Authors:H. Xie, L. Cao, L. Ye, G. Shan, and W. Song
In this study, the ability of microRNA-1906 (miR-1906) to attenuate bone loss in osteoporosis was evaluated by measuring the effects of a miR-1906 mimic and inhibitor on the cellular toxicity and cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cells were isolated from female mice, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase signalling was performed in miR-1906 mimic-treated, receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclasts. In-vivo, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Rats were treated with 500 nmol/kg of the miR-1906 mimic via intrathecal administration for 10 consecutive days following surgery. The effect of the miR-1906 mimic on bone mineral density (BMD) in OVX rats was observed in the whole body, lumbar vertebrae and femur. Levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of miR-1906 mimic-treated OVX rats were analysed. The mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), p-38 and NF-κB in tibias of osteoporotic rats (induced by ovariectomy) was observed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic reduced cellular toxicity and enhanced the cell viability of MC3T3‐E1 cells. Furthermore, osteoclastogenesis in miR-1906 mimic-treated, RANKL-induced osteoclast cells was reduced, whereas the BMD in the miR-1906 mimic-treated group was higher than in the OVX group of rats. Treatment with the miR-1906 mimic also increased levels of biochemical parameters and cytokines in the serum of ovariectomised rats. Finally, mRNA expression levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-38 and NF-κB were lower in the tibias of miR-1906 mimic-treated rats than in those of OVX rats. In conclusion, the miR-1906 mimic reduces bone loss in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF‐κB pathway.
Authors:Małgorzata Draps, Guillaume Sescousse, Mateusz Wilk, Katarzyna Obarska, Izabela Szumska, Weronika Żukrowska, Aleksandra Majkowska, Ewelina Kowalewska, Julia Szymanowska, Urszula Hamerska, Magda Trybuś, Karolina Golec, Iwona Adamska, Karol Szymczak, and Mateusz Gola
Background and aims
Despite the inclusion of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder (CSBD) in the International Classification of Diseases, very little is known about the underlying affective and cognitive processes. To fill this gap, we compared CSBD subjects and Healthy-Controls (HC) across negative/positive valence, cognitive and sensorimotor systems, as proposed by the Research Domain Criteria framework.
74 heterosexual CSBD and 66 matched HC males were studied with 10 questionnaires and 8 behavioral tasks. Analyses were conducted with frequent and Bayesian statistics.
CSBD individuals showed significantly higher (than HC) punishment sensitivity, anxiety, depression, compulsivity, and impulsivity symptoms. Frequentist statistical analysis revealed significant interaction between subject group and condition in Incentive Delay Task, concerning the strength of motivation and hedonic value of erotic rewards. Bayesian analysis produced evidence for the absence of group differences in Facial Discrimination Task, Risk-Ambiguity Task, and Learning Task. Also, Bayesian methods provided evidence for group differences in the Emotional Stroop Task and the Incentive Delay Task. Sexual Discounting Task, Attentional Network Task, and Stop Signal Task produced mixed results.
Higher punishment sensitivity and impulsivity among CSBD subjects, along with significant interaction between these groups and erotic vs. non-erotic reward processing is in line with previous findings on negative/positive valence alterations in CSBD patients. This result shows that there are similarities to substance and behavioral addictions. The absence of group differences and mixed results related to cognitive and sensorimotor systems raise concerns to what extent CSBD resembles a wide spectrum of impairments observed in disorders, and demand further research.
Authors:Matthew Brittain, Nathan Consedine, Kathleen L. Bagot, Natalia Booth, and Simone N. Rodda
Background and aims
Sugar is a potentially addictive substance that is consumed in such high levels the World Health Organisation has set recommended consumption limits. To date there are no empirically tested brief interventions for reducing sugar consumption in adult populations. The current study aimed to preliminarily assess the feasibility of recruitment, retention, and intervention engagement and impact of a brief intervention.
This pre-post study recruited 128 adults from New Zealand to complete a 30-day internet-delivered intervention with in-person and email coaching. The intervention components were derived from implementation intention principles whereby the gap between intention and behaviour was targeted. Participants selected sugar consumption goals aligned with WHO recommendations by gender. To meet these goals, participants developed action plans and coping plans and engaged in self-monitoring. Facilitation was provided by a coach to maintain retention and treatment adherence over the 30 days.
Intervention materials were rated as very useful and participants were mostly satisfied with the program. The total median amount of sugar consumed at baseline was 1,662.5 g (396 teaspoons per week) which was reduced to 362.5 g (86 teaspoons) at post-intervention evaluation (d = 0.83). The intervention was associated with large effects on reducing cravings (d = 0.59) and psychological distress (d = 0.68) and increasing situational self-efficacy (d = 0.92) and well-being (d = 0.68) with a reduction in BMI (d = 0.51).
This feasibility study indicates that a brief intervention delivering goal setting, implementation planning, and self-monitoring may assist people to reduce sugar intake to within WHO recommendations.
Authors:Ana Carolina Valentim Hespanha, Bruno Watanabe Minto, Marita Vedovelli Cardozo, Mareliza Possa De Menezes, Júlia Banhareli Tasso, and Paola Castro Moraes
Hospital infections are of great relevance in human and animal health, and fomites are important in the spread of pathogens in hospital units. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of enterobacteria in the operating room of a veterinary hospital, the potential cross-contamination of samples, and to characterise the susceptibility profile of the isolates to antimicrobials. Sixty-five samples were collected from five different surgical procedures. These samples came from the hands and cell phones of the surgical team and pet owners, operating tables, and patients. Species detection was performed through polymerase chain reaction, genetic diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and susceptibility to antimicrobials through an antibiogram. Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis isolates were obtained from eight samples, from the hands of the anaesthesiologist, the pet owner, and the surgeon; the surgeon's, the nurse's and the anaesthesiologist's cell phones, and two surgical tables. Furthermore, PFGE showed high genetic diversity among the isolates, which showed multidrug resistance. The identification of multidrug-resistant E. coli and P. mirabilis on cell phones of the surgical team is a major concern and, although no direct correlation was found, the isolation of these bacteria inside the clean area of the operating room shows the possibility of nosocomial transmission from cell phones to susceptible patients.
Authors:Joanna Stawska and Paulo Jorge Reis Mourao
Our aim is to identify periods of restrictive versus expansionary economic policy in the euro area in the last two decades. We firstly conducted the study for identifying the dominant trend in fiscal policies and then in monetary policies. We studied several fiscal outputs, focusing on the cyclical adjusted primary balance. We also analysed the European long-term and short-term interest rates. The study was conducted for several windows, namely for 3-, 4- and 5-year periods. Additional procedures were conducted for robustness checks, namely the study of structural breaks in the analysed time series as well as a study of them recurring to Markov-Switching Regimes models. For most of the analysed periods and subperiods of the series, we concluded for the presence of expansionary policies either in the fiscal or in monetary European domains. Finally, the results and the analysis of dependencies in the euro area economy favour the evidence that economic authorities in the euro area have sought to coordinate monetary and fiscal policy to stabilise the economy.
A set of policy prescriptions based on Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) have been developed that are independent of the monetary model, which are often presented together, in a context that does not require taxation: guaranteed income, job guarantee and full employment. These are enabled by the ability of a government to deficit spend as needed, as long as government controls its sovereign currency.
Here I raise the concern that implementing MMT accounting could cause increases in political power inequality relative to citizens not seen since the medieval era or before. The assumption that spending and tax policy in an MMT system would occur as proponents expect is contradicted by the history of political choices regarding spending and taxation over the past half-century. The record of behaviour by politicians in the nations where foreign aid money “fell from the sky,” thus divorcing national income from the tax base, also contradicts this idea.
With removal of the formal requirement for taxation, politicians operating in an MMT system will have little inherent reason in the short term to treat citizens well except moral suasion. This should provide a foundation for tyranny unparalleled in modern history. Incorporating progressive taxation into MMT’s corpus, for the express purpose of economic and political stability, is suggested in order to achieve the overall aims of the MMT policy advocates. However, this may not be sufficient. In addition, considering increasing the role of governors/leaders of states within the monetary unions may be useful, because those governments do need to follow the old rules of taxation to support spending, and this may provide a counterweight.
Government involvement in the venture capital (VC) market has become an important catalyst of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of young and innovative firms. There is an extensive literature describing the VC model, but the models of its government backed variants are not comprehensively discussed. The article focuses on the model of purely government backed venture capital (GVC) and hybrid venture capital (HGVC). The conclusion of this article is that, by the logic of their models, GVCs are destined to underperform than private VCs. Many articles see HGVCs as a step forward compared to GVCs, as they involve private participants. The novelty of the current article lies in bringing out the drawbacks deriving from the system of hybrid venture capital funding by creating a complex theoretical framework of the HGVC model. We show that due to the crowding in of private participants, this scheme creates a two-goal system where the private profit maximising interests conflict with the economic policy goals. The complex system of HGVC is exposed to increased moral hazard issues that might lead to higher distortions than GVC. The conclusions are especially relevant in the case of developing industries.
Authors:Bence Balázs, József Bálint Nagy, Zoltán Tóth, Fruzsina Nagy, Sándor Károlyi, Ibolya Turcsányi, Andrea Bistyák, Attila Kálmán, Rita Sárközi, and Gábor Kardos
Multidrug resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) is a major problem in human as well as in veterinary medicine. These strains appear in animal and human microbiomes and can be the source of infection both in animal and in human healthcare, in accordance with the One Health theorem. In this study we examined the prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria in food-producing animals. We collected 100 porcine and 114 poultry samples to examine the prevalence of ESBL producers. Isolates were identified using the MALDI-TOF system and their antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method. ESBL gene families and phylogroups were detected by polymerase chain reactions. The prevalence of ESBL producers was relatively high in both sample groups: 72 (72.0%) porcine and 39 (34.2%) poultry isolates were ESBL producers. Escherichia coli isolates were chosen for further investigations. The most common ESBL gene was CTX-M-1 (79.3%). Most of the isolates belong to the commensal E. coli phylogroups. The porcine isolates could be divided into three phylogroups, while the distribution of the poultry isolates was more varied. In summary, ESBL-producing bacteria are prevalent in the faecal samples of the examined food-producing animals, with a dominance of the CTX-M-1 group enzymes and commensal E. coli phylogroups.
The aim of this paper is to diagnose the cause-and-effect relationships between reinvestment of earnings (RoE) and other components of FDI inflows and GDP in Poland in the years of 2004–2019, using the VECM model**. Changes in the structure of FDI inflows in Poland are in line with the stages of the FDI life cycle. The increase in the share of RoE in the structure of these investments is also accompanied by an increase in the impact and the degree of explanation of changes in GDP. Studies confirmed that changes in the structure of FDI in Poland was adequate to the theoretical cycle of FDI life. The increase in the share of RoE in the structure of FDI inflows is accompanied by a decrease in equities. The VECM model, impulse response function and decomposition analysis confirmed that among FDI components mainly equities, and next, RoE have large participation in the degree of explanation of GDP. In the short-term, mainly equity has the most important impact on GDP, and additionally, RoE. In the long-time, the importance of equity decreases, while increases the impact of RoE, and also, debt instruments. The increase in the share of RoE in the structure of FDI inflows accompanied by the increase in the impact of these investments on GDP changes.
The 2008 crisis highlighted the importance of using stress tests in banking practice. The role of these stress tests is to identify and precisely estimate the effect of possible future changes in market conditions on capital adequacy and profitability. This paper seeks to show a possible methodology to calculate the stressed point-in-time probability of default (PD) parameter. The presented approach contains a linear autoregressive distributed lag model to determine the connection between the logit of default rates and the relevant macroeconomic factors, and uses migration matrices to calculate PDs from the forecasted default rates. The authors illustrate the applications of this methodology using the Hungarian real credit portfolio data.