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Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate in-vivo and in-vitro effects of ferulic acid (FA) on glucocorticoid-induced osteoarthritis (GIO) to establish its possible underlying mechanisms.

Methods

The effects of FA on cell proliferation, cell viability (MTT assay), ALP activity, and mineralization assay, and oxidative stress markers (ROS, SOD, GSH LDH and MDA levels) were investigated by MC3T3-E1 cell line. Wistar rats received standard saline (control group) or dexamethasone (GC, 2 mg−1 kg) or DEX+FA (50 and 100 mg−1 kg) orally for 8 weeks. Bone density, micro-architecture, bio-mechanics, bone turnover markers and histo-morphology were determined. The expression of OPG, RANKL, osteogenic markers, and other signalling proteins was assessed employing quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting.

Results

The findings indicated the elevation of ALP mRNA expressions, osteogenic markers (Runx-2, OSX, Col-I, and OSN), and the β-Catenin, Lrp-5 and GSK-3β protein expressions. FA showed the potential to increase MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation, proliferation, and mineralization. FA increased oxidative stress markers (SOD, MDA, and GSH) while decreasing ROS levels and lactate dehydrogenase release in GIO rats. The OPG/RANKL mRNA expression ratio was increased by FA, followed by improved GSK-3β and ERK phosphorylation with enhanced mRNA expressions of Lrp-5 and β-catenin.

Conclusion

These findings showed that FA improved osteoblasts proliferation with oxidative stress suppression by controlling the Lrp-5/GSK-3β/ERK pathway in GIO, demonstrating the potential pathways involved in the mechanism of actions of FA in GIO therapy.

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Abstract

Bacteria can enhance their survival by attaching to inanimate surfaces or tissues, and presenting as multicellular communities encased in a protective extracellular matrix called biofilm. There has been pronounced interest in assessing the relationship between the antibiotic resistant phenotype and biofilm-production in clinically-relevant pathogens. The aim of the present paper was to provide additional experimental results on the topic, testing the biofilm-forming capacity of Escherichia coli isolates using in vitro methods in the context of their antibiotic resistance in the form of a laboratory case study, in addition to provide a comprehensive review of the subject. In our case study, a total of two hundred and fifty (n = 250) E. coli isolates, originating from either clean-catch urine samples (n = 125) or invasive samples (n = 125) were included. The colony morphology of isolates were recorded after 24h, while antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Biofilm-formation of the isolates was assessed with the crystal violet tube-adherence method. Altogether 57 isolates (22.8%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), 89 isolates (35.6%) produced large colonies (>3 mm), mucoid variant colonies were produced in 131 cases (52.4%), and 108 (43.2%) were positive for biofilm formation. Biofilm-producers were less common among isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P = 0.043 and P = 0.023, respectively). Biofilms facilitate a protective growth strategy in bacteria, ensuring safety against environmental stressors, components of the immune system and noxious chemical agents. Being an integral part of bacterial physiology, biofilm-formation is interdependent with the expression of other virulence factors (especially adhesins) and quorum sensing signal molecules. More research is required to allow for the full understanding of the interplay between the MDR phenotype and biofilm-production, which will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

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Abstract

Background and aims

Cited in over 100 articles, the interactional model of exercise addiction (Egorov & Szabo, 2013) forms the theoretical foundation of many studies on the risk of exercise addiction. Still, the inclusion of previously omitted determinants could make it more useful. Therefore, this review presents the expanded version of the original model.

Method

We added ‘self-concept’ as another determinant in the ‘personal factors’ domain and ‘attractive alternatives’ to the ‘situational factors’ domain. Further, we doubled the reasons for exercise in the ‘incentives for exercise domain.’ Last, we added a new domain, the ‘exercise-related stressors,’ to illustrate that exercise itself might be a source of stress.

Results

The expanded model is more inclusive and accounts for a greater combination of interactions playing roles in exercise addiction. Overlooking the eventuality that stress resulting from exercise might also fuel the dysfunction was a significant omission from the original model, rectified in the current update. Finally, the new expansions make the model more applicable to competitive situations too

Conclusion

The expanded interactional model of exercise addiction is more comprehensive than its original version. It also accounts for the exercise or sport-related stress as possible fuel in addictive exercise behavior.

Open access

Abstract

The recently published Imperial College study of a Phase II, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing psilocybin-assisted therapy to a six-week titration of escitalopram for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) should raise concerns for this illness category as a target of early psychedelic research given a goal of FDA approval. There are three reasons why MDD is the wrong target at this stage of research development. Firstly, the psychiatric category of MDD is heterogeneous, vaguely-defined, and overdiagnosed in a way that will problematize finding a reliable signal with psychedelic interventions (or any intervention), particularly within non-severe cases. Secondly, current rating scales for MDD (QIDS used in the Imperial College trial, but also HAM-D) are limited in approximating the kinds of things we ultimately care most about with depressive states, namely functional status, quality of life, and well-being: measures that seem more salient for psychedelic interventions and which are not adequately captured by these rating scales used in a majority of clinical trials. And thirdly, there are inherent conflicts between psychiatric conceptualizations of MDD (and its symptom amelioration) and the kinds of perspectives on one’s suffering often occasioned by psychedelic experiences themselves: while these kinds of psychedelic-catalyzed openings may lead to a form of acceptance or equanimity with regards to one’s life circumstances this could be in many ways orthogonal to reductions in HAM-D scores. We argue that for these reasons MDD is a non-ideal target at this stage of the science and propose alternative directions.

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By common consent, one of the most characteristic categories of the Polish verb is aspect. There can be little doubt that the origin of the aspect category may lie in Proto-Slavic or much further back in the Proto-Indo- European language. It is a moot point whether the aspect was already a strong category in Proto-Slavic. Nonetheless, it is beyond dispute that the consequences of its emergence were far-reaching and took a relatively long time to clarify in the daughter languages. The various categories such as aspect, biaspectuality, and tense providing the main themes of the present paper were closely related and did interact, however, the essential effects of their interaction can only be identified by scrutiny.

In Old Church Slavonic, a certain degree of competition between the category of aspect and that of tense can already be observed, and this is also evident in Old Polish, in which tenses like the aorist and the imperfect were slowly falling into disuse. Their occurrence is quite rare even in the earliest Polish written records. In due course, the perfect tense gained ground and the pluperfect became almost completely obsolete. In Modern Polish, the latter only serves to archaize literary texts. In the further stages of development, the aspectual opposition also extended to the future tenses thereby affecting the entire Polish tense system. Also, in the aspect-tense system of the Modern Polish language, the tendency of the category of aspect to prevail over the category of tense together with the gradual decline in the number of biaspectual verbs, still common in the 16th century, seems to be quite clear.

Most of the originally biaspectual initial verbs were later perfectivized by means of prefixes. Thus, the simple verbal bases and their perfectivized derivatives could establish an aspectual partnership. In the case of verbs with foreign roots, the prefix z-/ s- played a pivotal role in perfectivation, while other prefixes such as za- and po- had a less important role. The process of perfectivation in Polish was so extensive that only few biaspectual verbs remained free of the opposition of aspect as reminders of the fact that the development of this category is still an ongoing process. This is also shown by the more recent biaspectual verbs with borrowed roots for which it can be anticipated that they will form their perfective counterparts soon.

The paper concludes that the amount of verbs with an aspectually uncertain status is likely to be a reliable indicator of the development of the aspect category for the earlier periods in the history of the Polish language. An important role in this may play the diachronic corpus-based investigation, which, though for a long time considered a stepchild of Slavic aspectual research, may still help to clarify a number of issues related to the category of aspect.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Lucia Kottferová, Ladislav Molnár, Peter Major, Juraj Toporčák, Lýdia Mesárčová, Jana Kottferová, and Andrea Szarková

Abstract

This paper presents a clinical case report of a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) with foreign bodies (stones) in its proventriculus. The case deals with the identification, management and removal of foreign objects identified in the gastrointestinal tract. A surgical removal by proventriculotomy under general anaesthesia was attempted. The surgery and the recovery were uneventful, and the follow-up after six months revealed no complications. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other reports of successful foreign body removal by proventriculotomy in the golden eagle.

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В настоящей статье изучаются поэтические принципы и функции двух типов структурно-семантической логики, влияющей на возникновение текстовой динамики в «Двойнике». Парадоксально, что главная линия развития сводится к структуре высокой повторяемости рекуррентных / рекурсивных фигурирований стабильных нарративных единиц, мотивов, лексических элементов текста. Их постоянное возвращение (см. события, характерные черты персонажа, семантические признаки, компоненты устойчивых фразеологических выражений) создает впечатление модели неизменного мира, в котором не происходит никаких смен. Такой феномен можно условно назвать динамикой рекуррентности под знаком статичности. Транспозиционная динамика, с другой стороны, определяется в качестве второго направления текстового развертывания, формирующего механизм порождения смысла. Транспозиция в данной работе понимается в широком смысле, со специальным сосредоточением на 1) трансфигурации и проек\xD1\x86ии смысла путем сдвига от однородности семантических признаков к наделению означающих или означаемых новыми признаками (проблема референтности); 2) процессах семантической интеграции, касающейся включения мелких смысловых единиц в более крупные формации (семантический признак → мотив → литературный персонаж).

Цель статьи состоит в выяснении взаимоотношения (своеобразной интеракции) двух типов динамики. Рассматриваемое смысловое образование, воплощаемое в минимальной единице моторной (моторно-словесной) «экспрессии» Голядкина, обладает двойной ориентацией, основанной на корреляции движения и остановки, которую В. B. Виноградов интерпретировал в своей знаменитой работе. С точки зрения объекта изучения в настоящей статье указанная нарративная и лингвистическая единица подвергается толкованию в качестве рекурсивной пары мотивов, обладающей особенной способностью перевоплощаться путем транспозиции. Применением метода «close reading» в пятой главе повести, где появляется двойник господина Голядкина, подробно продемонстрировано, как транспозиция действует в рамках процесса смысловых интеграций. Значение мотива врага претерпевает сдвиг от смысла человеческого врага к смыслу петербургской погоды и человеческой судьбы как новых субъектов. Они ассоциируются с мифологией и литературной культурой (интертексты), подводящими к толкованию личности Голядкина. Образ главного героя проецируется на его двойника многими семантическими признаками. «Тоскливая побежка» в смысле столкновения Голядкина с самим собой представляет его в качестве прозревающего героя, который как л\xD0\xB8тературный персонаж развивается постепенно, включением в этот процесс и образ двойника как транспозицию фигуры, также представляющей собой динамическое смысловое образование. Соотношение Голядкина и его двойника в аспекте проблемы первичности и вторичности поставлено также в контекст семиотики Пирса.

The paper examines the poetic principles and functions of two sorts of structural-semantic logic influencing the emergence of textual dynamics in The Double. Paradoxically, the main developmental line consists in a highly repetitive structure of permanent reiteration of fixed narrative units, motifs, and lexical items in the text. Their constant recurrence (cf. events, character traits, semantic attributes, and elements of stable idiomatic phrases) creates the impression of a static world model in which no changes occur. This may be called recursive dynamics under the sign of a static state. Transpositional dynamics, on the other hand, can be regarded as the second direction of the textual developmental movement, producing the mechanism for meaning-generation. Transposition is interpreted broadly, in the paper, with a special accent on 1) meaning transfigurations and projections through the shift from the uniformity of semantic attributes to the acquiring of new attributes by the signifier or the signified (the problem of reference); 2) processes of semantic integration concerning the inclusion of smaller semantic units into larger ones (semantic attribute → motif → character figure).

The purpose of the paper is to clarify the reciprocity (the special interaction) of the two types of dynamics. The semantic formation under scrutiny embodied by the smallest unit of Golyadkin’s motoric-verbal expression has a double orientation based on the correlation of motion and stop interpreted by V. Vinogradov in his famous study. From the perspective of the paper’s research object, this narrative and linguistic unit is examined as a recursive motif pair with a special capacity of transformation through transposition. It is demonstrated in detail, within the close reading of the fift h chapter, where Golyadkin’s double appears, how transposition works through a process of semantic integrations. The meaning of enemy is shift ed from human rivals to Petersburg weather and human fate as new subjects, associated with mythology and literary culture (intertexts), leading up to the interpretation of Golyadkin’s personality. The protagonist’s figure is projected upon his double through many semantic attributes. The “melancholy flight” as his encounter with himself presents him as an awakening hero, who as a character is developed gradually, including his double as his figure-transposition which also embodies a dynamic semantic pattern. The correlation of Golyadkin and his double in the context of firstness and secondness is also put into the context of Peircean semiotics.

Open access

Az interleukin-6-expresszió vizsgálata colorectalis adenocarcinomában szenvedő betegeken

Investigation of IL6 expression in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Valéria Jósa, Krisztina Féderer, Zsombor Zrubka, Lilla Reiniger, and Zsolt Baranyai

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A gyulladásos folyamatok és a tumorok kialakulása, illetve progressziója közötti összetett kapcsolat ismert. Az interleukin-6 (IL6) egy pleiotrop gyulladásos citokin, melynek tumorstimuláló és -gátló tulajdonsága is van. Célkitűzés: Kutatásunk célja az IL6-expresszió vizsgálata volt colorectalis adenocarcinoma miatt reszekción átesett betegek szövettani metszetein. Módszer: Az Uzsoki Utcai Kórházban 2004 és 2011 között reszekált 64, colorectalis tumoros beteg demográfiai, sebészeti és patológiai adatait gyűjtöttük össze. A betegek szövettani metszeteit IL6-antitesttel festettük. A digitalizált metszeteket kvantitatív színelemzéssel kiértékeltük, majd az eredményeket a betegek klinikai paramétereinek függvényében elemeztük. Eredmények: Előrehaladott stádiumú betegekben a tumorsejtek IL6-expressziója szignifikánsan magasabbnak bizonyult lineáris regresszióval. A tumorsejtek IL6-expressziója azonban nem korrelált a nemmel, az életkorral vagy a tumor differenciáltságával. Megbeszélés: Különbségek mutatkoztak a tumorsejtek és a stromasejtek IL6-kifejeződése között. Következtetés: Az IL6 hasznos marker és potenciális terápiás cél lehet az előrehaladottabb stádiumú colorectalis tumoros betegeknél. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1502–1507.

Summary. Introduction: It is well known that there is a complex correlation between inflammation and tumor development and tumor progression. Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine with both tumor stimulating and inhibiting effect. Objective: The goal of our study was to evaluate the IL6 expression of histological slides from patients after resection of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Method: Demographical, surgical, and pathological findings of 64 patients with colorectal cancer operated between 2004 and 2011 in Uzsoki Teaching Hospital were evaluated. Histopathological slides were stained with IL6 antibody. The digitalized slides were assessed with quantitative color analysis, and the results were evaluated according to patients’ clinical parameters. Results: Linear regression showed significantly higher IL6 expression in the tumor cells in patients with advanced stages. However, the IL6 expression of the tumor cells did not correlate with sex, age, or tumor grade. Discussion: There were differences between the IL6 expression in tumor cells and stromal cells. Conclusion: IL6 may be a useful marker and potential therapeutic target in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1502–1507.

Open access

Az Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale kérdőív magyar nyelvű validálása

The Hungarian adaptation and validation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Péter Tardi, Ildikó Kovács, Alexandra Makai, Brigitta Szilágyi, Márta Hock, and Melinda Járomi

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A nemzetközi szakirodalomban számos betegséget illetően elérhető betegségspecifikus tudást és attitűdöt mérő kérdőív. Magyarországon az osteoporosis témakörében validált kérdőívek tárháza meglehetősen hiányos. Célkitűzés: Célunk volt a csontritkulás-specifikus magatartás és attitűd vizsgálatára alkalmas Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS-) kérdőív magyar nyelvre történő validációja, melynek segítségével mérhetővé válna a magyar anyanyelvű nők csontritkulással kapcsolatos attitűdje. Módszer: A kérdőív magyar nyelvre validálása a 2000-ben megfogalmazott hatlépcsős irányelv szerint történt. A külső validitás vizsgálatához az Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT-) kérdőívet használtuk. Mintánkat 600 fő alkotta; statisztikai számításaink során leíró statisztikát készítettünk, különbözőségi vizsgálatokat végeztünk, a belső konzisztencia vizsgálatára Cronbach-alfa-értéket számítottunk, a konvergens validitás és a teszt-reteszt mérések vizsgálatához Spearman-féle korrelációs koefficienst számítottunk. A kérdőív belső struktúrájának vizsgálatához faktorelemzést végeztünk. Ennek megfelelően Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO)-tesztet és Bartlett-próbát számítottunk. Eredmények: Mintánk (37,7 ± 13,15 életév) az OHBS (126,28 ± 14,85 pont) és az OKAT (8,78 ± 3,1) tekintetében egyaránt alacsony pontszámot ért el. A teljes kérdőívre kivetített Cronbach-alfa-érték 0,802 volt. A faktorelemzés (KMO = 0,886; Bartlett-próba p<0,001) 7 faktort különített el, melyek megfeleltethetők az eredeti faktoroknak. A teszt-reteszt során a Spearman-féle korrelációs koefficiens 0,921 és 1,000 közötti értéket mutatott. Az OKAT- és az OHBS-dimenziók összevetésekor számos szignifikáns kapcsolatot találtunk. Megbeszélés: A vizsgálati eredmények megfelelnek az eredeti kérdőív szerinti, továbbá a más nyelvre történt validálás során kapott eredményeknek. Következtetés: Eredményeink alapján a magyar nyelvű OHBS csontritkulás-specifikus attitűdöt és magatartást vizsgáló kérdőívet megbízható és valid kérdőívnek tartjuk. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1494–1501.

Summary. Introduction: In the international literature, several disease-specific questionnaires are available for many diseases. The opportunities of validated questionnaires are incomplete about osteoporosis in Hungarian language. Objective: The aim of the study was to validate the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) into Hungarian that would make it possible to measure the osteoporosis-related attitude for Hungarian-speaking women. Method: The questionnaire was validated into Hungarian according to the six-step guideline outlined in 2000. The Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool (OKAT) questionnaire was used to examine external validity. Our sample consisted of 600 women. We performed descriptive statistics; Cronbach’s alpha value was calculated for internal consistency, we calculated Spearman’s correlation coefficient to examine external validity. We carried out factor analysis (Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin [KMO] test, Bartlett test) to examine whether the new questionnaire is suitable for measurements in the given language the same way as the original questionnaire. Results: Our sample (37.7 ± 13.15 years of age) achieved low score for both OHBS (126.28 ± 14.85) and OKAT (8.78 ± 3.1). The Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.802. Factor analysis (KMO = 0.886; Bartlett test p<0.001) identified 7 factors that can be similar to the original factors. During the test-retest, the Spearman correlation coefficient showed a value between 0.921 and 1.000. When comparing the OKAT and OHBS dimensions we found several significant relationships. Discussion: The results of the study are similar to the results of the original questionnaire validation as well as to other OHBS validation studies. Conclusion: Based on the results, we consider that the Hungarian form of the OHBS is a reliable and valid questionnaire. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(37): 1494–1501.

Open access