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Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Transformation of Tools and Conservation of Architecture •

Some Researches on the Use of Digital Systems for the Intervention on the Historical Buildings

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli

The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.

As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.

This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.

A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.

A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.

Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.

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Abstract

Cake is a popular bakery product consumed by almost everyone due to its low economic cost and shelflife, however, it is recognised unhealthy because of high fat and sugar contents. The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and sensory properties of muffins baked using 100% of sugar and fat replacement as stevia sweetener (rebaudioside A and erythritol) and chia seed mucilage, respectively. The combination of sweetener with chia gel (SCC) had the highest moisture content, while the replacement of fat in muffin (CC) revealed similarity to the control in lightness and redness values. There was also no significant difference in terms of firmness when only the sweetener was replaced (SC). While the control muffin obtained the highest overall acceptability score, the lowest score was observed in CC. Thus, muffins with reduced fat and sugar contents can benefit the consumer in terms of health, but further optimisation of formulations for both replacers is needed for better sensory acceptance.

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Abstract

Seventeen samples of Calabrian ewe’s milk, ewe’s cheese (Pecorino del Poro) made with raw milk, goat’s milk, and goat’s cheese (Caprino d’Aspromonte) made with raw milk were used to obtain 124 yeast isolates. The most abundant species was Debaryomyces hansenii (61.3%), followed by Candida zeylanoides (32.3%) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (3.2%). The enzymatic profile of 25 selected yeast strains was determined. Lastly, they were studied for their interaction with eight dairy lactic acid bacteria – four coccal-shaped and four rod-shaped. The best strains may be used as adjunct cultures for cheese making.

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Abstract

Ball and Beam system is one of the most popular and important laboratory models for teaching control systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy to the position control for the ball and beam system. Firstly, a nonlinear controller is proposed based on the backstepping approach. Secondly, in order to adapt online the dynamic control law, adaptive laws are developed to estimate the uncertain parameters. The stability of the proposed adaptive backstepping controller is proved based on the Lyapunov theorem. Simulated results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach.

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Abstract

During their university studies the Saxons of Brasov, who used to be one of the most influential urban communities of Transylvanian Saxons, had relationships with friends and colleagues. I want to particularly highlight the relationships documented by the occasional prints between 1650 and 1750. I want to find the answer to what social circles are mentioned in the occasional prints related to the Saxon students of Brasov during their peregrination. Therefore I will henceforth mostly make attempts to reconstruct their friendly and collegial relationships.

Occasional texts transition between correspondences and few-word memorial notes (especially regarding the number of writers and the length of writings). Thus a comprehensive storing and analysing of the occasional works restricted to a certain group can provide an opportunity to get informed about family, friendly and collegial relationships. Such writings may also contain valuable implications for the research of relation history. The relations that can be seen through these might add a lot in terms of success, especially if it is possible to continue the relation historical exploratory work connected to certain people. Furthermore, these data can be compared with their positions held during a later period of their lives, as well as with their family relations and high reputation within their community.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Hasan Abayli, Kezban Can-Sahna, Remziye Ozbek, Oznur Aslan, Sukru Tonbak, and Hakan Bulut

Abstract

Feline calicivirus (FCV), feline alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) as well as retroviral agents such as feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are important viral pathogens of cats. The aim of this study was to detect and characterise FHV-1, FPLV, FeLV, FIV and feline foamy virus (FFV) in oropharyngeal, nasal and conjunctival swabs from 93 cats that had been screened for FCV previously. We wanted to determine the possible risk factors for infection with these viruses. The prevalence was found to be 12.9% for FHV-1 and 9.7% for FPLV. FIV was detected only in two samples and FeLV in one sample, whereas the presence of FFV was not demonstrated in any of the clinical samples. The statistical analysis of the results showed that breed, age, health status, and lifestyle are important predisposing factors to FHV-1 (P < 0.05). For FPLV, only clinically unhealthy animals were found to be at risk (P < 0.001). Sequence analysis revealed that the two FIV-positive samples in this study contained different (A and B) subtypes of the virus. This is the first report on the occurrence of subtype A FIV in Turkey.

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A kórházi visszavételt igénylő súlyos folyadék-elektrolit zavar mint az ileosztóma egyik szövődménye

Readmission indicated by severe fluid-electrolyte disturbances as a complication of ileostomy

Magyar Sebészet
Authors: Kornél Vajda, Ildikó Horti, Kornélia Trepák, and László Sikorszki

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A neoadjuváns radio-kemoterápia után végzett rektum tumorok műtéte során általános gyakorlattá kezd válni a tehermentesítő ileosztóma képzése a súlyos varratelégtelenségekből származó szövődmények csökkentése érdekében. Maga az ileosztóma is 20–60%-os előfordulási gyakorisággal lehet szövődmények forrása, 16,9–40%-ban pedig a dehidráció képezi a visszavétel okát. Célkitűzés: Vizsgálatunk célja az volt, hogy áttekintsük saját beteganyagunkat az ileosztóma szövődményei alapján, különös tekintettel a dehidrációra és az abból fakadó következményekre, ennek segítségével pedig kidolgozzunk egy kezelési protokollt, amely a betegek segítségére van ezen súlyos szövődmények megelőzésében. Eredmények: Retrospektív módon elemeztük az osztályunkon 2017. 09. 01. és 2019. 12. 31. között különböző indikáció alapján készített tehermentesítő kacs ileosztóma képzésben részesült betegek morbiditási és mortalitási adatait. Ezen idő alatt 252 rektoszigmoideális reszekciót és 33 abdominoperineális rektum exstirpációt végeztünk. Ileosztómát 110 betegnél készítettünk. 27 beteg (24,5%) került visszavételre súlyos vesefunkció-romlás és ioneltérések miatt. 24 beteg egy alkalommal, 1 beteg két alkalommal, 2 beteg pedig három alkalommal került visszavételre. A visszavétel a műtéttől számítva átlagosan 49,6 nappal (1–343) történt. A felvételkor és visszavételkor a betegek átlagos GFR értéke 54,66 (38–60) ml/perc/1,73 m2 – 22,8 (5–51) ml/perc/1,73 m2 (p = 0,001), átlagos se Na 140,7 (133–145) mmol/l – 131,4 (111–144) mmol/l (p = 0,001), se K 4,6 (3,2–5,6) mmol/l – 5,37 mmol/l (3,6–7,6) (p = 0,0005) és az se Kreatinin 89,6 (54–149) µmol/l – 333,3 (107–877) (p = 0,001) µmol/l volt. Megbeszélés: Tekintettel az ileosztóma okozta dehidráció rövid és hosszú távú súlyos szövődményeire, valamint a magas visszavételi kockázatra, fontos a betegek kockázatbecslése, a korai oktatás és a dehidráció megelőzése, a rendszeres kontroll biztosítása. Amennyiben a feltételek adottak, az ileosztóma korai zárása is megfontolandó.

Summary. Introduction: After the operations of rectal tumours following neoadjuvant chemo-radio therapy it is a common practice to create a defunctioning ileostomy in order to prevent complications due to anastomotic leak. The ileostomy itself can be the source of complications with 20–60% incidence rate, while dehydration causes 16.9–40% of readmissions. Aims: Our goal was to review our own cases on the basis of complications of ileostomy particularly with regard to dehydration and its consequences. We wanted to develop a therapeutic protocol to help prevent these severe complications. Results: We retrospectively analyzed the morbidity data of our patients who had defunctioning ileostomy for different indications between 01.09.2017–31.12.2019. During this period, 252 rectosigmoid resections and 33 abdominoperineal resections of the rectum were performed. Ileostomy was created for 110 patients. 27 patients (24.5%) were readmitted with severe renal impairment and electrolyte disturbances. 24 patients were readmitted once, 1 patient twice and 2 patients 3 times. Readmission happened an average of 49.6 days (1–343) after the operation. At admission and readmission the average of GFR (glomerular filtration rate) of patients was 54.66 (38–60) ml/min/1.73 m2 – 22.8 (5–51) ml/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.001), the average of serum Na level was 140.7 (133–145) mmol/l – 131.4 (111–144) mmol/l (p = 0.001), the average of serum K level was 4.6 (3.2–5.6) mmol/l – 5.37 (3.6–7.6) mmol/l (p = 0.005) and the average of serum creatinine level was 89.6 (54–149) µmol/l – 33.3 (107–877) µmol/l (p = 0.001). Conclusion: With regard to the short and long term severe complications of dehydration and the high risk of readmission caused by ileostomy, it is important to estimate the risk of patients, to educate the inpatients as early as possible, to commence the prevention of dehydration, and regularly monitor in the outpatient setting. Provided the conditions are given, the early closure of ileostomy should be considered.

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