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Abstract

In this paper I focus my attention on the debate between three renowned Germanists of the interwar period: Elemér Moór, Elemér Schwartz and Walter Steinhauser. Their discussion of the population history of Burgenland can serve as a case study of knowledge production. This was a discourse in which the relationship between science and politics or the boundary between scholarship and dilettantism were often tested. Relying on both published material (their books and papers) and unpublished sources (correspondence, commission reports) I analyse the different standpoints of the three scholars and show the development of their rivalry. At the end of my paper, I will draw some lessons concerning the history of historical writing.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Online communities provide insights into psychedelic consumption, assisting in identification of trends, informing both harm reduction provisions and clinical research. This study extracts forum data on psychedelic substances, dosages, and administration routes, categorising and analysing self-reported consumption to inform care services and guide clinical work with psychedelics.

Methods

Posts (n = 660) from online psychedelic forums (The Shroomery and DMT Nexus) on 'trip sitting' were analysed. Using a Delphi-style expert panel review facilitated by LE, we created drug weight and intensity charts (threshold, light, common, strong and heavy dosages) for psychedelics discussed in these posts. The psychedelic substance, dosage intensity and route of administration [ROA] (smoked/vaporised, oral, injected, insufflated and undisclosed) frequencies and exploring correlations with perceived need for assistance from a psychedelic carer were mapped and correlated with perceived need for psychedelic care.

Results

Psychedelics appearing in our data were 5-MeO-DMT, ayahuasca, changa, LSA, LSD and psilocybin. There was greater commonality between clinical studies and 'common' doses determined through the Delphi method, for more extensively researched substances like LSD and psilocybin. Many posts indicated opinions that psychedelic care was unnecessary or optional for consumers, particularly for LSD and LSA. 5-MeO-DMT was strongly associated with a perceived need for care. A correlation was identified between greater psychedelic purity, dosage intensity, and a perceived need for care. Oral administration, the most common ROA, showed lower dosage intensity.

Conclusion

More research is needed to understand factors influencing psychedelic care practices. Educational information, emphasizing risk management strategies, should be provided to psychedelic consumers, emphasising psychedelic products and administration methods more likely to be dosed at a strong or heavy intensity.

Open access

„Wer um alles in der Welt ist Pom-Pom?”

Platzhalter und recycelte Erinnerung im öffentlichen Raum

Hungarian Studies
Author:
Ferenc Szolar

Abstract

The article deals with the stories of Pom-Pom, which appeared in Hungary from the beginning of the 1980s, initially in the media network of picture books and animated films. Since the 2010s, the characters have increasingly appeared in the public space of Budapest: first in the context of thematic playgrounds, then in the form of mini-sculptures, and finally street art murals. In terms of time, these events coincide on the one hand with the so-called critical threshold, that transition between communicative and cultural memory, and on the other hand they set in at a point in time initiated by the operational end as well as the incipient building decay of the renowned Pannónia film studios. The examples chosen solely according to the criterion of visibility in public space prove to be representations planned, supported and tolerated by the public authorities.

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Abstract

On March 24, 2020, the international flower trade association Union Fleurs issued a statement on the situation of the ornamental plants sector hit by the Covid-19 crisis. In a study published in April 2020, Copa-Cogeca (European Farmers and European Agri-Cooperatives) echoed the findings of the above-mentioned international flower trade association, stating that the flower and ornamental plants sector was the agricultural sector most impacted by the coronavirus in the EU, as in most Member States, including Hungary and Romania, there was a historical drop in demand and consumption of almost 80%, and unfortunately the virus hit at the worst possible time, as the spring season would have been the peak period for ornamental horticulturalists. In my case study, I examine the flower growers of Curteni, a settlement in the Mureș region of Transylvania (Romania). How has this global phenomenon caused by the coronavirus manifested itself locally in a settlement where nearly 60 families make their living from growing and selling ornamental plants? Has this community been able to maintain its territorial/regional competitiveness? Have the people of Curteni joined the group of producers known in economic anthropology as farmers who chose to halt and wait, or did they find a quick and resilient response to the obstacles they encountered? How did this crisis become an identity-shaping factor in their lives? The pandemic has also exacerbated the situation in Curteni, made it more difficult to act and make decisions, and has brought new perspectives and values into play. The example of the florist community of Curteni shows that a new situation, and indeed any crisis, can bring about positive changes in the lives of communities. In any crisis, emergency, or exigency, members of a community may almost instinctively, but mostly also consciously, seek innovative responses to their problems. One way is to discover and exploit the opportunities inherent in a crisis, communally re-assessing and utilizing the available values, opportunities, and resources, and finding truly resilient responses.

Open access

We show that every positroid of rank 𝑟 ≥ 2 has a good coline. Using the definition of the chromatic number of oriented matroid introduced by J. Nešetřil, R. Nickel, and W. Hochstättler, this shows that every orientation of a positroid of rank at least 2 is 3-colorable.

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Let 𝑇 be a tree, a vertex of degree one is called a leaf. The set of all leaves of 𝑇 is denoted by Leaf(𝑇). The subtree 𝑇 − Leaf(𝑇) of 𝑇 is called the stem of 𝑇 and denoted by Stem(𝑇). A tree 𝑇 is called a caterpillar if Stem(𝑇) is a path. In this paper, we give two sufficient conditions for a connected graph to have a spanning tree whose stem is a caterpillar. We also give some examples to show that these conditions are sharp.

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We revisit the problem of property testing for convex position for point sets in ℝ𝑑. Our results draw from previous ideas of Czumaj, Sohler, and Ziegler (2000). First, their testing algorithm is redesigned and its analysis is revised for correctness. Second, its functionality is expanded by (i) exhibiting both negative and positive certificates along with the convexity determination, and (ii) significantly extending the input range for moderate and higher dimensions.

The behavior of the randomized tester on input set 𝑃 ⊂ ℝ𝑑 is as follows: (i) if 𝑃 is in convex position, it accepts; (ii) if 𝑃 is far from convex position, with probability at least 2/3, it rejects and outputs a (𝑑 +2)-point witness of non-convexity as a negative certificate; (iii) if 𝑃 is close to convex position, with probability at least 2/3, it accepts and outputs a subset in convex position that is a suitable approximation of the largest subset in convex position. The algorithm examines a sublinear number of points and runs in subquadratic time for every fixed dimension 𝑑.

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Az erdőállományok talajvíz utánpótlódásra gyakorolt hatásának vizsgálata kecskemét-ménteleki mintaterületen

Investigation of the impact of forest stands on groundwater recharge in the Kecskemét-Méntelek study area

Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
András Szabó
,
Zoltán Gribovszki
,
Péter Kalicz
,
Ján Szolgay
,
Zsolt Gácsi
, and
Bence Bolla

Az Alföldet, azon belül is különösen a Homokhátságot érintő talajvízszint süllyedés, súlyos ökológiai és gazdasági következményekkel is járó problémakör. A jelenség hátterében álló lehetséges okokkal kapcsolatban több évtizede zajlik kutatómunka, ugyanakkor ezek relatív súlyának meghatározása a mai napig tudományos vita tárgyát képezi.

Több szerző is kiemeli az erdőtelepítések talajvízszint csökkentő hatásának fontosságát. Ez a hatás két módon, a vegetáció vízfelvétele, illetve a csapadékból történő utánpótlódás csökkentése (intercepció, talajnedvesség felvétel) által jelentkezhet. Ezen mechanizmusok működését vizsgáltuk meg egy akác (Robinia pseudoacacia) és egy fekete fenyő (Pinus nigra) állomány esetében a Homokhátságon, Kecskemét-Ménteleken kialakított mintaterületünkön, 90, 150 és 200 cm-es mélységben, nagy időbeli felbontással mért talajnedvesség, illetve talajvíz adatokra alapozva.

Az adatok alapján feltételezhető, hogy a talajvízből nem történik közvetlen, vagy közvetett vízfelvétel, aminek oka vélhetően a gyökérzóna és a talajvíz közti igen jelentős horizontális távolság. A talajnedvesség esetében a sekélyebb rétegekben egyértelműen jelentkezik az erdőállományok szezonális szárító hatása. Ugyanakkor a mélyebb rétegek talajnedvesség adatai alapján kijelenthető, hogy a csapadékból történő talajvíz visszatöltődésre leginkább az akác állomány alatt van elméleti lehetőség. A látszólagos ellentmondás feltételezhetően a gyökérzet által kialakított makropórusok hatásával magyarázható. Ezt támasztja alá az akác és fekete fenyő állományok közti igen jelentős eltérés is.

Következtetésünk, hogy az erdőállományok lokálisan jelentősen eltérő hatást gyakorolhatnak a talajvízszintre. Ezért a lezajló folyamatok hátterét, általános jellegű megállapítások helyett, az adott hidrológiai rendszer több elemét vizsgáló monitoring adataira alapozva lehetséges csak felderíteni.

Open access

Abstract

Psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) is currently undergoing a resurgence of clinical interest for several mental health ailments. We propose that philosophers can play a significant role in PAT in both the preparation and integration phases of PAT. Philosophers can aid in the former phase by offering philosophical preparatory insights and in the latter phase by providing the conceptual language to articulate the complex philosophical aspects of a psychedelic experience.

Open access

Háttér és célkitűzések: Jelen tanulmány célja egy új, sportpszichológiai állapotszorongás skála (Sport Szorongás Skála-2, Sport Anxiety Scale-2, SAS) magyar változatának pszichometriai vizsgálata és az új mérőeszköz reliabilitásának és validitásának ellenőrzése. Módszer: 361 sportoló vett részt a vizsgálatban (M age = 22,89, SD = 6,44). A fent említett kérdőív mellett a Feladat- és Énorientációs Kérdőívet és a Sport-önbizalom forrásai kérdőívet alkalmaztuk a validálás során. Eredmények: A megerősítő faktoranalízis a háromdimenziós elméleti modellt támogatta, megfelelő illeszkedési mutatókat kaptunk. A skálák belső konzisztenciája megfelelőnek bizonyult (Cronbach α = 0,83–0,93). A konstruktum validitás vizsgálata során a SAS-2 skálái szignifikáns gyenge kapcsolatot mutattak az énorientációval, de nem találtunk kapcsolatot sem az önbizalommal, sem a feladatorientációval. Következtetés: A SAS-2 magyar nyelvű változata megfelelő, megbízható és érvényes mérőeszköznek bizonyult a sportolói állapotszorongás felmérésére.

Open access