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Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Transformation of Tools and Conservation of Architecture •

Some Researches on the Use of Digital Systems for the Intervention on the Historical Buildings

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli

The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.

As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.

This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.

A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.

A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.

Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.

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Abstract

La cour royale de Mathias Corvin (1443–1490 ; 1458–1490) et celle des rois Jagellons jouent jusqu’au XVe siècle, dans la vie intellectuelle du royaume de Hongrie, un rôle comparable à celui des cours royales en Europe occidentale. Mais l’occupation de la capitale (Buda) par les Turcs (1541) et l’absence de souverain « national » transforment profondément le rôle des familles aristocratiques pour ce qui concerne tant l’organisation de la vie culturelle que la vie de l’Église. Parallèlement, la Réforme protestante progresse au XVIe siècle en Hongrie et en Transylvanie, cette dernière devenue une principauté pratiquement indépendante. Les nouveaux acteurs autour desquels se développe dès lors la vie culturelle dans le pays sont les grands aristocrates et les cours qu’ils réunissent à leur entour : les Bánffy, Batthyány, Nádasdy, Perényi, Rákóczi, Esterházy et quelques autres. En Transylvanie, le rôle de la cour princière reste dominant, grâce à sa richesse relative par rapport aux cours seigneuriales. Si l’aristocratie de Hongrie et de Transylvanie se convertit très majoritairement à la Réforme au XVIe siècle, la politique des Habsbourg et les progrès de la Contre-Réforme entraînent un vaste mouvement de reconversion, mais en Hongrie seulement, au XVIIe siècle. À la fin du siècle, ces territoires sont pleinement réintégrés dans les territoires des Habsbourg : dès lors, la question de la modernité se déploie de plus en plus nettement, à laquelle se joint la nouvelle problématique de l’identité collective, puis nationale.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Hypoxia is a pivotal initiator of tumor angiogenesis and growth through the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). This study set out to examine the involvement of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in colon cancer and ascertained whether ORAI3 was involved in the pathway.

Materials and methods

Patients and murine models as well as human colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor (CW2) cells were included to examine the levels of ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α levels. Calcium imaging was utilized to ascertain the activity of calcium channel. Scratch assay was used to assess the migration capacity of the cells.

Results

Tumors from murine colon cancer xenograft models and patients with colon cancer displayed high ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α levels. Hypoxia treatment, mimicking the tumor microenvironment in vitro, increased ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α expression as well as store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Of note is that HIF-1/2α silencing decreased SOCE, and HIF-1/2α overexpression facilitated SOCE. Furthermore, ORAI3 rather than ORAI1 expression was inhibited by HIF-1/2α silencing while increased by ML228. Luciferase assay also confirmed that ORAI3 was elevated in the presence of ML228, indicating the linkage between HIF-1/2α and ORAI3. Additionally, colony-forming potential and cell migration capacity were decreased in siHIF-1α and siHIF-2α as well as siORAI3 cells, and the facilitating effect of ML228 on cell migration and colony-forming potential was also decreased in siORAI3 CW-2 cells, which points out the importance of ORAI3 in HIF1/2α pathway.

Conclusion

Our findings allow to conclude that both HIF-1α and HIF-2α facilitate ORAI3 expression, hence enhancing colon cancer progression.

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Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition of monofloral bee-collected pollen from the coffee (Coffea robusta) plant and its pellet morphology. According to the results coffee bee pollen (CBP) has a high nutritional value. It contains a large percentage of protein, reducing sugar, and lipid. Also, vitamins (B2 and E) and minerals (K, Ca, and P) were found in CBP. In addition, the results revealed that the total polyphenols content (TPC) was 10.62 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW) and antioxidant activity (AA) of CBP was 5.52 μmol TE/g DW. Some physical properties of CBP pellet were recorded such as moisture, relative diameter, sphericity, bulk density, and colour parameters. The pollen pellet exhibits shapes of colour from light to dark yellow. These results pointed out that CBP can be used as a remarkable source of compounds with antioxidant activity and health-protective capacity for humans.

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Abstract

Green tea or its concentrated extract is coveted for its health promoting catechin-like polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, its amicable efficacy is now being doubted considering the recent occurrence of several cases of hepato- and nephrotoxicity, after the ingestion of EGCG-fortified (≥85–90%) nutritional supplements. Therefore, the current study was carried out to ascertain the effect of green tea leaves extract (GTE), having low EGCG content (73.8%), on liver and kidney functions of male Wistar rats using various in vivo experiments and in vitro radical scavenging activity. In terms of acute toxicity, GTE was observed to be safe when delivered at a dosage of 2000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). Oral delivery of GTE for 28 days at a concentration of 200 mg kg−1 BW/day did not trigger sub-acute toxicity to the liver and kidneys, as per serum biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. In contrast, GTE counteracted the effects of carbon tetrachloride (a potent hepato-degenerative compound) on the liver. Furthermore, increase in high-density lipoprotein―cholesterol with concomitant lowering of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein―cholesterol were noticed in GTE-treated rats. These findings suggest that low EGCG containing GTE, with appreciable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 53.18–71.28 μg mL−1), can serve as a hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic ingredient.

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Physiology International
Authors: V. Fazekas-Pongor, M. Fekete, P. Balazs, D. Árva, M. Pénzes, S. Tarantini, R. Urbán, and J.T. Varga

Abstract

Background

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth most frequent disease globally, and its worldwide prevalence is projected to increase in the following decades. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of COPD patients depends on multiple factors.

Objective

The aim of this study was to identify the most important risk factors affecting HRQOL of COPD patients and to measure how specific clinical parameters can predict HRQOL.

Methods

A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study combined with clinical data was conducted among patients diagnosed with COPD (n = 321, 52.6% females, mean age 66.4 ± 9.5) at the National Koranyi Institute for Pulmonology, Budapest in 2019–2020. The inclusion criteria were age ≥40 years and existing COPD. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted on three components of the COPD-specific Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-C) and on the physical (PCS) and mental component scales (MCS) of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of patient and disease characteristics on COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores.

Results

We found that frequent exacerbations, multiple comorbidities and tobacco smoking were associated with worse HRQOL. Engaging in more frequent physical activity and better 6-minute walking distance results were associated with better HRQOL.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that the complex therapy of COPD should focus not only on improving lung functions and preventing exacerbation, but also on treating comorbidities, encouraging increased physical activity, and supporting smoking cessation to assure better HRQOL for patients.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

It has been argued that similar to addictive behaviors, problematic Social Network sites use (PSNSU) is characterized by sensitized reward processing and cue-reactivity. However, no study to our knowledge has yet investigated cue-reactivity in PSNSU. The present study aims at investigating cue-reactivity to Social Network sites (i.e., Facebook)-related visual cues in individuals identified as problematic vs. non-problematic Facebook users by the Problematic Facebook Use Scale.

Methods

The Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded during the passive viewing of Facebook-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures in 27 problematic and 26 non-problematic users. Moreover, craving for Facebook usage was collected using a Likert scale.

Results

Despite problematic users were more likely to endorse higher craving than non-problematic ones, Facebook-related cues elicited larger ERP positivity (400–600 ms) than neutral, and comparable to unpleasant stimuli, in all Facebook users. Only in problematic users we found larger positivity (600–800 ms) to pleasant than unpleasant cues and higher craving to be related with lower later positivity (800–1,000 ms) to pleasant and unpleasant cues.

Discussion

Regardless of whether Facebook usage is problematic or non-problematic, Facebook-related cues seem to be motivationally relevant stimuli that capture attentional resources in the earlier stages of “motivated” attentional allocation. Moreover, our results support the view that in higher-craving problematic users, reduced abilities to experience emotions would be the result of defective emotion regulation processes that allow craving states to capture more motivational/attentional resources at the expense of other emotional states.

Open access

Abstract

Hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice has been studied by many researchers because of its diverse causes and potential for toxicity especially in the neonate but to a lesser extent beyond the neonate as well. Several studies have been performed on the normal metabolism and metabolic disorders of bilirubin in last decades of the 20th century. The recent advancement in research and technology facilitated for the researchers to investigate new horizons of the causes and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. This review gives a brief introduction to hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice and the recent advancement in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. It reports modifications in the previously used methods and findings of some newly developed ones. At present, ample literature is available discussing the issues regarding hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice, but still more research needs to be done.

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Abstract

The paper presents a comprehensive overview of the public health system in the separatist Trasnistrian region of Moldova, an analytically unorthodox undertaking, as this entails looking at the health system of a fragile breakaway state-like entity, a set of circumstances that — rather inevitably, it seems — may define certain basic features of the health system at hand. Attention will be dedicated to outlining the main challenges the region's public health system faces, for instance, concerning the spread of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and SARS-CoV-2. Studying the impact of the coronavirus pandemic can especially serve as a litmus test of the available capacities in Transnistria to deal with public health challenges: facing a novel pathogen, and the related disease and epidemic which threaten to overburden the local institutions. A key question examined here, through the example of Transnistria, is the degree to which international support to the region and the increasing cooperation with the internationally recognized state of Moldova are indispensable for public health security in the unrecognized state.

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