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Abstract

In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.

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Abstract

The objective of this research is to develop a dehusked coconut grading machine for coconut cultivators and entrepreneurs. The basis of design is characterized by a tapered belt conveyor and sizing board with openings of increasing aperture which run along the edge of the belt conveyor. Dehusked coconuts are fed onto the tapered belt conveyor where the gravitational force pushes the nut towards the edge until it comes in contact with sizing board. Due to the tangential force, the nut reels along the sizing board, where dehusked coconuts are graded and allowed to fall through aperture according to their sizes. Performance tests indicated that the inclination angle and velocity of the belt significantly affected contamination ratio, grading efficiency and capacity at 5% significance level. The most efficient configuration for fully husked coconut and semi husked was a belt speed of 1.3 m/s with the inclination angle of 15° and belt speed of 1.5 m/s with the inclination angle of 15° respectively. The machine is acceptable by coconut growers and entrepreneurs.

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Abstract

Effect of coating with calcium nitrate in three concentrations (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) on chemical and mechanical properties, and impact behaviour of two apple cultivars (Golden Delicious (GD) and Red Delicious (RD)) during time (0, 2, and 4 months) was studied. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, °Brix, organoleptic properties, modulus of elasticity (E), yield stress, yield strain, and toughness were measured. The effect of impact loads was determined by measuring bruise volume (BV) and bruise susceptibility (BS). The results showed that pH and °Brix significantly increased, while titratable acidity, E, yield strain, toughness, and BV decreased during storage time. As Ca(NO3)2 concentration increased, titratable acidity, E, yield strain and yield stress increased and pH decreased (P < 0.05). Highest and lowest values for °Brix were observed in GD treated with 1.0% Ca(NO3)2 after four months (13.31) and GD treated with 0.5% Ca(NO3)2 at the first day (10.65), respectively. Maximum E was obtained in GD treated with 1.0% Ca(NO3)2 on the first day (2130 kPa) and this sample also showed the lowest BS after four months of storage (2.82 mL J−1), while the uncoated GD had the highest BS on the first day (7.11 mL J−1).

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European and Slovak Examples of Pop-up Theaters •

Alternative Theaters Across Europe

Pop-up színházak európai és szlovák példái •

Alternatív színházak Európa-szerte
Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Kristína Boháčová and Alexander Schleicher

A large group of emerging cultural spaces abroad and in Slovakia has the adjective independent. In this context, this means that they were not established by public institution and are looking for sustainable forms of funding themselves, operating on grants and volunteering system. The limited amount of funding also determined the architecture that covers such cultural centers. Historic ruins, neglected public spaces, abandoned industrial buildings are common factors that appear throughout Europe. Is there a difference between Slovak alternative and its foreign counterparts, or is it a global phenomenon with identical characteristics? And can it be established at all based on such a small sample as the independent cultural and theater centers are?

A kulturális terek nagyobb csoportja külföldön és Szlovákiában is független jelzővel jelenik meg. Ebben az összefüggésben ez azt jelenti, hogy nem közintézmény hozta létre őket, maguk keresik a finanszírozás fenntartható formáit, támogatásokból és önkéntesekkel működnek. A korlátozott összegű finanszírozás meghatározza az ilyen kulturális központok építészetét is. A történeti romok, az elhanyagolt közterületek, az elhagyott ipari épületek Európa-szerte gyakran jelennek meg helyszíneikként. Van-e különbség a szlovák alternatív és a külföldi gyakorlat között, vagy ez globális jelenség azonos jellemzőkkel? És egyáltalán ez kiderülhet-e a független kulturális és színházi központok egy ilyen kis mintája alapján?

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Abstract

According to World Health Organization (WHO) 10% of the medicines in the Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are of poor quality posing a major public health threat. One way to circumvent such problem is the development and deployment of rapid, economical and efficient analytical methods. Hence this research aims to develop a High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) method for the determination of doxycycline hyclate. A rapid and simple HPTLC method with densitometry detection at 360 nm to determine doxycycline hyclate in capsules and tablet formulations was developed and validated. HPTLC was performed on glass plates coated with C18 reverse phase silica gel 60 F254 and pretreated with 0.27 M ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA) solution. The mobile phase was dichloromethane: methanol: acetonitrile: 1% aqueous ammonia in the ratio of 10:22:53:15 (v/v). The linearity range lies between 200 and 1,000 ng/spot with correlation coefficient of 0.997. The Rf value is 0.5 ± 0.02%. Recoveries were in the range of 94.50–100.5%. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation values for doxycycline hyclate were 40 and 160 ng/spot respectively. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Thus, it was found to be accurate, precise, specific and robust. In forced degradation study, doxycycline hyclate was found to degrade in acidic and alkaline media, and through oxidative stress. The drug was found to be relatively stable to heat and photo degradation. The method was successfully applied for the routine quantitative analysis of dosage forms containing doxycycline hyclate. The developed method offered comparable results (as confirmed by F-test) with that of the HPLC pharmacopoeial (BP) analysis method.

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Abstract

Bovine blood samples were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to examine the changes that may occur in the blood related to its colour, microbiological characteristics, protein denaturation, and dynamic viscosity. Pressure treatments were carried out from 100 to 600 MPa in 100 MPa scale up, with 5 min holding time. The blood samples were treated with anticoagulant (EDTA) to eliminate the possible measurement distorting effects. We found that 2 log reduction in the microbial load could be achieved with a pressure treatment above 400 MPa. According to the protein denaturation measurements (DSC), blood proteins were resistant to pressure treatment, even at 300–400 MPa a substantial part of proteins remained in native state. The colour of the samples got darker with the rising pressure, however, visible colour change was observed only above 400 MPa. It can be established, that the HHP treatment was suitable to increase the microbiological stability of blood, without significantly changing its techno-functional properties.

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Transformation of Tools and Conservation of Architecture •

Some Researches on the Use of Digital Systems for the Intervention on the Historical Buildings

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Donatella Fiorani, Marta Acierno, Silvia Cutarelli, and Adalgisa Donatelli

The use of digital technologies to study architecture and landscape has begun to represent an innovative aspect of the research when it started to allow the dynamic association (as input and output) of images and alphanumeric data: the different combination of this information through inferences and algorithms and the consequent generation of new data has freed digitisation from a strictly instrumental role making it a new methodological approach in itself.

As a matter of fact, recently architectural research has begun to take an interest in the problem ‘from within’, working not only on the application of computer tools but, more consciously, on their configuration. The work carried out by the Sapienza research group is aimed at developing ontologies and inferential models specifically dedicated to the representation of historical buildings and is devoted to the implementation of a national GIS platform for the historical centres, the Risk Map of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism.

This kind of work involves a series of methodological issues specially oriented to the definition of the role of the history of architecture in itself and its use for the conservation project. These arguments are developed within this essay, mainly focused on: type and quality of information deriving by the new procedures; interpretative components that fuel the new research methods; cost/benefit ratio in the use of ‘analogue’ and ‘digital’ approaches; future prospects of the two different (traditional and digital) investigative strategies. Moreover, both of the fields of digital research developed by the group (ontology and Risk Map) are here summarised.

A kutatásban azóta jelent meg innovatív szempontként a digitális technológiák használata az építészet és környezete tanulmányozásában, amióta a képek és alfanumerikus adatok dinamikus társítása (bemeneti és kimeneti formában) elkezdődött: az információk következtetések és algoritmusok révén létrejött különböző kombinációja, valamint az új adatok ezekből következő generálása megszabadította a digitalizálást szigorúan instrumentális szerepétől és önmagában új módszertani megközelítést hozott létre.

A közelmúltbeli építészeti kutatások tulajdonképpen „belülről” mutattak érdeklődést a probléma iránt, nemcsak a számítógépes eszközök alkalmazásával, hanem még tudatosabban a konfigurációval is foglalkoztak. A Sapienza egyetemi kutatócsoport munkájának célja kifejezetten történeti épületek bemutatására szolgáló ontológiák és következtetési modellek kifejlesztésére irányul azzal a szándékkal, hogy megvalósuljon a történeti központokra vonatkozó olasz nemzeti térinformatikai platform, az olasz Kulturális Örökség és Turizmus Minisztériuma kockázati térképe.

Ez a fajta kutatómunka módszertani problémák sorozatát foglalja magába, amelyek kifejezetten az építészettörténet szerepének meghatározására, valamint helyreállítási projektekben történő felhasználására irányulnak. Érveinket e tanulmányban fejtjük ki, elsősorban a következőkre összpontosítva: az új eljárásokból származó információ típusa és minősége; az új kutatási módszereket fellobbantó értelmező elemek; a költség-haszon arány az „analóg” és a „digitális” megközelítés alkalmazása esetén; a kétféle (hagyományos és digitális) vizsgálati stratégia jövőbeli kilátásai. Ezeken túlmenően összefoglalásra kerül a kutatócsoport által kifejlesztett digitális kutatás mindkét területe (ontológia és kockázati térkép) is.

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Abstract

La cour royale de Mathias Corvin (1443–1490 ; 1458–1490) et celle des rois Jagellons jouent jusqu’au XVe siècle, dans la vie intellectuelle du royaume de Hongrie, un rôle comparable à celui des cours royales en Europe occidentale. Mais l’occupation de la capitale (Buda) par les Turcs (1541) et l’absence de souverain « national » transforment profondément le rôle des familles aristocratiques pour ce qui concerne tant l’organisation de la vie culturelle que la vie de l’Église. Parallèlement, la Réforme protestante progresse au XVIe siècle en Hongrie et en Transylvanie, cette dernière devenue une principauté pratiquement indépendante. Les nouveaux acteurs autour desquels se développe dès lors la vie culturelle dans le pays sont les grands aristocrates et les cours qu’ils réunissent à leur entour : les Bánffy, Batthyány, Nádasdy, Perényi, Rákóczi, Esterházy et quelques autres. En Transylvanie, le rôle de la cour princière reste dominant, grâce à sa richesse relative par rapport aux cours seigneuriales. Si l’aristocratie de Hongrie et de Transylvanie se convertit très majoritairement à la Réforme au XVIe siècle, la politique des Habsbourg et les progrès de la Contre-Réforme entraînent un vaste mouvement de reconversion, mais en Hongrie seulement, au XVIIe siècle. À la fin du siècle, ces territoires sont pleinement réintégrés dans les territoires des Habsbourg : dès lors, la question de la modernité se déploie de plus en plus nettement, à laquelle se joint la nouvelle problématique de l’identité collective, puis nationale.

Open access

Abstract

Background

Hypoxia is a pivotal initiator of tumor angiogenesis and growth through the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). This study set out to examine the involvement of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in colon cancer and ascertained whether ORAI3 was involved in the pathway.

Materials and methods

Patients and murine models as well as human colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor (CW2) cells were included to examine the levels of ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α levels. Calcium imaging was utilized to ascertain the activity of calcium channel. Scratch assay was used to assess the migration capacity of the cells.

Results

Tumors from murine colon cancer xenograft models and patients with colon cancer displayed high ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α levels. Hypoxia treatment, mimicking the tumor microenvironment in vitro, increased ORAI1/3 and HIF-1/2α expression as well as store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Of note is that HIF-1/2α silencing decreased SOCE, and HIF-1/2α overexpression facilitated SOCE. Furthermore, ORAI3 rather than ORAI1 expression was inhibited by HIF-1/2α silencing while increased by ML228. Luciferase assay also confirmed that ORAI3 was elevated in the presence of ML228, indicating the linkage between HIF-1/2α and ORAI3. Additionally, colony-forming potential and cell migration capacity were decreased in siHIF-1α and siHIF-2α as well as siORAI3 cells, and the facilitating effect of ML228 on cell migration and colony-forming potential was also decreased in siORAI3 CW-2 cells, which points out the importance of ORAI3 in HIF1/2α pathway.

Conclusion

Our findings allow to conclude that both HIF-1α and HIF-2α facilitate ORAI3 expression, hence enhancing colon cancer progression.

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Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition of monofloral bee-collected pollen from the coffee (Coffea robusta) plant and its pellet morphology. According to the results coffee bee pollen (CBP) has a high nutritional value. It contains a large percentage of protein, reducing sugar, and lipid. Also, vitamins (B2 and E) and minerals (K, Ca, and P) were found in CBP. In addition, the results revealed that the total polyphenols content (TPC) was 10.62 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW) and antioxidant activity (AA) of CBP was 5.52 μmol TE/g DW. Some physical properties of CBP pellet were recorded such as moisture, relative diameter, sphericity, bulk density, and colour parameters. The pollen pellet exhibits shapes of colour from light to dark yellow. These results pointed out that CBP can be used as a remarkable source of compounds with antioxidant activity and health-protective capacity for humans.

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