Authors:H. Xie, L. Cao, L. Ye, G. Shan, and W. Song
In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.
Bevezetés: Az időskori depresszió gyakran aluldiagnosztizált, noha a vezető pszichés problémát jelenti ebben az életkorban. A Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála (GDS-SF) az időskori depresszió tüneteinek felmérésére alkalmas kérdőív, amelyet gyakran alkalmaznak nemzetközi viszonylatban a klinikumban. Célkitűzés: Jelen tanulmány célkitűzése kettős. Elsődleges célja a 15 tételes Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála (GDS-SF) hazai normatív mintán történő tesztelése és az alkalmazásával szerzett tapasztalatok közreadása. Másodsorban arra a kérdésre keressük a választ, hogy az idősek mintáján van-e protektív szerepe az online tér használatának a depresszió vonatkozásában. Módszerek: A keresztmetszeti, kérdőíves kutatásban 65 éves és afeletti életkorú vizsgálati személyek önkéntesen vettek részt, az adatokat anonim módon, papír–ceruza alapon (n = 142) és online (n = 167) formában gyűjtöttük. A kérdőív validálásához az Egészségügyi Világszervezet Rövidített Életminőség Kérdőívét, a Rövidített WHO Jól-Lét Kérdőívet, valamint a Zung Önértékelő Depresszió Skálát használtuk. A válaszmeghamisító tendenciák szűrésére a Caprara-féle Big Five Kérdőív Szociális Kívánatosság alskáláját alkalmaztuk. Eredmények: A parallel-elemzés eredménye egyfaktoros struktúrát jelez, és az egyetlen faktor az összvariancia 64,8%-át magyarázza. A kérdőív megbízhatósága kiváló (Cronbach-α = 0,95). A GDS-SF az elvárásoknak megfelelő irányú és mértékű korrelációt mutatott a validáláshoz alkalmazott mérőeszközökkel: a GDS-SF és az életminőség alfaktorai közötti korrelációs együttható (r) értéke –0,59 és –0,61 közötti (p < 0,001), a jólléttel –0,71 (p < 0,001), míg a Zung Önértékelő Depresszió Skálával 0,74 (p < 0,001). A papíralapú és az online adatgyűjtésben részt vevő vizsgálati személyek körében nem találtunk szignifikáns különbséget a depreszszió előfordulási gyakoriságában, amennyiben kontroll alatt tartjuk az életkor és az iskolai végzettség hatását. Következtetések: A 15 tételes Rövid Geriátriai Depresszió Skála magyar verziója megbízható és érvényes eszköz az időskori depresszió mérésére normatív mintán, miközben a klinikai minta vonatkozásában további vizsgálatok szükségesek.
Introduction: Geriatric depression is the leading mental disorder among the older population, although it is often underdiagnosed. The Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form) (GDS-SF) is a screening tool designed to measure depressive symptoms in older adults and is used by clinicians globally. Objective: The primary objective of the study is the psychometric testing of GDS-SF among pensioners, as well as to present our experiences with using the questionnaire on a Hungarian sample. The secondary objective of the study is to explore whether the use of online space is a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms in this population. Methods: A total of 309 participants took part in this cross-sectional study, all of them above the age of 65, with full anonymity granted to all involved. The questionnaire was available in paper-based (n = 142) and online (n = 167) format as well. For the validation of GDS-SF, the Abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Abbreviated WHO Well-Being Questionnaire, and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used. The Social Desirability Scale of the Caprara Big Five Questionnaire was used to filter out response distortion tendencies. Results: The results of the parallel analysis of the questionnaire supported a one-factor structure design, with 64.8% of the variance explained. According to the validity analysis, GDS-SF showed sufficient direction and degree of correlation with the questionnaires used for comparison and was in accordance with our a priori assumed direction and degree of correlation. Upon examination we discovered that the GDF-SF has a correlation coefficient (r) between –0.59 and –0.61 (p < 0.001) with the quality of life subfactors, –0.71 (p < 0.001) with wellbeing, and 0.74 (p < 0.001) with Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The reliability of the survey also proved to be excellent. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of depression between the two groups (paper-based and online), when controlling for the effects of age and level of education. Conclusions: The Hungarian version of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale is a reliable and valid tool for measuring depressive symptoms in the older normative adult population. Regarding the clinical sample, further exploration is needed.
Authors:Kovács Krisztina, Kőnig-Görögh Dóra, F. Földi Rita, and Gyömbér Noémi
Háttér és célkitűzések: Jelen tanulmány célja az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív (Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire) magyar változatának pszichometriai vizsgálata, a mérőeszköz reliabilitásának és validitásának ellenőrzése. Módszerek: A kérdőív érvényességét és megbízhatóságát egy 490 fős kényelmi mintán (234 férfi és 256 nő, átlagéletkor = 19,49 év; SD = 5,05 év) ellenőriztük. Az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív mellett felvételre került a Sportkörnyezet Kérdőív, a Sportmotiváció-2 Kérdőív, az Edző-Sportoló Kapcsolat Kérdőív, valamint a Sportverseny Pillanatnyi Szorongás Skála. Eredmények: A megerősítő faktoranalízis eredményeképpen az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív kétfaktoros elméleti modelljének illeszkedési mutatói megfelelőnek bizonyultak (χ2= 386,36;df = 89; TLI = 0,90; CFI = 0,91; RMSEA = 0,08 [90% CI = 0,07 – 0,09]; SRMR = 0,07). A kérdőív skáláinak belső megbízhatósága elfogadható (Negatív reakció Cronbach-α = 0,87, Támogatás Cronbach-α = 0,87). A konvergens validitás vizsgálata során a korábbi kutatásokkal megegyező korrelációkat kaptunk a Támogatás alskála és az észlelt autonómiatámogatás, az önbizalom, a sportmotiváció típusai és az edző-sportoló kapcsolat minősége között (r = –0,29 – 0,90; p < 0,001), a Negatív reakció alskála mindezeken a skálákon túl szignifikáns kapcsolatba hozható a sportolói állapotszorongással is (r = 0,21 – 0,25; p < 0,001). Következtetések: Az Edzői Viselkedés Kérdőív magyarra fordított változata pszichometriailag megfelelő mérőeszköznek tekinthető.
Background and aims: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the Coaching Behaviour Questionnaire and examine the reliability and validity of this questionnaire. Methods: 432 athletes were involved in this study (mean age = 19.49; SD = 5.05; men = 234; women = 256). Besides the above-mentioned questionnaire, the Sport Climate Questionnaire, the Sport Motivation Scale-2, the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 were applied for the validation. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-dimensional theoretical model (χ2= 386.36;df = 89; TLI = 0.90; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.08 [90% CI = 0.07 – 0.09]; SRMR = 0.07), that indicated an acceptable fit to the data. Internal consistency of the subscales (Negative activation Cronbach’s α = 0.87, Supportiveness Cronbach’s α = 0.87) proved to be adequate. Examination of construct validity revealed positive relationships among Supportiveness subscale and self-determined motivation, autonomy-supported coach behaviour, self-confidence and coach-athlete relationship (r = – 0.29 – 0.70), and negative relationship among the Negative activation and the trait anxiety in addition to the below mentioned scales (r = 0.21 – 0.25). Discussion: The Hungarian version of the CBQ seems to be a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure.
Written in Dunhuang, Chiwu shenzhen jing (赤烏神針經) is a long lost medical work and its contents remain unknown. Based on Dunhuang manuscripts and Japanese collections of ancient Chinese medical classics, this research argues that Chiwu shenzhen jing concerns temporally sensitive needling treatment, which forms an early practice of the midnight-noon ebb-ﬂow (the commonly-used translation of Ziwu liuzhu 子 午流注) therapy, in fact, as early as the 3rd century CE. At the very end of this article, this research emphasizes the role of Dunhuang as a vehicle for promoting the ebb-ﬂow theory through the Sino-Indian medical exchanges.
In 1862, a volume of tales was published under the title Eredeti népmesék (‘Original Folktales’) by László Arany, the then 18-year-old son of János Arany, the national poet of the period. Eredeti népmesék has been classified by folkloristics as the first canonical folktale collection in Hungary. Besides scholarly recognition, it has also become one of the most popular folktale collections of the past one and a half century, as selected tales from this collection have been continuously republished in schoolbooks and anthologies and have become a regular element in children's literature. After the Second World War, in the basement of the main building of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest, a huge pile of manuscripts had been found in very poor condition, consisting of, among others, various 19th-century folklore collections. In the 1960s, it was discovered that a part of these manuscripts was identical to the texts published in Eredeti népmesék. The vast majority of the manuscript tales had been recorded by the family members of János Arany, namely, his young daughter (Julianna Arany) and his wife (Julianna Ercsey), in the period between 1850 and 1862, presumably for family use. A comparison of the manuscript texts with their published versions revealed that in the editing process, László Arany significantly reworked the texts of the manuscript tales, implementing significant stylistic modifications. This article reports on the research project underlying the synoptic critical edition of the manuscript and published tales of the Arany family (2018). In the first part, the author presents the manuscript and published tales and their place in the history of Hungarian folkloristics, followed by an introduction of the members of the Arany family with an emphasis on their socio-cultural background, and concluding with a discussion of the roles they played in this collaborative folktale project as collectors, editors, copy editors, and theoreticians. The second part is a summary of the textological concept and techniques applied in the course of the development of the synoptic critical edition.
Authors:Sara Davoudabadi, Hossein Goudarzi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Abdollah Ardebili, Ebrahim Faghihloo, Javad Yasbolaghi Sharahi, and Ali Hashemi
In this study, we focused on the emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR), pandrug-resistant (PDR), and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) in Iran. During 2018 to 2020 a total of 52 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from different clinical specimens. The hvKP isolates were identified by PCR amplification of virulence and capsular serotype-specific genes. Hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae (hmKP) were identified by string test. Carbapenem-resistant hvKP (CR-hvKP), multidrug-resistant hvKP (MDR-hvKP), extensively drug-resistant hvKP (XDR-hvKP), and pandrug-resistant hvKP (PDR-hvKP) were determined by disc diffusion method, Carba-NP test and PCR method. XDR-hvKP isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among all K. pneumoniae isolates 14 (26.9%) were identified as hvKP and 78.6% (11/14) of them were hmKP however, none of the classic K. pneumoniae (cKP) isolates were hmKP. The predominant capsular serotype of hvKP was K2 (42.85%) followed by K1 (35.71%). The prevalence of MDR-hvKP, XDR-hvKP and PDR-hvKP isolates were 6 (42.9%), 5 (35.7%) and 1 (7.1%), respectively. ESBL production was found in 85.7% of hvKP isolates and most of them carried blaTEM gene (78.6%) and 6 isolates (42.9%) were CR-hvKP. Among hvKP isolates, 1 (7.1%), 2 (14.3%), 3 (21.4%), 8 (28.6%), and 11 (78.6%) carried blaNDM-6,blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M,blaSHV, and blaTEM genes, respectively. According to MLST analysis, 2, 1, 1, and 1 XDR-hvKP isolates belonged to ST15, ST377, ST442, and ST147, respectively. The occurrence of such isolates is deeply concerning due to the combination of hypervirulence and extensively drug-resistance or pandrug-resistance.
This paper introduces three Mongolian texts of various genres linked together by their frame narratives which all refer to Mongolian notions regarding the Chinese origin of divination, geomancy and related rituals. The frame narratives represent a rare component of Mongolian texts of these genres. The texts are published in transcription, with a translation, and compared to the corresponding textual tradition as well as to wider cultural context illustrated by instances from oral tradition.
This paper compares narrative modiﬁcation in the Mongolian heroic epic The Epic of Geser with that of the Buddhist Mulian story. The Mulian story, in which the protagonist saves his mother from the underworld gained widespread popularity in its time. Mulian Bianwen from the Tang dynasty, presents the scenes from the story in a very dramatic manner. The Mongolian Geser epic uses this motif but adapts the story to ﬁt the characteristics of a heroic epic for nomadic people. Heroic epics must contain motifs that depict the image of their protagonist to present a collection of exemplary characters. To create a complete heroic epic, the story of Geser absorbed a religious story from another culture that was very popular at the time. In the present study, ﬁve scenes common to The Epic of Geser and the Mulian story are analysed to investigate how the original Buddhist story became a part of the heroic epic. This analysis considers the ways in which identical story motifs can be used for the different purposes according to the nature of the literary work.
László Arany's Eredeti népmesék (Authentic Folktales, 1862) is an iconic collection of folktales. The tales in this publication have been entrenched in the national identity as classic Hungarian folktales, and the narrative style of the tales has been established in the public consciousness as the narrative style of Hungarian folktales. The Arany family's collection of folktales ultimately had a similar function in Hungarian culture as the Kinder- und Hausmärchen of the Brothers Grimm had in Germany, but while the text formation of the Grimm tales had been thoroughly explored by philology, the Arany tales had not been accompanied by folkloristic interpretations or in-depth philological analyses. To László Arany, the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm were the ideal, which he indicated in his many theoretical writings as well as his role as a collector and editor of tales. To form the individual texts found in Eredeti népmesék, László Arany used the tale manuscripts transcribed by his mother and sister in the 1850s, modifying them considerably, primarily by employing stylistic devices, many of which can also be observed in the work of the Grimms. This essay examines the extent to which László Arany's editorial and text formation practices were determined by the textological practice developed by the Brothers Grimm, and ultimately the extent to which the stylistic ideals of fairy tales developed by the Grimms contributed to the development of the written, literary version of Hungarian folktales.
Turkic kinship terminologies represent a mixture of words of native and foreign origin, and the proportion of loanwords reﬂects the degree of linguistic and cultural interference between the Turkic and other Eurasian languages. As the intensity of socio-cultural relations between languages and communities increases, the proportion of loanwords in kinship vocabulary also increases. This paper provides an overview of historical, linguistic, and cultural aspects of kinship loanwords in the Turkic languages.
The paper covers the following eight kinds of kin types in the Turkic languages: (1) parents, (2) siblings, (3) cousins, (4) children, (5) grandparents, (6) uncles/aunts, (7) nephews/nieces, (8) grandchildren. Due to the fact that in the conventional Turkic system of kinship, which is especially well-represented in pre-modern Turkic languages, two or three of these kins may be merged in one single term on the basis of generation and lineage branch, kinship loanwords examined are ordered by this criterion.