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Abstract

One of the major public health concerns today is bacterial infection-associated diseases. Traditional antibacterial therapies are becoming less efficient because frequent and inadequate use of antibiotics has caused mutations in bacteria that led to many antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. It is, therefore, crucial to develop novel antibacterial materials and strategies that will successfully combat both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we will demonstrate a simple and efficient method for bacteria capture and elimination through photothermal ablation. The developed material consists of a flexible Kapton substrate, coated with reduced graphene oxide-chitosan (rGO-CS) thin films. Reduced graphene oxide has strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region, while chitosan has the ability to bind bacteria through electrostatic interactions. The K/rGO-CS device proved to capture and efficiently eradicate both planktonic Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria after 10 min of NIR (980 nm) irradiation.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Studies have demonstrated associations between both problematic smartphone and social networks use with everyday life adversities. However, examination of associations between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and problematic use of specific social networking platforms, especially on item-level data, has received relatively little attention. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore how items of problematic smartphone, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram use are associated.

Methods

949 German-speaking adults participated in a web survey study. The participants were queried about their socio-demographics as well as levels of problematic smartphone, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram use. In addition to bivariate correlation analysis, exploratory graph analysis (EGA), a type of network analysis, was conducted.

Results

The results showed that while problematic Facebook and Instagram use seem to be distinct phenomena, problematic smartphone and WhatsApp use were heavily intertwined. Furthermore, the only cross-platform symptom observed was the extent of reported pain in wrists and neck due to digital technology use. The EGA network models showed very good stability in bootstrap analyses.

Discussion and conclusions

In general, the results of this study suggest that while Instagram and Facebook use may potentially constitute distinct problematic behaviors, problematic smartphone/WhatsApp use scales may be measuring highly similar or even the same construct.

Open access
Authors: Sara M. van Bonn, Sebastian P. Schraven, Tobias Schuldt, Markus M. Heimesaat, Robert Mlynski and Philipp C. Warnke

Abstract

We report a case of a chronic mesotympanic otitis media with a smelly purulent secretion from both ears and recurrent otalgia over the last five years in a six-year-old girl after swimming in the German Baltic Sea. Besides Staphylococcus aureus a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strain could be isolated from patient samples. An antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone was administered followed by atticotomy combined with tympanoplasty. We conclude that V. cholerae should not be overlooked as a differential diagnosis to otitis infections, especially when patients present with extra-intestinal infections after contact with brackish- or saltwater aquatic environments.

Open access
Authors: Svetlana Jovanovic, Olaf C. Haenssler, Milica Budimir, DuŠka Kleut, Jovana Prekodravac and Biljana Todorovic Markovic

Abstract

In order to modify both chemical and electrical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials, we conducted the chemical modification of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The reaction of the reduction with nascent hydrogen was conducted on both materials. The structure and morphology of produced chemically reduced GO and GQDs were analyzed. While the chemical composition of both GQD and GO changed significantly, GO showed also significant changes in morphology as opposite to GQDs where were morphological changes were not observed.

Open access
Authors: Sabrina Oebel, Alexander Gotschy, Ingo Paetsch, Cosima Jahnke, Sven Plein, Rolf Gebker, Sandra Hamada, Michael Frick, Jochen von Spiczak, Malgorzata Polacin, Frank Enseleit, Nikolaus Marx, Thomas F. Lüscher, Frank Ruschitzka, Sebastian Kozerke, Hatem Alkadhi and Robert Manka

Abstract

Background

To assess the accuracy of 3D cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) against fractional flow reserve (FFR) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF).

Methods

Out of 447 patients who underwent 3D CMR perfusion imaging (at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla under adenosine stress and at rest) at 5 European centers, 86 cases with an EF ≤50% were identified (mean age 64±11yrs, 80% male). Significant CAD was defined as a FFR value <0.8 and a QCA >50%. 86 individuals matched for age, gender and major cardiovascular risk factors, were chosen as the control group.

Results

The prevalence of CAD defined by FFR (<0.8) was 59% (EF≤50%) vs. 54% (EF>50%), p=0.4). In relation to FFR, 3D perfusion imaging yielded a sensitivity of 84.5% (95% CI 76.0-90.4) and specificity of 77.3% (95% CI 66.7-85.3). The sensitivity of perfusion imaging was higher in patients with an EF≤50% (90.2% vs. 78.3 %, p=0.1) whereas specificity showed the reverse (62.9% vs. 90.0%, p=0.005) The diagnostic accuracy was comparable in both subgroups (AUC 79.1% vs 83.7%, p=0.25). According to QCA, the prevalence of CAD was 78% vs. 72% (p=0.4). Perfusion imaging yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 82.1% vs. 62.9%, p=0.01 and 79.0% vs. 95.8%, p=0.09 respectively with a high diagnostic accuracy in both subgroups (AUC 82.0% vs. 80.5%).

Conclusion

3D-CMR perfusion imaging yields a high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy with regards to the detection of significant CAD irrespective of LV systolic function.

Open access

Abstract

This article concentrates on the transformative potential of the Millennial generation within the framework of the political landscapes of the United States, several European countries and Russia. Generational experiences frame the context for the comparative examination of the democratic order and the perspectives for democratic transition. In Western countries, the group is a potentially powerful political force, yet its members do not pursue traditional forms of civic engagement – they are sceptical about institutional forms of participation and have little trust in public authority. Embedded in a youth-marginalization discourse, the public identities of the Millennials are seen rather as a manifestation of the failures of democratic representation, rather than as forms of agency seeking new ways of political expression. The orientations of this distinct group also present a puzzle when the future of authoritarian regimes is discussed: Millennials’ openness to political change is often questioned, despite the prominent role they play in the rise of the opposition forces that gained influence during Vladimir Putin’s third term. Nevertheless, in both contexts, the ongoing generational shift has become an increasingly important area for social-scientific investigation and it is being directly related to broader arguments about the nature of political change.

Open access

ERRATUM: MINITRAE ET NUMINI EIUS

Egy kelta istenség a vulgáris latin Aquincumban

Author: Vágási Tünde
Restricted access

Abstract

Quality of educational services is highly dependent on competent teachers. Thus, the competency-based framework for teacher education has become an important issue across Europe. This approach in Europe has greatly reflected in the field of adult learning and education. There are five research projects dedicated to identifying competences of adult learning facilitators, involving regional countries or all the Member States of the European Union. Based on the results of the five research projects, this paper has a twofold aim: 1) to describe those research projects and their identified competences for adult learning and 2) to analyse the common competences identified by all the five research projects. The distinct scopes of teacher's competences and teaching competences are offering the framework for analysis. We found ten common competences that are particularly relevant to teaching roles of adult learning facilitators in Europe. Moreover, the analyses revealed that adult learning facilitators need to possess teacher competences that are relevant to institutional administration. Our conclusion is that there are common competences for adult learning facilitators which are relevant to both teaching and teacher competences.

Open access