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Beporzók mint fontos ökológiai és gazdasági biztonsági tényezők

Pollinators as important ecological and economical safety factors

Scientia et Securitas
Author:
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki

Összefoglalás.

A növényi beporzást sok esetben segítik a beporzók, hozzájárulva a termés- és magképzéshez, szaporodáshoz. Ezzel a beporzók ökológiai és gazdasági értelemben is kiemelt fontosságú szerepet játszanak az emberek életében, környezeti, élelmezési, anyagi és egészségi biztonságuk vonatkozásában egyaránt. Az állati beporzás a zárvatermő virágos növények 87%-át érinti, ami a szárazföldi vegetációt alapjaiban meghatározza. Ebbe a körbe tartozik a termesztett növények háromnegyede is, így a mezőgazdasági termelésben játszott szerepük mind mennyiségi, mind minőségi értelemben kiemelkedő. Közvetlen kihatással vannak az emberi egészségre, létfontosságú vitaminok, ásványi anyagok biztosításával. A beporzók megőrzése, hanyatló trendjeik megállítása ezért az emberiség elemi érdeke, mind hazai, mind globális vonatkozásban.

Summary.

Pollinators, including wild and managed bees, hoverflies, diurnal and nocturnal butterflies, wasps, bugs, other insects, birds and mammals play an important role in the reproduction, seed and fruit production of most dicotyledonous plant species, including three-quarters of the cultivated plants. Through their pollination as an ecosystem service their ecological and economical importance is enormous, and has a key role in human safety regarding food, health, finances and the environment. Animal pollination can be only partially or essentially needed by a plant species to reach its optimal fruit or seed quality and quantity. The pollinator related wild plants are important elements of the terrestrial ecosystems, providing our environment safety through elemental material circles. However, the foraging and nesting resources they need are limited in managed ecosystems, such as intensive agricultural or industrial landscapes. Pollinators contribute to the production of the majority of cultivated plants at a certain extent, including such economically important crops like sunflower, oilseed rape, apple, cherry, water melon, etc. Their direct contribution to global food production seems to be low, only 5-8%, but this share in human diet ensures such nutrients, vitamins and minerals that are essential for health development and life. Furthermore, besides the physical health, pollinators play a key role in mental health as well by the provision of diverse and flowering environment, enjoyed by any outdoor activities. Unfortunately, populations of many wild pollinator species decline worldwide and high proportion of honeybee colonies are lost from time to time in several regions. The main drivers behind these declines are habitat loss and change caused mainly by agricultural intensification and urbanisation, climate change, invasion, pests and pathogens and pesticide use. To halt these declines overwhelming strategies are needed at local, national, regional and global level. The EU Pollinator Strategy and the Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets ambitious targets for pollinator conservation, initiating among others an EU level pollinator monitoring program, that is under test phase. These actions might have the chance to reverse the pollinator decline and maintain pollinators and pollination services, however, only in the case of real actions with joint effort of scientists, decision makers and the public.

Open access

Abstract

Constitutional identity appears as an increasingly frequent argument in the case law of constitutional courts in Europe. For many authors, it is a way to initiate dialogue with the European Union on equal terms. In this article, we argue that dialogue is not always a source of harmony, because the terms of the interaction are not exactly the same in Luxembourg and in the member states of the European Union. The Court of Justice of the European Union interprets the national identity of the member states in a way that is not always similar to the content given by the States to their constitutional identity. As a consequence, constitutional identity may allow the Member States to strengthen the specificity of their constitutional rules and, in turn, weaken the unity of European constitutionalism. Far from being an Esperanto, constitutional identity rather appears as the new legal Babel in Europe.

Restricted access

Abstract

In its ‘refugee quota decision’ of 2016 the ‘invented’ its competences of ultra vires, sovereignty and constitutional identity controls. The sword of constitutional identity (CI) has been forged against foreign – first of all – EU law. In the development of the new concept the interplay between the Government, the Government-dominated parliament and the Constitutional Court loyal to the Government seems to be evident. The textual analysis of the relevant HCC's decisions proves that the Hungarian Constitutional identity (HCI) contains legal acts in force – including the Fundamental Law (constitution) and the Founding treaties of the EU -, legal acts ‘not in force but valid’ and activities related to the fight for independence of the Hungarian State.

As far as the nature of the HCI is concerned, the article demonstrates the strong relationship with sovereignty control, and the ‘historical constitution’ and emphasises the HCC's statement according to which the CI is not created by the constitution, it is merely acknowledges it.

Given the large number of elements identified as part of the HCI, its openness to the inclusion of further elements, and the questionable nature of the HCI, the author submits that the concept is inappropriate for any meaningful constitutional review.

The HCC – at least until now – despite being invited to do so, has refused to use the sword against EU secondary law and the judgment of the European Court of Justice, and avoided overt constitutional conflict. However, this does not mean that the HCC is ready to enter into sincere dialogue with the court in Luxembourg.

Open access

Abstract

Purpose

The interaction of orexinergic neurons with the opioidergic system and their effects on morphine analgesia and tolerance have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of the orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor (OX1R and OX2R) agonist and antagonist on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats.

Material and methods

A total of 90 Wistar albino male rats weighing 180–220 g were used in the experiments. To induce morphine tolerance, rats were injected with a single dose of morphine (50 mg kg−1, s.c.) for 3 days. Morphine tolerance was assessed on day 4 in randomly selected rats by analgesia tests. In order to evaluate morphine tolerance situation, orexin-A, SB-334867, orexin-B and TCS OX2 29 were administered together with morphine for 3 days. The analgesic effects of orexin-A (10 μg kg−1), OXR1 antagonist SB-334867 (10 mg kg−1), OXR2 agonist orexin-B (15 μg kg−1), OXR2 antagonist TCS OX2 29 (0.5 mg kg−1) and morphine (5 mg kg−1) were measured at 15 or 30-min intervals by tail-flick and hot-plate antinociceptive tests.

Results

The results suggested that the combination of orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine significantly increased the analgesic effect compared to morphine-tolerant rats. In addition, administration of orexin-A and -B alone showed significant analgesic effects compared to the saline group. However, co-administration of orexin-A and -B with morphine did not increase the analgesic efficacy of morphine.

Conclusions

The results of this study demonstrated that co-administration of SB-334867 and orexin-B with morphine attenuated morphine tolerance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the details of the interaction between orexin receptors and the opioidergic system.

Restricted access

Abstract

Background and aims

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated pre-existing high-levels of physician stress and burnout1. In order to help treat frontline colleagues who were diagnosed with acute stress disorder, we chose a non-psychedelic, ketamine micro-dose treatment strategy for symptom management.

Methods

We provided care virtually, and all patients were prescribed sublingual ketamine once daily. Each patient was evaluated using the NIH-PROMIS CAT assessments for stress, depression, anxiety, and PTSD via a remote, HIPAA compliant patient self-reporting platform. Progress was tracked and assessed against a baseline value obtained prior to the start of treatment. Patient progress was evaluated at a 4–6-week interval. Patients did not report any significant side effects to the treatment regimen.

Results

100% (25/25) of patients experienced improved anxiety, 92% (23/25) experienced improved stress, 96% (24/25) experienced improved PTSD, and 91% (20/22) experienced improved depression.

Conclusions

While we cannot draw definitive conclusions from the association demonstrated by this data, we believe these results demonstrate that further research into the efficacy of daily, short-term ketamine micro-doses for treatment of acute stress disorder is warranted.

Open access

Abstract

Folk art and applied folk art have been constantly shaped by cultural and political actors, as well as social and economic processes and the local society affected by them. In the context of these changes, the definitions of authentic, original, and genuine were given a new interpretation, which can be examined in different contexts. The question of authenticity in material folk art arose shortly after the birth of the concept of folk art and the “discovery” of folk art, and has accompanied the history of the revival of material folk art. Nevertheless, although discourses on the subject have been ongoing for a long time in the fields of folklore, theoretical works dealing with material folk art have not paid much attention to the issue of authenticity. The study first describes the contexts through which the issue of authenticity was articulated in artifact production inspired by folk art. The changed social conditions during the 20th century have also generated, and are still generating, new legal dilemmas in the field of artifact production at both community and individual levels, such as the extent to which folk art is individual or community-owned (taking into account the narrower and wider community), and the copyright of an authentic folk artist or craftsman or a creator recognized as a folk artisan. The questions lead to the evolution of the definition of authenticity and point out, among other things, the role that the issue of authenticity plays in the process of the heritagization of folk art.

Open access

A Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív (READ) magyar nyelvű adaptációja

Hungarian adaptation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Kitti Kóródi
,
Erzsébet Szél
, and
Éva Szabó

Háttér és célkitűzések

A tanulmány célja a Hjemdal és munkatársai (2006) által kidolgozott Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív hazai adaptációja, amely alkalmas serdülők és fiatal felnőttek személyes és környezeti erőforrásainak mérésére.

Módszer

Magyar középiskolásokból és egyetemistákból (M = 18,85 év, SD = 2,39) álló mintán (Nközépiskolás = 490; Negyetemista = 593) ellenőriztük a kérdőív szerkezetét, belső megbízhatóságát, konstruktív validitását, illetve a reziliencia kapcsolatát demográfiai és pszichológiai jellegű változókkal.

Eredmények

A feltáró és megerősítő faktorelemzés szerint az ötfaktoros struktúra jellemző a kérdőívre, amelyet a célorientáció, a családi összetartás, a szociális kompetencia, a társas támogatottság és a magabiztosság alskálák alkotnak. A reziliencia kérdőíven a nemek között a társas támogatás és a magabiztosság alskálán találtunk különbséget, az életkor tekintetében pedig szintén a társas támogatás alskálán különböztek a 15–18 évesek és a 18–24 évesek pontszámai. Az észlelt társas támogatás pozitív irányú összefüggést mutatott a rezilienciával, a problémaviselkedés megjelenése azonban negatív irányút, ami alátámasztotta a Serdülő Reziliencia Kérdőív konstruktív validitását.

Következtetések

Az eredmények alapján kialakított 28 tételes kérdőív alkalmasnak bizonyult a serdülők és fiatal felnőtt rezilienciájának felmérésére, illetve azon belül a környezeti és személyes erőforrások elkülönítésére. A Cronbach-alfa-mutatók alapján minden alskála és a teljes skála belső megbízhatósága megfelelő mértékű. A kérdőív emiatt alkalmas lehet további feltáró kutatásokban való alkalmazásra.

Open access

Abstract

Sex differences in jealousy are a well-established research finding that suggests men (relative to women) will find the sexual components of an infidelity more distressing, whereas women (relative to men) will find the emotional components of an infidelity more distressing. This study uses a relatively novel sample of participants (individuals who engage in consensual non-monogamy) to test both cultural and evolutionary influences on jealousy. In our study using hypothetical scenarios, we found that men (relative to women) were more upset about the sexual components of the infidelity and that women (relative to men) were more upset about the emotional components of the infidelity. This occurred in both samples to the same magnitude suggesting that the differences between the men and women may be driven by evolutionary influences. Additionally, we found a main effect of relationship type such that participants who engaged in consensual non-monogamy had lower levels of jealousy overall. As such, this study provides relatively unique evidence for the ultimate origins of sex differences in jealousy.

Open access