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Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

Restricted access

Abstract

This paper focuses on exploring the intellectual basis for establishing an academic development program for international doctoral students in social sciences and humanities in Central Europe so as to cultivate a reflective scholarly approach to teaching early on in their academic career. The program conceptions and practices are embedded in the notion that a scholarly approach to teaching integrates the understanding and demonstration of knowledge about teaching and necessitates a continuous learning process about teaching through reflection and through conducting research on teaching in the various disciplines. In particular, taking on board the domains of teaching knowledge which derived from the kinds of reflections on teaching (cf. Kreber & Cranton, 2000; Mezirow, 1991), instructional, pedagogical and curricular knowledge and continuous reflection at the level of content, process as well as premise, are represented in an integrative manner in our overarching program principles and pedagogical strategies. As we see, professionalization of doctoral students' teaching practice in higher education (cf. Lueddeke, 2003) is particularly important in the context of enhanced faculty mobility and internationalization. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to the literature and practice on establishing academic development programs, especially in academic environments with low institutional support for teaching and lack of formal requirements for professional development.

Open access

Abstract

This article investigates how introducing new activities to the practice of academic development can influence and challenge both the academic developers and the Centres for Teaching and Learning (CTL). By applying Wenger's (1998) Communities of Practice, (part of) the practice of the academic developers is conceptualised as exercising collegial relationships. An empirical investigation in the context of a CTL at a Scandinavian university illustrates possibilities for learning and growth of the CTL, as well as how exercising collegial relationships is being challenged when the work of the academic developers branches out. The article concludes that trade-offs are not only an inherent part of practice, but also an aspect of practice that calls for continuous attention.

Open access
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Hasan Selcuk Ozger, Ebru Evren, Serap Suzuk Yildiz, Cigdem Erol, Fatma Bayrakdar, Ozlem Azap, Alpay Azap, and Esin Senol

Abstract

This study aimed to detect carbapenemase genes and to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Ceftazidime-Avibactam (CZA) in Enterobacterales isolates. Carbapenemase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. CZA sensitivity of isolates was evaluated with broth microdilution (BMD) and disk diffusion methods. A total of 318 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales isolates were included. Most of the isolates (n = 290, 91.2%) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. The most common carbapenemase type was OXA-48 (n = 82, 27.6%). CZA susceptibility was evaluated in 84 isolates with OXA-48 and KPC carbapenemase activity. Both BMD and disk diffusion methods revealed that 95.2% of the isolates were sensitive to CZA; whereas, 4 (4.76%) isolates were resistant to CZA. Among colistin resistant isolates, 96.5% (n = 80) of them were susceptible to CZA. Our study demonstrated high in vitro efficacy of CZA in Enterobacterales isolates producing OXA-48 carbapenemase. High susceptibility rates against colistin resistant isolates which generally are also pan drug resistant, makes CZA a promising therapeutic choice for difficult-to-treat infections. Due to its high correlation with the BMD, disk diffusion method is a suitable and more practical method in detecting CZA in vitro activity.

Restricted access

Abstract

The present paper seeks to investigate the characteristics of possessive constructions in Kurdish (the Central variety also known as Sorani) and Hungarian from a cognitive viewpoint. Starting with nominal possessive constructions, which include attenuated possessors and nominal possessees, we will argue that both Kurdish and Hungarian make use of essentially similar typological strategies to encode the possessive relationship. Moreover, the defining characteristics of nominal possessive constructions in both languages will be justifiably accounted for through the same lines of cognitive argumentation in terms of Langacker's reference-point model (, ). However, a different cognitive treatment is proposed for cases in which the possessor and the possessee are nominal and linked to each other via an Ezafe. We will argue that Ezafe, which links the nominal head to its dependents in a Noun Phrase (; ; ; ), evokes an intrinsic asymmetric relationship between the possessor as the landmark and the possessee as the trajector. As the second major type of possessive constructions elaborated on in this paper, the predicative possessive is first classified into topic-possessive and be-possessive categories. Despite their subtle structural differences, it is again shown that both Kurdish and Hungarian employ almost similar clausal patterns to form both categories of predicative possessives, and the same cognitive models can be brought into play to account for their underlying characteristics. The final section of the present paper is devoted to the so-called ergative constructions in Kurdish. Seeking to propose a new cognitive approach to account for the peculiarities of the non-accusative alignment, we will argue that the so-called ergative constructions in Kurdish are conceptually linked to predicative possessive constructions.

Free access

Abstract

This paper discusses a global trend in the approach to hate speech. It describes how the international human rights organisations are recently addressing the dynamics of hate speech and how academic thinking is stretching the framework of the justification of hate speech regulations. This work analyses the aspect of cause and effect in the light of the role of the speaker; examining the academic argument that content expressed by public figures of authority have a higher impact, in particular in the context of the digital media ecosystem, with a social media dominance.

Open access

Abstract

It is now becoming widely accepted that our economy has reached the limits both in terms of the carrying capacity of our planet and in terms of bringing real social justice to the table. Degrowth is a research area that aims to transcend mainstream approaches. While moving beyond the growth paradigm would entail serious changes in all areas of social life and Degrowth research extends into most of them, the transformation of sports is not among them. Neither is Degrowth a recognised concept among those who deal with sports. The participatory backcasting research introduced in this paper attempts to fill this void. In the backcasting project, master students of sports economics envisioned the sustainable future of sports and identified potential intervention steps that lead towards such normative states. This paper describes the results and assesses those elements that aim for strong sustainability. The results show that relocalisation and the sharing economy are the most accepted Degrowth concepts in a normative scenario on sustainable sports in this group. At the same time, the paper offers frameworks of thoughts for those who want to move beyond the slogans of sustainability either as responsible citizens or in positions related to the world of sports.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Andreas M. Bickl, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Johanna K. Loy, Bettina Grüne, Barbara Braun-Michl, Pawel Sleczka, Jenny Cisneros Örnberg, and Ludwig Kraus

Abstract

Background and aim

Evidence on the course of gambling disorder (GD) in clients seeking help from outpatient addiction care facilities is sparse. To close this knowledge gap, this longitudinal one-armed cohort study portrays the development of GD in help-seeking clients over a 3-year timeframe.

Methods

We investigated changes in severity of GD as well as in gambling frequency and intensity in 145 gamblers in outpatient treatment in Bavaria using generalized estimation equations (GEEs). To investigate potentially different trajectories between study participants with and without migration background (MB), additional analyses were applied with time*migration interaction. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, education, electronic gambling machine (EGM) gambling, MB, GD, related help sought before and treatment status.

Results

Within the entire study population, improvements in severity of GD (reduction of 39.2%), gambling intensity (reduction of 75.6%) and gambling frequency (reduction of 77.0%) were observed between baseline and 36 months of follow-up. The declines were most pronounced between baseline and follow-up 1 and stabilized thereafter. Participants with MB improved consistently less than participants without MB.

Discussion and conclusion

Our study suggests that severity of GD and gambling patterns improve in the context of outpatient treatment. The beneficial results furthermore persist for 36 months after treatment termination. As clients with MB seem to profit less than clients without MB, improvements in outpatient gambling services to the specific needs of this clientele are required.

Open access
Imaging
Authors: Péter Palásti, Ádám Visnyovszki, Sándor Csizmadia, Mária Matúz, Zsanett Szabó, Edit Hajdú, Dominika Vattay, András Palkó, Tamás Zsigmond Kincses, and Zsuzsanna Fejes

Abstract

Background

In December 2019, pneumonia caused by coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Currently, COVID-19 has spread worldwide. In accordance with the restrictions of the Hungarian Government, several epidemic hospitals and centers have been established in Hungary. The first infected patient was detected on 4th March, 2020 in our country, who was not a Hungarian citizen. The first patient died of pneumonia caused by COVID-19 was on 15th March. The Hungarian epidemic curve is flattened and more prolonged. We aimed to report our computer tomography (CT) findings in correlation with clinical status in patients with COVID-19 infection.

Material and methods

All patients with laboratory-identified Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and who underwent chest CT were collected between March 26, 2020, and April 20, 2020, in our hospital. In our centre we had 107 PCR confirmed COVID-19 positive patients in this period. 52 patient (male: female 1:2, average age: 67.94) were admitted to our central epidemic hospital, according to their complains: fever, dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, altered mental status, comorbidity, sepsis or if patient isolation could not be performed. In case of every patient we took blood test, nasopharyngeal sample and a chest CT without contrast agent. In our CT report we used a score system to characterize the severity.

Results

The majority of infected patients had a history of exposure in nursing homes and mostly presented with fever and cough. The present study confirmed the findings about results of other researches. The COVID-19 pneumonia affected the elderly patients, caused hypoxia, cough and sepsis. On the CT scan, typical signs were seen in the cases of PCR confirmed patients.

Conclusion

The limitations of the present study include the low number of patients. Collectively, our results appear consistent with previous studies. Chest CT examination plays an important role in the diagnosis and estimation of the severity of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. Future research should examine strategically the features of the Hungarian population.

Open access