of his life, and his individual actions. God demands compliance with certain moral and ethical norms and severely punishes for deviation from them.
The analysis of our material allows us to draw preliminary conclusions about the activity in idiom formation of certain biblical motives in different linguocultures: the sufferings of Christ, the renunciation of his disciples, the punishing power of God are more widely represented in the images of Western Slavic phraseological units. In Russian, phraseological units with the component “God” are more often based on associations with grace, the communication with God reflected in idioms can often be described as informal, responsibility for rash or unseemly actions is more often shifted to God. Russian and Hungarian phraseological units in which the Russian god and the Hungarian god are mentioned illustrate the symbiosis of pagan and Christian ideas about the world order especially vividly. The Russian and Hungarian materials also show the mechanisms of the desacralization of the word God and its use in threats-obscenisms.
Special attention is paid to the analysis of folk etymological and professional versions of the origin of confessionally determined phraseological units. It is emphasized that the results of the study can be useful in compiling linguocultural dictionaries and dictionaries of biblical idioms.
The study investigates the antimicrobial effects of the Hypericum crenulatum ethanolic (HCE) extract against 14 different food pathogens and their biofilm-forming abilities in response to HCE treatment. The phenolic acid composition of the HCE extract was also determined using an HPLC-DAD detector. The antimicrobial activity of HCE extract was assessed using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods. According to the findings, the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Listeria monocytogenes RSKK 472, and Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 strains exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values at a concentration of 2 μg mL−1. Based on the disc diffusion test results, the largest zone of inhibition of HCE extract against foodborne pathogens was seen against Bacillus cereus, and the diameter of the inhibition zone increased with the concentration of HCE extract (P < 0.05). In terms of phenolic acid composition of HCE extract, the phenolic acids with the highest and lowest amounts were caffeic acid (59.92 mg g−1) and p-coumaric acid (13.61 μg g−1), respectively. Our study determined that the HCE extract demonstrated antimicrobial, bactericidal, and antibiofilm activities against some foodborne pathogens. These effects reveal its potential for improving food safety by inhibiting the growth of these pathogens.
Studies have shown evidence for long-term effects of psychedelics on personality, but comprehensive models of psychedelic-mediated personality changes have yet to be explored.
The present study aims to investigate (1) perceptions of personality change in the general population, (2) moderators of perceived personality change including setting and drug type, and (3) whether personality predisposes individuals to use psychedelics.
Paid participants with experience using psychedelic (N = 218), non-users with interest in using psychedelics (N = 104), and non-users without interest in using psychedelic (N = 104) completed an online survey following recruitment from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Psychedelic users were asked to complete written open-ended accounts of perceived personality changes that they attribute to their most intense psychedelic experience. Thematic and factor analyses were undertaken to identify themes of perceived psychedelic change and their organizational structure.
Thematic analyses resulted in 52 unique personality change themes, and exploratory factor analyses yielded eight thematic factors (Unitive Spiritual, Gratitude Absorption, Purpose Freedom, Compassion Understanding, Emotional Stability, Openness Perspective, Connection to Self, and Neuroticism Caution). Interest in psychedelic use among non-users was associated with higher openness and neuroticism. Psychedelic users tended to be more open and extraverted, and less neurotic than non-users, and interested non-users tended to be higher in openness than uninterested non-users.
The present results inform a tentative model of how personality leads to psychedelic use, how psychedelic use leads to changes in personality, and how setting and drug moderate different types of changes in personality. Research and clinical implications are discussed, including (1) hypotheses for future prospective and experimental research, (2) the value of creating multi-faceted, holistic measures that reflect the diversity and organizational structure of possible psychedelic changes, and (3) the value of allowing such evidence to guide novel psychedelic-assisted therapeutics.
The important role that the Hašt Bihišt VI of Idrīs Bidlīsī (1457–1520) and the detailed accounts he devoted to the reign of Murād II (1421–1444; 1446–1451) played in the development of early modern Ottoman historiography cannot be denied. Although the work was popular in the Ottoman world, especially its court circles, where its handsome copies were avidly produced, it was never prepared as a critical edition in its original Persian in the modern Ottoman studies departments. The following discussion concentrates on an editorial emendation that shows the carelessness of Bidlīsī in the transmission of his quotations. The formation of the Sufi and Shiite elements within Book VI of Hašt Bihišt is only briefly discussed.
Peanut butter and yoghurt are targeted for adulteration intended at consumer deception. This study aimed to fingerprint and detect peanut butter and yoghurt adulteration with cassava flour and starch using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) in a quasi-experimental approach. Ingredients for laboratory sample preparation were obtained from the Kumasi Metropolis. Peanut butter was adulterated at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20% w/w and yoghurt at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 45, 50% w/w. Selected concentrations mimicked practices on the market. Marketed products were randomly sampled from six markets in the Kumasi Metropolis to validate the study models. Samples were scanned with a hand-held NIRS in triplicates. Chemometric (Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) models) statistical methods were employed to develop classification and prediction models. Peaks with spectral bands such as 1050 , 1200 and 1450 nm were observed for peanut butter and 990–1100 nm, 1100–1200 nm and 1300–1408 nm were observed for yoghurt in the NIR spectrum. Some yoghurt brands were suspected of containing cassava starch, while Peanut butter from the different markets differed based on classification models. Cassava flour and starch concentrations were quantitatively predicted by PLSR with an R2CV of 0.98 and an error of 0.9 g/100 g (low error).
Campylobacter infections and campylobacteriosis-associated post-infectious sequelae are a significant global health burden that needs to be addressed from a specific African perspective. We conducted a comprehensive literature search on NCBI PubMed to compile a comprehensive narrative review article on Campylobacter infections in Africa, focusing on key aspects in human and veterinary medicine as well as food hygiene. We specifically focused on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic Campylobacter spp. in sub-Saharan and North Africa considering antimicrobial susceptibility. The most significant sequela resulting from molecular mimicry to Campylobacter surface structures is the Guillain-Barré syndrome, which was mainly examined in the context of limited studies conducted in African populations. A dedicated subsection is allocated to the limited research on the veterinary medically important species Campylobacter fetus. There are significant differences in the composition of the gut microbiome, especially in rural areas, which affect the colonization with Campylobacter spp. and the manifestation of campylobacteriosis. There may be a problem of overdiagnosis due to asymptomatic colonization, particularly in the detection of Campylobacter using molecular biological techniques. To reduce the colonization and infection rate of Campylobacter, we propose implementing several control measures and urge further research to improve the current understanding of the peculiarities of campylobacteriosis in Africa.