As a result of rainfall in large quantities, the leachate generated under the municipal solid waste (MSW) is increased, which leaks to the groundwater aquifers and pollutes it. Accurate evaluation of leachate leaks levels has long been regarded as a problem in Iraq due to a lack of reliable data and costly measuring costs. This work proposes a novel fuzzy expert system to predict the pollution status of the underground water in sandy soils. The expert system consists of two subsystems; fuzzy logic system and crisp logic system. The expert system is trained using a data set developed by finite element analysis of sandy soil subjected to contamination materials.
Before the Coronavirus pandemic, the fitness industry was a growing sector globally, both in terms of the number of members and clubs; even prior to the global pandemic there were online workouts and technological innovations. With COVID-19, revenues plummeted, and many gyms went out of business. Consumers bought equipment for home use and switched to different types of online or outdoor workouts. This paper aims to investigate how the pandemic affected the fitness sector, and the consumer behavior of former gym members. Our assumption was that the preferences of gym-members had changed, and gyms would have prospered if they had changed their business models and moved to a hybrid model. We conducted in depth-interviews with Hungarian club owners and used an online questionnaire survey to collect data from members of gyms in Hungary. We asked them about exercise habits, home exercise methods, planned future exercise locations, the expectations of customers, safety measures, and service quality. Our assumptions were confirmed. The results may represent useful input for Hungarian fitness centers.
Géza Alföldy (1935–2011) is considered as one of the most important epigraphists and historians of the Roman civilization of the late 20th century, known also as “Mommsen of our ages”. His contribution is indispensable not only for the discipline of Roman epigraphy and social history, but also for the study of Roman religion. His intellectual roots in Hungary and the influence of the Hungarian scholarly tradition of the 1950’s marked his interest in the study of Roman religion for a long period. In this study, the authors discuss the formation of Géza Alföldy and his contribution to the discipline through a wider academic and socio-historical context.
This study explored the impact of the COVID-19 career shock to career capital among sports clubs personnel. With this aim, an explanatory mixed-method research was undertaken based on data gathered via a survey among the personnel of sports clubs in Poland (N = 226). The quantitative stage of data analysis (a multivariate analysis of covariance) determined the scale of the changes in career capital and its elements (knowing-how, knowing-why, knowing-whom) across different respondent groups, while the subsequent thematic analysis of the data gathered through open questions explored the sources of these changes. The results show that the shock had a positive impact mainly on knowing-how, and a lesser one on knowing-why, while it was neutral for knowing-whom. Nevertheless, there is an important heterogeneity of the experiences among sports club personnel, even when accounting for the differences in the way that COVID-19 impacted their clubs. By exploring the consequences of a career shock to career capital, this study contributes to career construction theory.
Psychedelic compounds hold promise for alleviating human suffering. Initial trials of psychedelic-assisted treatments have established feasibility and safety, generating calls for replications. Meanwhile, social and medical sciences have drawn criticism due to perceptions of replication failures and varying public trust in empiricism. Data suggest that researchers and the public frequently misunderstand some of the statistical issues associated with replication, potentially leading to unrealistic expectations of treatment effects. Promoting discourse on what constitutes sufficient replication is especially warranted considering the ongoing progression of multi-site phase II and III clinical trials. Here, we review recent and classic work on prediction intervals and power analysis to reveal that trials of psychedelic-assisted therapy that emphasize statistical significance will likely include failures to replicate, especially if sample sizes do not increase dramatically. The field and the public should expect some failed replication attempts based on sampling variability alone. Continued emphasis on statistical significance will require markedly larger samples than those used in clinical trials to date, necessitating substantially greater resources. An alternative approach focused on prediction intervals has distinct advantages. We focus on a recent trial of MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD to show that, based on prediction intervals, reasonable replications are well within reach. A lack of attention to these statistical issues could unnecessarily prompt widespread dismissal of these therapies before the intervention receives adequate investigation and a fair assessment. In contrast, realistic expectations and appropriate planning could help ensure that these treatments receive the opportunity to help those most in need.
The mining industry, currently undergoing profound changes, is destined to play an increasingly important economic role in the province of Quebec, Canada. Activity in this sector, its real net impact on government tax revenue, the economy, society, and the creation of wealth, is the subject of much discussion. Occupational health and safety is a major preoccupation in the mining sector, in which considerable numbers of workers suffer workplace accidents or occupational diseases due to the use of industrial chemicals, compounding the problem of exposure to noxious substances that exist naturally in mines or are produced inevitably in the course of normal mining operations. Air in mines thus can become laden with a wide variety of chemical agents, in the form of suspended solids, liquid droplets, and vapors and gases. Long-term exposure to most of these agents can seriously harm the health of mineworkers. Prevention remains the key to avoiding the social and economic consequences of these hazards and will make mining a more attractive sector for investment and employment in Canada.
The principal focus of this study, presented in two articles, is to set a preliminary theoretical framework for categorizing chemicals in terms of their effects on the health of mineworkers throughout the various phases of mining projects. The objective is to decrease (over the long term) the number of occupational diseases due to the use of chemicals by raising awareness among employers and exposed workers in the mining sector.
This research was conducted in four phases. The first article presented a review of the literature  on the chemical aspects of health and safety in mining in the province of Quebec. In the present article, the findings on the recurrence of health problems attributable to chemicals encountered in mines and how these effects should therefore be ranked from an occupational health and safety perspective are presented. The results show that various forms of dermatitis are the most recurrent health and safety risk.
With distributed computing and mobile applications becoming ever more prevalent, synchronizing diverging replicas of the same data is a common problem. Reconciliation – bringing two replicas of the same data structure as close as possible without overriding local changes – is investigated in an algebraic model. Our approach is to consider two sequences of simple commands that describe the changes in the replicas compared to the original structure, and then determine the maximal subsequences of each that can be propagated to the other. The proposed command set is shown to be functionally complete, and an update detection algorithm is presented which produces a command sequence transforming the original data structure into the replica while traversing both simultaneously. Syntactical characterization is provided in terms of a rewriting system for semantically equivalent command sequences. Algebraic properties of sequence pairs that are applicable to the same data structure are investigated. Based on these results the reconciliation problem is shown to have a unique maximal solution. In addition, syntactical properties of the maximal solution allow for an efficient algorithm that produces it.
Iranians invented squinches to cover a square-plan space with a dome. Filposh, a type of squinch first found in Sasanian architecture, is a conical vault constructed in the transition zone’s corners to transmit the dome’s forces and weight. This technique can be seen in three halls of the Sasanian palace of Ardeshir. In this paper, the geometry of the transition zone using filposh squinches between a spherical dome and the square supporting walls in Ardeshir Palace was re-examined. A historical descriptive method was employed to analyse the main drawings of the halls from the nineteenth century to the present, and two hypotheses concerning the geometry of the transition zone were modelled and evaluated. As a result, the hypothesis that the dome’s cross-section intersects the chamber’s square plan is rejected. Furthermore, the claim that the transition zone’s square plan circumscribes the dome’s cross-section was discussed and proven.
Bevezetés: A komplex aortoiliacalis stenoocclusiv betegségek
kezelésének megoldását hagyományosan a nyitott műtéti technikák jelentik.
Napjainkban azonban a kisebb perioperatív megterheléssel járó endovascularis
vagy hibrid beavatkozások – mint például a fedettsztent-implantáció – is
megoldásként szolgálhatnak, amelyekkel akár aortobiiliacalis, akár
aortobifemoralis áthidalások kiválthatók. Célkitűzés: A
vascularis centrumunkban végzett aortoiliacalis fedett sztent implantációk korai
eredményeinek elemzése. Módszer: A 2019. november 1. és 2021.
szeptember 30. között prospektíven regisztrált, konszekutív, aortoiliacalis
fedett sztent implantációján átesett betegek adatainak retrospektív elemzését
végeztük. Rögzítettük a betegek demográfiai és preoperatív egészségügyi adatait,
a perioperatív szövődményeket, emellett a pre- és posztoperatívan megállapított
Rutherford-stádiumot és boka-kar indexet. Vizsgálatunk elsődleges végpontja a
perioperatív mortalitás, illetve az egyéves túlélés és elsődleges nyitva
maradás, míg másodlagos végpontja a boka-kar index, illetve a Rutherford-stádium
változásának és az amputációs rátának a megállapítása volt. Elemzésünkhöz
Kaplan–Meier-analízist és Wilcoxon-féle ’signed-ranked’ tesztet használtunk.
Eredmények: Vizsgálatunkba 36 beteget vontunk be. Az
átlagos utánkövetési idő 12 ± 6,9 hónap volt. 72,2%-ban (n = 26) TASC C–D
klasszifikációjú aortoiliacalis elváltozás miatt végeztünk beavatkozást, 44%-ban
(n = 16) kritikus alsó végtagi ischaemia miatt, 64%-ban (n = 23) percutan
punkcióból. A kórházban töltött napok száma átlagosan 5 ± 7 nap volt.
Perioperatív vérzéses szövődmény 4 (11,1%), reoperáció 6 (16,6%) esetben fordult
elő. Perioperatív halálozás nem történt. Az egyéves túlélés 94,3%, az elsődleges
nyitva maradás 91,4% volt. A betegek posztoperatív Rutherford-stádiuma (3. [2.]
vs. 1. [1.]; p<0,001) és boka-kar indexe (0,4 [0,55]
vs. 1 [0,4]; p<0,001) szignifikánsan javult a
preoperatívhoz képest. Nem tervezett major amputációt nem végeztünk.
Következtetés: Az aortoiliacalis stenoocclusiv betegségek
kezelésében fedett sztentek használatával jelentős klinikai javulás mellett
kedvező perioperatív mortalitás, egyéves túlélés és elsődleges nyitva maradás,
illetve elfogadható perioperatív morbiditás érhető el. Ez az eljárás megfelelő
alternatívája lehet a nyitott műtéti megoldásoknak. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(39):