Authors:H. Xie, L. Cao, L. Ye, G. Shan, and W. Song
In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.
Authors:Gorana Misic, Margaryta Rymarenko, and Helga Dorner
This paper focuses on exploring the intellectual basis for establishing an academic development program for international doctoral students in social sciences and humanities in Central Europe so as to cultivate a reflective scholarly approach to teaching early on in their academic career. The program conceptions and practices are embedded in the notion that a scholarly approach to teaching integrates the understanding and demonstration of knowledge about teaching and necessitates a continuous learning process about teaching through reflection and through conducting research on teaching in the various disciplines. In particular, taking on board the domains of teaching knowledge which derived from the kinds of reflections on teaching (cf. Kreber & Cranton, 2000; Mezirow, 1991), instructional, pedagogical and curricular knowledge and continuous reflection at the level of content, process as well as premise, are represented in an integrative manner in our overarching program principles and pedagogical strategies. As we see, professionalization of doctoral students' teaching practice in higher education (cf. Lueddeke, 2003) is particularly important in the context of enhanced faculty mobility and internationalization. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to the literature and practice on establishing academic development programs, especially in academic environments with low institutional support for teaching and lack of formal requirements for professional development.
Authors:Dar Meshi, David Freestone, and Ceylan Özdem-Mertens
Background and aims
People can engage in excessive, maladaptive use of social media platforms. This problematic social media use mirrors substance use disorders with regard to symptoms and certain behavioral situations. For example, individuals with substance use disorders demonstrate aberrations in risk evaluations during decision making, and initial research on problematic social media use has revealed similar findings. However, these results concerning problematic social media use have been clouded by tasks that involve learning and that lack a clear demarcation between risky and ambiguous decision making. Therefore, we set out to specifically determine the relationship between problematic social media use and decision making under both risk and ambiguity, in the absence of learning.
We assessed each participant's (N = 90) self-reported level of problematic social media use. We then had them perform the wheel of fortune task, which has participants make choices between a sure option or either a risky or ambiguous gamble. In this way, the task isolates decisions made under risk and ambiguity, and avoids trial-to-trial learning. Results: We found that the greater an individual's problematic social media use, the more often that individual choses high-risk gambles or ambiguous gambles, regardless of the degree of ambiguity.
Discussion and conclusions
Our findings indicate that greater problematic social media use is related to a greater affinity for high-risk situations and overall ambiguity. These findings have implications for the field, specifically clarifying and extending the extant literature, as well as providing future avenues for research.
Building on ecosystem models that examine individuals’ development within professional environments (Roxå, 2014; Hannah & Lester, 2009), we explore how campus centers for educational development and research can provide a range of experiences for faculty to learn about scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL), conduct individual or collaborative – and sometimes multi-institutional – SoTL, and go public with their work. Using extended case studies of colleagues who have become increasingly more active in SoTL, we created a typology of the experiences that supported their development. The case studies illustrate that offering a variety of educational development options at different institutional levels and with different time commitments enables developers to meet faculty where they are – and to provide growth opportunities for deepening SoTL commitments. Our typology can help educational developers prioritize among potential programs by considering the cost-benefit analysis not only for individual faculty but also for micro-, meso-, and macro-level institutional cultures.
This article investigates how introducing new activities to the practice of academic development can influence and challenge both the academic developers and the Centres for Teaching and Learning (CTL). By applying Wenger's (1998) Communities of Practice, (part of) the practice of the academic developers is conceptualised as exercising collegial relationships. An empirical investigation in the context of a CTL at a Scandinavian university illustrates possibilities for learning and growth of the CTL, as well as how exercising collegial relationships is being challenged when the work of the academic developers branches out. The article concludes that trade-offs are not only an inherent part of practice, but also an aspect of practice that calls for continuous attention.
This study aimed to detect carbapenemase genes and to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Ceftazidime-Avibactam (CZA) in Enterobacterales isolates. Carbapenemase genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. CZA sensitivity of isolates was evaluated with broth microdilution (BMD) and disk diffusion methods. A total of 318 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales isolates were included. Most of the isolates (n = 290, 91.2%) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. The most common carbapenemase type was OXA-48 (n = 82, 27.6%). CZA susceptibility was evaluated in 84 isolates with OXA-48 and KPC carbapenemase activity. Both BMD and disk diffusion methods revealed that 95.2% of the isolates were sensitive to CZA; whereas, 4 (4.76%) isolates were resistant to CZA. Among colistin resistant isolates, 96.5% (n = 80) of them were susceptible to CZA. Our study demonstrated high in vitro efficacy of CZA in Enterobacterales isolates producing OXA-48 carbapenemase. High susceptibility rates against colistin resistant isolates which generally are also pan drug resistant, makes CZA a promising therapeutic choice for difficult-to-treat infections. Due to its high correlation with the BMD, disk diffusion method is a suitable and more practical method in detecting CZA in vitro activity.
The present paper seeks to investigate the characteristics of possessive constructions in Kurdish (the Central variety also known as Sorani) and Hungarian from a cognitive viewpoint. Starting with nominal possessive constructions, which include attenuated possessors and nominal possessees, we will argue that both Kurdish and Hungarian make use of essentially similar typological strategies to encode the possessive relationship. Moreover, the defining characteristics of nominal possessive constructions in both languages will be justifiably accounted for through the same lines of cognitive argumentation in terms of Langacker's reference-point model (, ). However, a different cognitive treatment is proposed for cases in which the possessor and the possessee are nominal and linked to each other via an Ezafe. We will argue that Ezafe, which links the nominal head to its dependents in a Noun Phrase (; ; ; ), evokes an intrinsic asymmetric relationship between the possessor as the landmark and the possessee as the trajector. As the second major type of possessive constructions elaborated on in this paper, the predicative possessive is first classified into topic-possessive and be-possessive categories. Despite their subtle structural differences, it is again shown that both Kurdish and Hungarian employ almost similar clausal patterns to form both categories of predicative possessives, and the same cognitive models can be brought into play to account for their underlying characteristics. The final section of the present paper is devoted to the so-called ergative constructions in Kurdish. Seeking to propose a new cognitive approach to account for the peculiarities of the non-accusative alignment, we will argue that the so-called ergative constructions in Kurdish are conceptually linked to predicative possessive constructions.
This paper discusses a global trend in the approach to hate speech. It describes how the international human rights organisations are recently addressing the dynamics of hate speech and how academic thinking is stretching the framework of the justification of hate speech regulations. This work analyses the aspect of cause and effect in the light of the role of the speaker; examining the academic argument that content expressed by public figures of authority have a higher impact, in particular in the context of the digital media ecosystem, with a social media dominance.