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Abstract

The profound changes in both everyday life and the legal system over the last hundred years have transformed civil law as well. While the notion that civil law concerns relationships of private persons still prevails, the traditional public law–civil law division now seems questionable. This paper points out some of the key changes in civil law within the framework of the transformation of the legal system as a whole, and seeks to outline a different approach that may help better to understand the present situation.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a grim challenge to adolescents’ daily life, including schooling and learning, which has great impacts on their mental and behavioral health. This study aimed to test the roles of stress related to schooling and online learning during COVID-19 (COVID-19 stress) in depression and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) among adolescents and the potential mediators of social support, academic stress, and maladaptive emotion regulation based on the framework of Conservation of Resources theory. Sex differences in these associations were further examined.

Methods

A school-based survey was conducted among Chinese adolescents in 13 secondary schools in Hong Kong (n = 3,136) from September to November 2020 (48.1% males; mean age = 13.6 years old) using stratified random sampling.

Results

The prevalence of probable depression and IGD was 60% and 15%, respectively. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that the proposed model fit the data well (χ2/df = 7.77, CFI = 0.92, IFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05). COVID-19 stress was positively and indirectly associated with both depression and IGD through social support, academic stress, and maladaptive emotion regulation. Multi-group analyses identified that the associations between COVID-19 stress and academic stress, between academic stress and depression, and between social support and depression were stronger among females compared to males.

Discussion and conclusions

Findings highlight the roles of academic stress, poor social support, maladaptive emotion regulation, and sex to understand how disruption and stress caused by COVID-19 increases adolescent depression and IGD. Psychosocial interventions based on these factors are highly warranted.

Open access

Abstract

Hate crimes poison societies by threatening individual rights, human dignity and equality. They effect private lives, or even victims’ life and limb. Due to their ripple effect, they terrify whole communities, reinforce tensions between social groups, ultimately jeopardising peaceful coexistence. No society is immune from the signs of hatred, but whether they get tamed or whether prejudices are deepened, depends on the social measures that are applied vis-à-vis the phenomenon. The state’s reaction creates norms and will informs society about the current acceptable standards. European expectations help forming these. Standards developed by the European Court of Human Rights include the obligations to ensure that hate against social groups as a motivation is considered an aggravating circumstance or leads to penalty enhancement. States must also ensure that national investigation authorities show special vigilance to explore and unmask the bias motives behind hate crimes. Such European expectations still leave a wide room of manoeuvre to respond to hate crimes efficiently and dissuasively. But irrespectively of the national codification method, for legal provisions to reach the desired outcome, certain social preconditions must be met. For hate crime laws or provisions to work, states must reach a certain level of maturity from the viewpoint of democracy, fundamental rights in general and the rule of law, where guaranteeing judicial independence is an absolute minimum.

Open access

Abstract

Fiber Optic Network is an advanced and modern system technology, which is used in sending pulses of laser light inside a glass of fiber over long distances, widely used in every environment with various sorts of applications in a different field. It is well-known that the main material of fiber optics is glass, therefore it is typical that the temperature can affect the glass during the thermal expansion. This effect will be applied to the properties of the optical components such as refractive index, radius curvature of the fiber optics layers, and also there is an effect on the data transfer through the fiber optics network units. In this paper, the effect of temperature degree on the optical signal and the functions of the fiber optic network will be simulated, measured, and analyzed. The result will be discussed and the conclusion will show the serious points of thermal effects on the optical signal of a fiber-optic network.

Open access

Az oktatási részvétel előrejelzése.

Demográfiai folyamatok és oktatáspolitikai beavatkozások

Participation in Education in the Context of Demographic Trends and Educational Policy Interventions

Educatio
Authors: Krisztián Széll and Csaba Tóth G.

Összefoglaló. Tanulmányunkban arra keressük a választ, hogy az elkövetkező évtizedekben miként befolyásolhatják a hazai demográfiai folyamatok és oktatáspolitikai beavatkozások az oktatást igénybe vevők létszámát. Népesség-előreszámításaink szerint a következő évtizedekben folytatódik a hazai népesség 1980 óta tartó csökkenése. Elemzésünkből látható, hogy hosszú távon valamennyi képzési szinten csökkeni fog a nevelési-oktatási rendszert igénybe vevők létszáma, hozzátéve, hogy az oktatáspolitikának van némi mozgástere a létszámok alakításában. A várható létszámcsökkenés jelentős megtakarítást indukálhat, a kérdés az, hogy ezt mire használjuk fel, visszaforgatjuk vagy kivonjuk az oktatási rendszerből.

Summary. In our study, we seek to answer the question of how demographic trends and educational policy interventions in the coming decades may affect the number of people in education. Our population projections show that the decline in the domestic population since 1980 will continue in the coming decades. Our analysis shows that in the long term, the number of people in education and training at all levels of education will fall, adding that education policy has some room for manoeuvre in adjusting the number of students. The expected reduction in the number of students could generate substantial savings, the question is how to use them, whether to reinvest them or to withdraw them from the education system.

Open access

Diverzitás a felsőoktatásban: lehetőségek és kihívások

Diversity in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges

Educatio
Author: Márton Bagyura
Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of wheat shorts, a milling by-product, on some properties of pasta. For this purpose, wheat semolina was replaced with wheat shorts at 15, 30, and 45% levels in pasta formulation. Some physical, chemical, and sensory properties of pasta samples were evaluated and compared with control samples prepared with durum wheat semolina. As the concentrations of shorts increased in the pasta formulation, the brightness values decreased and the redness values increased. The ash, fat, total dietary fibre, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and mineral content increased with the use of shorts. The highest solid loss value (10.28%) was found in pasta samples containing 45% shorts. The addition of shorts up to 30% presented similar overall acceptability scores to control pasta samples. As a result, it was observed that as the shorts content of the samples increase, the nutritional value and the levels of some components that affect health positively, increase as well. So, the samples containing 30% shorts appear to be at forefront due to health effects and overall acceptability scores.

Restricted access

Egyetemi tanári pályázatok minimális publikációs követelményeinek változása és várható hatása a társadalomtudományok területén

Changes in the Minimum Publication Requirements of Applying for Positions of University Full Professor and Their Expected Impact in the Field of Social Sciences

Educatio
Authors: Péter Sasvári and Brigitta Ludányi

Összefoglaló. Az egyetemi tanári pályázat összeállításához és értékeléséhez összeállított, a Magyar Akkreditációs Bizottság által elfogadott módosított útmutató 2020. szeptember 1-jétől lépett hatályba. A módosított követelményrendszer vizionálja a jelenlegi értékmérők átalakulását. A tudományos teljesítmény súlypontjaivá a folyóirat-publikációk váltak, azonban a hazai közlemények önmagukban nem elegendőek, a nemzetközi láthatóság és minőségi rangsor feltétele a nemzetközi publikálás, amely egyúttal a tudományos fokozatok elérésének is feltételévé vált. Jelen tanulmány a gazdaságtudomány, valamint a társadalomtudományok területén működő magyarországi egyetemek oktatóinak publikációs tevékenységén keresztül vizsgálja a módosított követelményrendszer hatását és következményeit az egyetemi tanári pályázat, valamint tágabb értelemben a nemzetközi tudományos elismertség vonatkozásában.

Summary. The modified Guidelines for the Compilation and Evaluation of the Applications for the Position of University Full Professors approved by the Hungarian Accreditation Committee was to enter into force on the 1st of September in 2020. The reshaped requirement system envisions the transformation of current assessment criteria. Journal publications have become the focus of scientific performance, however, publications in domestic journals alone are not enough; apart from being required for achieving international scientific visibility and quality ranking, international publications have also become a prerequisite for scientific degrees. The present study examines the impact and consequences of the modified requirement system on university professorships and, in a broader sense, on their international scientific recognition through the publication activities of lecturers from Hungarian universities in the fields of Economics and social sciences.

Open access

A felsőoktatási kínálat és a munkaerőpiaci kereslet találkozása

Matching Higher Education Supply and Labour Market Demand

Educatio
Authors: László Gadár, Zsuzsanna Banász, Zsolt Tibor Kosztyán, and András Telcs

Összefoglaló. Tanulmányunkban arra kerestük a választ, hogy a friss diplomások munkaerőpiaci kereslete és kínálata mennyire illeszkedik egymáshoz. Kísérletet tettünk arra, hogy képzési területenként meghatározzuk a legjellemzőbb korai karrierutat egy erre alkalmas hálózatban, modulok feltárásával. Megnéztük a szakterületre leginkább jellemző elhelyezkedésektől való eltérések területi és intézményi eloszlásait. Elemzéseinkhez a Diplomás Pályakövetési Rendszer adatait használtuk fel. A 2014–2015-ös tanév 1. félévében, alapképzésben, legalább abszolutóriumot szerzett (22 759 fő) hallgatók elhelyezkedési adatait vizsgáltuk. Részletesebben két szakterület (gazdaságtudomány, műszaki) képzéseit vizsgáltuk intézményi és megyei bontásokban.

Summary. In this study, we investigated the performance of the recent graduates in the labour market in terms of the supply and the demand matching. A network science based method was introduced to identify the most typical occupations of the graduate’s training area by exploring modules. We analyzed the spatial and institutional differences in the average early career path. Our analysis is based on the data of Hungarian Administrative Career Tracking System. We examined the employment data of students who obtained a bachelor diploma in the 2014–2015 academic year (22,759 people). We studied more specifically the early career path of graduates who graduated in the economic or engineering training area.

Open access