Authors:H. Xie, L. Cao, L. Ye, G. Shan, and W. Song
In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.
Authors:Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli
The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.
As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.
This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.
A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.
A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.
Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.
Authors:Máté Tolvaj, Márton Tokodi, Bálint Károly Lakatos, Alexandra Fábián, Adrienn Ujvári, Fjolla Zhubi Bakija, Zsuzsanna Ladányi, Zsófia Tarcza, Béla Merkely, and Attila Kovács
Background and Aim
Right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) assessed by 3D echocardiography is a powerful measure to detect RV dysfunction. However, its prognostic value in routine clinical practice has been scarcely explored. Accordingly, we aimed at investigating whether RVEF is associated with 2-year all-cause mortality in patients who underwent diverse cardiovascular procedures and to test whether RVEF can overcome conventional echocardiographic parameters in terms of outcome prediction.
Patients and Methods
One hundred and seventy-four patients were retrospectively identified who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography comprising 3D acquisitions. The patient population consisted of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients (44%), heart transplanted patients (16%), and severe valvular heart disease patients (39%). Beyond conventional echocardiographic measurements, RVEF was quantified by 3D echocardiography. The primary endpoint of our study was all-cause mortality at two years.
Twenty-four patients (14%) met the primary endpoint. Patients with adverse outcomes had significantly lower RVEF (alive vs. dead; 48±9 vs. 42±9%, p<0.01). However, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21±7 vs. 18±4mm), and RV systolic pressure (36±15 vs. 39±15mmHg) were similar. By Cox analysis, RVEF was found to be associated with adverse outcomes (HR [95% CI]: 0.945 [0.908 – 0.984], p<0.01). By receiver-operator characteristic analysis, RVEF exhibited the highest AUC value compared with the other RV functional measures (0.679; 95% CI: 0.566 – 0.791).
Conventional echocardiographic measurements may be inadequate to support a granular risk stratification in patients who underwent different cardiac procedures. RVEF may be a robust clinical parameter, which is significantly associated with adverse outcomes
Authors:Mohammed Hamed Alqarnı, Mohamad Ayman Salkini, Prawez Alam, Mazen Talal Alanazı, Maged Saad Abdel-Kader, and Samah M. El Sohafy
Plants secondary metabolites undergoes qualitative and quantitative variation due to environmental and growth factors. It is a crucial factor to select the proper time for collection of medicinal plants to assure maximum content of active components reflected as maximum efficacy. Olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) are known traditionally for their antidiabetic effect. The secoiridoid glycoside oleuropein is the main active component of Olive leaves responsible for the biological activity. The current study was conducted to monitor the seasonal variation of oleuropein in Olives leaves collected from the same location. To achieve this goal a validated HPLC method following the ICH guidelines was established. Separation was conducted using RP18 column and a mobile phase consisted of ultrapure water containing 20% acetonitrile and 1% acetic acid. Detection was performed at 254 nm with 1 mL/min flow rate. The method was simple, linear, accurate, precise, specific and robust. The analyses revealed considerable variations in the level of oleuropein throughout the year. This variation cannot be explained by temperature variation during the year. Two points of high levels of oleuropein were detected prior to flowering stage and ripening of the fruits. The levels of growth regulators most likely is responsible for the increased production of oleuropein. It is recommended that leaves intended for medicinal use to be collected during the fruiting stage prior to fruit ripening.
Authors:Barbara Tuska-Szalay, Nóra Takács, Jenő Kontschán, Zsuzsanna Vizi, and Sándor Hornok
In this study, faecal samples of four American Staffordshire terrier dogs (used for illegal fighting) were analysed by DNA extraction, molecular-phylogenetic and parasitological methods, in order to examine the occurrence of protozoan, apicomplexan parasites. In one sample, the DNA of Sarcocystis morae was shown to be present. This species was identified based on 100% identity with already reported sequences of S. morae from cervids in Lithuania and Spain. The result was also confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The sporocysts of the canine S. morae isolate measured 14.95 × 9.75 μm on average. This is the first molecular evidence in support of the final host role of domestic dogs in the life cycle of S. morae. The most likely source of the infection was raw meat given to the examined dog to increase its physical achievement. In conclusion, under similar circumstances dogs may participate in the life cycle of S. morae in a ‘natural way’, shedding sporocysts/oocysts when used for hunting or taken to walks in forested areas.
Authors:Thiago Henrique M. Vargas, Camila N. Barra, Lidia H. Pulz, Greice C. Huete, Karine G. Cadrobbi, Adriana Tomoko Nishiya, Silvia Regina Kleeb, José Guilherme Xavier, José Luiz Catão-Dias, and Ricardo F. Strefezzi
Mast cell tumour (MCT) is the most frequent skin neoplasm in dogs. These tumours are characterised by variable behaviour and clinical presentation that make prognosis an important and challenging task in the veterinary practice. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is known to influence several biological processes that are important in the cancer context and has been described as a prognostic marker for several human cancers. The aim of the present work was to characterise Gal-3 immunolabelling in canine cutaneous MCTs and to investigate its value as a prognostic marker for the disease. Thirty-four random cases of canine cutaneous MCT that were surgically treated with wide margins were included in this study. Gal-3 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and the results were compared with the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, Ki67 index, histopathological grades, mortality due to the disease and post-surgical survival. The majority of the MCTs (65.8%) were positive for Gal-3. Gal-3 immunolabelling was variable among the samples (2.7%–86.8% of the neoplastic cells). The protein was located in the cytoplasm or in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Gal-3 positivity was correlated with BCL2 expression (P < 0.001; r = 0.604), but not with Ki67 and BAX. No significant differences were detected between histological grades or in the survival analysis. Gal-3 expression correlates with BCL2 expression in MCTs. Although an efficient marker for several human neoplasms, the results presented herein suggest that Gal-3 immunolabelling is not an independent prognostic indicator for this disease.
Cyclodextrins are widely used in various fields including food industry. In this review, their role in high carbohydrate-containing, starchy foods are reviewed and discussed. Both the effects as functional ingredients affecting the structural properties of starch and as active ingredients slowing down starch digestion and, as a consequence, decreasing the glycaemic index of starchy foods are overviewed without considering the traditional applications as carriers and stabilisers of aroma and flavour, essential oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other bioactive components to enrich foods, even if they are carbohydrate foods. The effect on starch metabolism is explained by the structural transformations caused by cyclodextrins on starch amylose and amylopectin. Several examples are shown how the technological and sensorial properties of bread, rice products, pasta, and other starchy foods are modified by cyclodextrin supplementation, and how the digestibility is changed resulting in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic effects.
A magyar nagyvárosok városházái – amelyek többsége a magyar historizmus legszebb építészeti emlékei közé tartozik – jól reprezentálják azt a robbanásszerű polgárosodást és modernizációt, amely az Osztrák– Magyar Monarchia (1867) létrejöttével bekövetkező változások velejárója volt.
Tanulmányunkban a korszak építészeti tendenciáinak megismeréséhez kívánunk egy új szempontot adni: a nagy városházák térszervezetét vizsgáljuk meg a közigazgatási struktúra történeti alakulásának fényében. Ezzel az elemzéssel egyúttal az adminisztráció és az építészet sajátos viszonyrendszerét is megvilágítjuk.
A vizsgálat alapját a dualizmus korának magyar építészeti szaksajtójában közölt hat törvényhatósági jogú város részletesebb pályázati dokumentációja adja, amely látványosan tükrözi a korszak városháza- építészeti tendenciáit. Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902–1903), Marosvásárhely (1905), Szabadka (1906), Pozsony (1907) és Kolozsvár (1910) városi székházainak tervpályázati anyagát dolgoztuk fel, aminek köszönhetően a városháza mint jelentős közigazgatási épülettípust elemeztük az építészeti funkció és a hely igény relációjában. Így – a legnagyobb városházák pályázatain keresztül – a kor városházáinak mint adminisztratív épületeknek – ismert építészeti reprezentativitása mellett – alaprajzi rendszerükben, helyiség struktúrájukban megfigyelhető speciális vonásait rajzolhatjuk fel.
The city halls of the Hungarian large cities – most of which are among the most beautiful architectural monuments of Hungarian historicism – well represent the explosive civilization and modernization that accompanied the changes that took place with the establishment of the Austro–Hungarian Monarchy (1867).
In our study, we want to give a new perspective to get to know the architectural tendencies of the period: we examine the spatial organization of large city halls in the light of the historical development of the administrative structure. With this analysis, we also shed light on the specific system of relations between administration and architecture.
The study is based on the more detailed tender documentation of six cities with municipal rights published in the Hungarian architectural press of the age of dualism, which spectacularly reflects the city hall architectural tendencies of the period.
We wrote up the design competition material of the city headquarters of Győr (1893–1894), Pécs (1902– 1903), Târgu Mureş (1905), Subotica (1906), Bratislava (1907) and Cluj-Napoca (1910), thanks to which we analyzed the city hall as a significant administrative building type in relation to architectural function and space requirements. Thus, through the tenders of the largest city halls, we can draw the special features of the city halls of the age as administrative buildings, in addition to their well-known architectural representativeness, in their floor plan system and room structure.
Viruses can be found everywhere, they are part of the real life of humanity. Air travel is the youngest form of geographical movement, which has become an attainable reality for everyone at the expense of extraordinarily huge efforts and sacrifices. The two realities collided at the end of 2019 and then on 11 March 2020 via the declaration of COVID-19 to be a world pandemic changing the world as known. This paper introduces these two realities and researches their legal relations.
Primarily, this paper seeks answers to the question whether pursuant to the Montreal Convention (1999) regulating the liability of the air carrier for damages an event or occurrence deriving from the disease or state of health of the passenger taking place during the operations of embarkation or disembarkation or on board the aircraft is deemed to be an accident. What extent of liability does the state of health of the passenger impose on the contracting parties pursuant to the rules of the Convention and according to legal practice?
An answer is provided by unfolding the conceptual elements of accident via legal cases. This introduces the significance of the internal regulations of the air carrier; the situation of passengers in need of special care; examines the existence of medical certificates and deals with the responsibility of the crew for the treatment of acute situations deriving from the state of health of the passenger (heart attack, thrombosis, virus infection etc.)
The answer is logical. Pursuant to the Convention, the event or occurrence deriving from the state of health of the passenger does not qualify as accident, consequently, the air carrier shall not liable. However, if in the facts of the concrete case a cause and effect relationship exists between the occurrence of the accident and the negligent conduct of the air carrier, the liability of the air carrier for damages can be established.
The study introduces the system of conditions of the liability for damages in full detail, and the causal link producing an accident. The author makes recommendations for and outlines solutions in awareness that despite all real efforts, mankind has not learnt the lesson that the virus is in a winning position.