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Abstract

Ernő Dohnányi, the world-renowned musician, was almost entirely forgotten during the decades between his emigration in 1944 and the change of political regime in Hungary: his name actually disappeared from public cultural knowledge. Though there may have been several explanations for the ignorance, it is not an exaggeration to state that the main reasons behind the tragic gap in his posthumous reception are of a political nature. It is widely known nowadays that during the settlements after World War II, Dohnányi – in his absence – was charged with intellectual collaboration with the Hungarian far right-wing regime. According to the present state of research, the charges were finally withdrawn as they were mostly ungrounded. Yet, the formerly adored artist and central personality in cultural life had become persona non grata for more than 40 years. After the political changes, his oeuvre seemed to be rehabilitated but without a thorough investigation of the charges and their background. This is why political prejudices are currently experienced simultaneously with a total bagatellization of the possible mistakes in his interwar activity. Thus, a systematic research into this subject has become very urgent. This study, which is intended to be a chapter of a full-length monograph on Dohnányi and politics (expected in 2023/24), was founded by the János Bolyai Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and is one of the very first publications of this project in English. It aims to give a thorough description of the first two years of the official proceeding against Dohnányi at the different investigative levels such as the justificatory committees, public prosecutor, and government ministry.

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Abstract

Vergil interweaves the varying meanings of amor, from not only a positive force, to aggressive desires and to all its varied aspects, making it both harsh, deceptive and cruel, and conversely something very special reflecting things most cherished and respected.

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Abstract

In the first seasons of the Royal Academy of Music in London, its directors saw George Frideric Handel as one among several composers whose style reflected expectations of what Italian opera in London should be like. At one point, Handel’s slightly older Italian contemporaries Giovanni Bononcini and Attilio Ariosti were in equal positions to compete for success. This paper will focus on Attilio Ariosti as the seemingly most moderate party in the rivalry between the three composers to see if the specificities of the centers he was active in affected his output in the realm of the vocal duet, a less common and somewhat less important constituent of dramatic vocal genres as opposed to the dominant arias. The examination of duets in some of Ariosti’s works written for Berlin, Vienna, and London, and some comparisons with the duets by both Bononcini and Handel will shed a light on these relationships affected by competition and rivalry.

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Abstract

Following the debut of Károly Szabados's ballet Vióra on March 14, 1891, the daily newspaper Pesti Hírlap called the date a glorious day not only for Hungarian music, but also for Hungarian genius and spirit in general, and treated the debut at the Hungarian Royal Opera House in Budapest as an allegory for spring: “It was as if the refreshing, revitalizing breaths of that traditional March breeze had blown across the hall of muses on Andrássy Road: such was the enthusiasm dominating the spectators' benches and the stage alike.” According to the newspaper, it was the long-anticipated victory of “the Hungarian genius, which some had begun to consider as almost alien to the Hungarian royal theater,” and it was all thanks to Géza Zichy (1849–1924), one of whose first acts as intendant was bringing this long neglected piece to the stage. In the context of Vióra's premiere, the “Hungarian genius” and the “Hungarian spirit” manifested on several levels, as it was the decision of a Hungarian intendant to present the evening-long ballet of a Hungarian author revolving around Hungarian themes; but this raises the question, why did a Hungarian ballet carry such significance at the time? What place does Károly Szabados, the author of the ballet, occupy in the history of Hungarian music, and how was the ballet and its music received by contemporaries in and out of the limelight? This study attempts to answer these questions by examining contemporary Hungarian and German news articles and music critiques published in Budapest.

Open access

Beporzók mint fontos ökológiai és gazdasági biztonsági tényezők

Pollinators as important ecological and economical safety factors

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki

Összefoglalás.

A növényi beporzást sok esetben segítik a beporzók, hozzájárulva a termés- és magképzéshez, szaporodáshoz. Ezzel a beporzók ökológiai és gazdasági értelemben is kiemelt fontosságú szerepet játszanak az emberek életében, környezeti, élelmezési, anyagi és egészségi biztonságuk vonatkozásában egyaránt. Az állati beporzás a zárvatermő virágos növények 87%-át érinti, ami a szárazföldi vegetációt alapjaiban meghatározza. Ebbe a körbe tartozik a termesztett növények háromnegyede is, így a mezőgazdasági termelésben játszott szerepük mind mennyiségi, mind minőségi értelemben kiemelkedő. Közvetlen kihatással vannak az emberi egészségre, létfontosságú vitaminok, ásványi anyagok biztosításával. A beporzók megőrzése, hanyatló trendjeik megállítása ezért az emberiség elemi érdeke, mind hazai, mind globális vonatkozásban.

Summary.

Pollinators, including wild and managed bees, hoverflies, diurnal and nocturnal butterflies, wasps, bugs, other insects, birds and mammals play an important role in the reproduction, seed and fruit production of most dicotyledonous plant species, including three-quarters of the cultivated plants. Through their pollination as an ecosystem service their ecological and economical importance is enormous, and has a key role in human safety regarding food, health, finances and the environment. Animal pollination can be only partially or essentially needed by a plant species to reach its optimal fruit or seed quality and quantity. The pollinator related wild plants are important elements of the terrestrial ecosystems, providing our environment safety through elemental material circles. However, the foraging and nesting resources they need are limited in managed ecosystems, such as intensive agricultural or industrial landscapes. Pollinators contribute to the production of the majority of cultivated plants at a certain extent, including such economically important crops like sunflower, oilseed rape, apple, cherry, water melon, etc. Their direct contribution to global food production seems to be low, only 5-8%, but this share in human diet ensures such nutrients, vitamins and minerals that are essential for health development and life. Furthermore, besides the physical health, pollinators play a key role in mental health as well by the provision of diverse and flowering environment, enjoyed by any outdoor activities. Unfortunately, populations of many wild pollinator species decline worldwide and high proportion of honeybee colonies are lost from time to time in several regions. The main drivers behind these declines are habitat loss and change caused mainly by agricultural intensification and urbanisation, climate change, invasion, pests and pathogens and pesticide use. To halt these declines overwhelming strategies are needed at local, national, regional and global level. The EU Pollinator Strategy and the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets ambitious targets for pollinator conservation, initiating among others an EU level pollinator monitoring program, that is under test phase. These actions might have the chance to reverse the pollinator decline and maintain pollinators and pollination services, however, only in the case of real actions with joint effort of scientists, decision makers and the public.

Open access

Abstract

Constitutional identity appears as an increasingly frequent argument in the case law of constitutional courts in Europe. For many authors, it is a way to initiate dialogue with the European Union on equal terms. In this article, we argue that dialogue is not always a source of harmony, because the terms of the interaction are not exactly the same in Luxembourg and in the member states of the European Union. The Court of Justice of the European Union interprets the national identity of the member states in a way that is not always similar to the content given by the States to their constitutional identity. As a consequence, constitutional identity may allow the Member States to strengthen the specificity of their constitutional rules and, in turn, weaken the unity of European constitutionalism. Far from being an Esperanto, constitutional identity rather appears as the new legal Babel in Europe.

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Abstract

The performances of Ernő Dohnányi as pianist and conductor were preserved on numerous sound recordings. He was involved in the recording industry first in 1905, and his death was notoriously caused by a cold suffered in a recording studio in 1960. His interpretation is preserved on different audio media: piano rolls, 78rpm and Long Play discs, x-ray foils and reel-to-reel tapes. Although the number of his studio recordings, made for commercial purposes, is relatively small, the amount of live concert and home recordings, including the huge collection of unpublished recordings made in the USA between 1945 and 1960, expands it to a significant corpus of sound recordings. This article contains the complete discography of Ernő Dohnányi as a performer. The discography provides all available data of the studio and live recordings of Dohnányi, including the data of reissues (closing date: June 2022). It is preceded by an article in which Dohnányi's discography is analysed from several aspects. The analysis of the recorded repertoire sets the stage for further research on Dohnányi's interpretation; however, lost recordings are also reviewed. Dohnányi's controversial relationship to the technical media, and vice versa the recording firms changing interest in him as a performer, are also discussed in detail, involving several sources formerly unknown to Dohnányi research.

Open access

Abstract

In its ‘refugee quota decision’ of 2016 the ‘invented’ its competences of ultra vires, sovereignty and constitutional identity controls. The sword of constitutional identity (CI) has been forged against foreign – first of all – EU law. In the development of the new concept the interplay between the Government, the Government-dominated parliament and the Constitutional Court loyal to the Government seems to be evident. The textual analysis of the relevant HCC's decisions proves that the Hungarian Constitutional identity (HCI) contains legal acts in force – including the Fundamental Law (constitution) and the Founding treaties of the EU -, legal acts ‘not in force but valid’ and activities related to the fight for independence of the Hungarian State.

As far as the nature of the HCI is concerned, the article demonstrates the strong relationship with sovereignty control, and the ‘historical constitution’ and emphasises the HCC's statement according to which the CI is not created by the constitution, it is merely acknowledges it.

Given the large number of elements identified as part of the HCI, its openness to the inclusion of further elements, and the questionable nature of the HCI, the author submits that the concept is inappropriate for any meaningful constitutional review.

The HCC – at least until now – despite being invited to do so, has refused to use the sword against EU secondary law and the judgment of the European Court of Justice, and avoided overt constitutional conflict. However, this does not mean that the HCC is ready to enter into sincere dialogue with the court in Luxembourg.

Open access

Legende und Wirklichkeit •

Anmerkungen zu den frühesten Angaben zur Orgelgeschichte Siebenbürgens

Studia Musicologica
Author:
Pál Enyedi

Abstract

This study examines the earliest data of the history of the organ in Transylvania collected in the past one hundred and fifty years. A thorough examination proved that data, based on incomplete documentation, on erroneous hypotheses or conclusions, had been quite unprofessionally put into contexts to which they had no proven connection. Thus, legends regarding the first representation of an organ, the first organ, the earliest organ builders etc. appeared in the costume of historicity and were widely circulated among different authors.

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Abstract

This article offers a phenomenological description of Béla Bartók's Improvisation op. 20 no. 3, with a focus on temporality as experienced in listening. Such a description aims at understanding the structure of eventings, through which we encounter and experience, grasp and take up the work's Gestalt in time as a singular dynamic whole, which is its being as becoming, its presentation in its idea and form. As a result, what we hear, perceive and understand as we listen to the work is revealed as the unfolding of a complex network of intersecting eventings, the crossing of contrarily directed motions, interpenetration of intonations and gestures, circularities on different perceptual levels from delaying and returning notes, intonations, gestures and themes, to thematic repetition and variation, their recallings and cross-referencing. These micro-eventings yield eventings on a larger perceptual level that include ternarity, cyclicity in its broadest sense and a concentric concave-shaped contour. This is the work's Gestalt; the unique balance as ratio, correlation and interrelation, not equilibrium, of all these eventings and temporalities.

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