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The laboratory micro X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) technique is a suitable method to study minerals in-situ in whole-rock specimens without any sample preparation or in polished thin sections, and even in small amounts in powdered form. The micro X-ray diffraction method uses the conventional, closed-tube X-ray generator, but modifications were needed in the diffraction column, sample holder and detector in order to achieve μ-XRD capability.

In this paper, we present a case study of the capillary method used in µ-XRD on hydrothermal clay mineral assemblages that formed in the Velence Mts (Hungary). The capillary method in µ-XRD has many advantages in the investigation of small amounts of clay minerals: (1) easy and rapid preparation of randomly oriented, powdered samples; (2) rapid measurements; (3) accurate diffraction patterns. By using the capillary method, the formation of preferred orientation can be eliminated; thus the (hkl) reflection of the clay minerals can be precisely measured. Illite polytype quantification and the investigation of (060) reflection of clay minerals can be used satisfactorily in µ-XRD.

Hydrothermal clay mineral assemblages are indicative of temperature and pH. Their examination can determine the physicochemical parameters of the hydrothermal fluids that interacted with the host granite in the Velence Mts. The analyzed hydrothermal clay minerals from the western part of the mountains suggest lower temperatures (150–200 °C) and intermediate pH conditions. In contrast, the clay mineral assemblages' characteristics for the eastern part of the mountains indicate more intense argillization and higher temperatures (∼220 °C) and intermediate pH conditions.

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Authors: Adebayo Surajudeen Adekunle, Adekunle Akanni Adeleke, Peter Pelumi Ikubanni, Peter Olorunleke Omoniyi, Tajudeen Adelani Gbadamosi and Jamiu Kolawole Odusote


Heat treatment industries require various quenching media to improve the properties of the materials to be quenched. Petroleum based mineral (PBM) oil, a non-biodegradable oil, is popular amongst others quenchants in heat treatment processes. Recently, biodegradable oils mostly in their raw, unblended and unbleached forms have been employed for quenching of various engineering materials. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of some selected bio-quenchants in blended raw (BR) and blended bleached (BB) forms on the mechanical properties and microstructure of solution heat treated aluminum (Al)-alloy. Edible vegetable oil (70% by volume) was blended with 30% by volume of jatropha oil to form the bio-quenchant oils. Another set of bio-quenchants were formed by bleaching the raw oils before mixing so as to reduce the oxidation level and contaminations in the oil. The Al-alloy is solution heat treated at 500 °C and soaked for 15 min in an electric muffle furnace before quenching in the various established bio-quenchants. Results showed that samples treated in blended raw melon (BRM) oil have higher tensile strength of 151.76 N/mm2 while samples quenched in blended bleached melon (BBM) oil have higher hardness value of 61.00 HRC. In accordance to the results obtained the bio-quenchants were found to be effective replacement to the PBM oil.

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The faulty hormonal imprinting theory (published in 1980) and the DOHaD (Developmental Origin of Health and Disease theory (published in 1986) are twin-concepts: both justify the manifestation after long time (in adults) diseases which had been provoked in differentiating cells (e.g. during gestation). This was demonstrated using animal experiments as well, as comparative statistical methods (in human cases). However, there is no explanation for the tools of memorization (even after decades) of the early adversity and the tools of execution (manifestation) in adult age. It seems likely that immune memory is involved to the memorization of early adversity, up to the manifestation of the result (non-communicable diseases). Nevertheless, the relatively short timespan of adaptive immune memory makes this system insuitable for this function, however the newly recognized trained memory of the innate immune system seems to be theoretically suitable for the storage of the records and handling the sequalae, which is the epigenetic reprogramming in the time of provocation, without changes in base sequences (mutation). The flawed (damaged) program is manifested later, in adult age. Evidences are incomplete, so further animal experiments and human observations are needed for justifying the theory.

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The article highlights the worldwide dissemination of precision agriculture scientific researches published from the period of 1996–2018, data gathered in the Scopus citation database, using the science mapping method. The findings show that there is a constant rise in the number of publications in precision agriculture. The USA is not only leading in the adoption of precision agriculture technologies but also in the publication of papers, accompanied by China placed in second place. The most frequent keywords highlighted the main topics authors concentrated on more, and the national affiliation of most cited papers was the USA. The main prominence and contributions of the results present scientific research trends in precision agriculture in the last two decades, and demonstrate the main countries, authors and organizations who have contributed, and were more productive in this area.

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The main idea of the current paper consists in introducing the fractional order calculus in a control system. To control the system, an adaptive control technique with reference model is used. The fractional order models for the plant and reference model are obtained. To achieve the performances imposed by the fractional order reference model, a fractional order adaptive control law is proposed, which is a combination of two methods (MIT and Lyapunov stability). The original contribution in this paper is the use of fractional order calculus in the combined MIT and Lyapunov stability method and showing the dynamic behavior of the system. Several simulations are used to emphasize the effectiveness and benefits of the proposed method.

Open access
Authors: Ajkay Klára, Bagdy Emőke, Dobos Emőke, Erdélyi Ildikó, Falus Ferenc, Kapusi Gyula and Pajor András

Írásunk a Pszichodráma Műhelycsoport (röviden MCS) együtt gondolkodó emlékezésének terméke. Arra törekedtünk, hogy mindmáig aktív csoportéletünk keletkezését is abba a történeti folyamatba ágyazzuk, amelyben a “Lipótmezőn” megtörtént a klinikai pszichológia honfoglalása”. Mérei Ferenc, “a Tanár úr” teremtő és alapító személyisége a hazai klinikai lélektan gyakorlatának. Emlékezésünkben Mérei Ferenc személyiségét, tanári mivoltát, pszichológusi hivatásszemélyiséget formáló munkáját szeretnénk láttatni, érzékeltetni. Rorschachozásra tanítása is szerves részét képezte annak a szakmára nevelő munkának, amelyben egységes volt az elméleti tudás követelménye, a gyakorlat (a “csinálás”, ahogyan Ő nevezte) és a pszichológusi magatartás csiszolgatása. Ez az írás Mérei alkotó tehetsége iránti tiszteletünk kifejezése és szakmateremtő tevékenységének mementója. Az írásban az emlékező gondolkodás egyes tématerületei szerinti kérdéseinket követjük, ekképpen nyolc kérdésre válaszolunk.

This paper is the result of the collaborative and commemorative work of the “Psychodrama Workshop Group” (hereafter WG). Our aim was to embed the origins of our group, which is still active today, in historical processes such as the “conquest” of clinical psychology that occurred in the “Lipótmező”.

Ferenc Mérei, widely known as “the teacher”, was the creator and founder of the Hungarian clinical psychology practice. With this commemorative project, we aim to present Mérei’s personality, his teaching philosophy and his work in framing the psychological profile of the profession.

His teaching of' “Rørschaching” was an integral part of his professional educational work, which combined the necessity of theoretical knowledge with psychology practice (“doing”, as he called it) and the development of psychologists’ professional habitus. This paper thus expresses our respect for Mérei’s creative talent and serves as a memento to his activities in shaping the profession. To this end, we pursue eight specific questions that are informed by our commemorative approach.

Open access

Háttér: a megújított Rorschach-teszt (R-PAS) a hazai pszichológiai gyakorlat számára ismeretlen.

Célkitűzés: A Rorschach Teljesítményértékelő Rendszer® (továbbiakban R-PAS) új amerikai konstruk-ció Hermann Rorschach tintafolt tesztjének legújabb gyakorlati alkalmazásához (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard és Erdberg, 2011). Ennek bemutatása a tanulmány célja.

Módszer: A teszt ismertetése. Az R-PAS empirikusan közelíti meg a tesztet, igyekszik javítani annak normatív alapjait, integrálni a teszt alkalmazásával kapcsolatos nemzetközi eredményeket, ezáltal növelve annak felhasználhatóságát, modern egységes módszertani keretet biztosítva. Az R-PAS törekvése, hogy csök-kentve a vizsgálat változékonyságát, növelje annak minél pontosabban mérhető felhasználhatóságát.

Eredmények: A fejlesztők célja az volt, hogy klinikailag gazdag, bizonyítékokon alapuló, logikailag átlátható, felhasználóbarát, valamint nemzetközileg egységesen igénybe vehető viselkedésértékelési rendszert hozzanak létre a Rorschach-táblák alkalmazásával. A megközelítés a teszt teljesítményalapú felhasználására fókuszál. Ennek eddigi eredményeit ismerteti a tanulmány.

Konklúzió: Az ismertetés rávilágít, milyen előnyei és lehetőségei vannak a Rorschach-teszt új jelölési és feldolgozási módszere alkalmazásának. Az R-PAS már több európai országban és nyelven teret kapott, jelen-leg is zajlanak a fordítások és a módszertanhoz kapcsolódó nemzetközi normatív adatgyűjtés. Ezt indítvá-nyozzák a szerzők a hazai gyakorlat számára is.

Background: The renewed Rorschach test (R-PAS) is still unknown in Hungarian clinical psychological practice.

Objective: The Rorschach Performance Assessment System® (hereafter R-PAS) is a new American tem-plate for the latest practical application of the Hermann Rorschach ink-blot test (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard & Erdberg, 2011). The aim of this study is to introduce this new test format to a Hungarian audi-ence.

Method: The R-PAS approaches the test empirically. It aims to improve its normative bases and to inte-grate international results connected to the application of the test in order to increase its usability by means ofa modern, consistent methodological framework. The ambition of the R-PAS is to reduce the variability of testing and to increase the test's usability by making the results as accurately measurable as possible.

Results: The aim of the people behind the R-PAS was to create a clinically rich, evidence-based, logically transparent, user-friendly and internationally accessible behavioural assessment system for applying the Rorschach tables. This approach focuses on a performance-based use of the test, the results of which to date are presented in this study.

Conclusion: This introductory paper highlights the benefits and opportunities of applying the new marking and processing method of the Rorschach test. The R-PAS has already gained ground in several European countries and languages, and translations into additional languages as well as the collection of international normative data on methodology are currently under way.

Open access
Authors: M. Michalis, K.J. Finn, R. Podstawski, S. Gabnai, Á. Koller, A. Cziráki, M. Szántó, Z. Alföldi and F. Ihász


Within recent years the popularity of sportive activities amongst older people, particularly competitive activities within certain age groups has increased. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in the cardiorespiratory output at anaerobic threshold and at maximal power, output during an incremental exercise, among senior and young athletes. Ten elderly male subjects [mean (SD) age: 68.45 ± 9.32 years] and eight young male subjects [mean (SD) age: 25.87 ± 5.87 years] performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill ergometer. No significant differences in body size were evident; however, the differences between the groups for peak power (451.62 ± 49 vs. 172.4 ± 32.2 W), aerobic capacity (57.97 ± 7.5 vs. 40.36 ± 8.6 mL kg−1 min−1), maximal heart rate (190.87 ± 9.2 vs. 158.5 ± 9.1 beats min−1), peak blood lactate (11 ± 1.7 vs. 7.3 ± 1.4 mmol L−1), and % VO2max at ventilatory thresholds (93.18 ± 4.3 vs. 79.29 ± 9.9%) were significantly lower in the senior athletes. The power output at anaerobic threshold was also higher (392 ± 48 vs. 151 ± 23 W) in the young athletes, explaining the significant difference in terms of performance between these groups. We have observed an evident deterioration in some of the cardiovascular parameters; however, the submaximal exercise economy seems to be preserved with aging. Exercise economy (i.e. metabolic cost of sustained submaximal exercise) was not different considerably with age in endurance-trained adults.

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Authors: Veronika Mészáros, Szabolcs Takács, Zsuzsanna Kövi, Máté Smohai, Zoltán Gergely Csigás, Zsuzsanna Tanyi, Edit Jakubovits, Dóra Kovács, Ilona Szili, Andrea Ferenczi and Szilvia Ádám

Theoretical background: Research on burnout has widespread interest in mental health sciences. The Demands-Resources Model of Burnout represents a new direction in research. Similarly to the most popular model of burnout, the Multidimensional Model, it embeds burnout in an organizational framework. Goals: The purpose of this study is to analyze the dimensionality and divergent validity of the Mini Oldenburg Burnout Questionnaire (MOLBI), the measurement tool of the Demands-Resources Model. Our work also tests the multidimensional theory, which posits that the burnout dimensions are independent of one another and do not form a global burnout factor. Method: Participants' (n = 406 people, 59.1% female) mean age was 39.4 (SD = 11.06) years and most of them had a graduate degree. In addition to the MOLBI questionnaire, participants completed the Work-Family Balance and Mental Health Test. We conducted a parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis to analyze the structure of MOLBI; a bifactor analysis and model-based reliability test to analyze the validity of global and specific factors. We assessed the relationships between MOLBI and other parameters with Kendall's tau-b correlation. Results: Our results showed that the original two-factor structure of the questionnaire fit our data best (χ2= 78.489, DF = 26, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.977; NNFI = 0.960; RMSEA = 0.068; RMSEA CI90:0.066-0.070). The reliabilities of factors and global scores were adequate. Besides, the bifactor analysis showed that the global burnout dimension and disengagement subscale had enough explanatory power. The exhaustion factor of burnout was moderately associated with work-family balance and resilience. The disengagement factor was moderately related to creative problem-solving capacity. Conclusions: MOLBI demonstrates appropriate psychometric characteristics and can be reliably used for the assessment of global burnout (with the total score) and disengagement. Therefore, it fits the dimensional perspective of mental health problems. Considering the construct and divergent validity analysis, exhaustion and global burnout show a similar correlation pattern, while disengagement measures the motivational and behavioral aspects of the phenomenon.

Elméleti háttér: A kiégés kutatása széleskörű érdeklődésre tart számot a mentális- és egészségtudományokban. A kutatásban új irányt képvisel a kiégés Követelmény-Erőforrás Modellje, amely a fogalom legnépszerűbb modelljéhez, a Multidimenzionális modellhez hasonlóan szervezeti keretbe ágyazza a kiégés jelenségét. Cél: Tanulmányunk célja a kiégés Követelmény-Erőforrás Modelljéhez mérőeszközként illeszkedő Mini Oldenburg Kiégés Kérdőív (MOLBI) pszichometriai elemzése. Munkánk kiemelten vizsgálja a multidimenzionális teória egyik alapvető állítását, miszerint a kiégés dimenziók egymástól függetlenek és nem alkotnak egy globális kiégés faktort. Módszer: A vizsgálatban 406 fő vett részt (59,1% nő). Átlagosan 39,4 (SD = 11,06) évesek és legtöbbjük felsőfokú végzettségű. A résztvevők a MOLBI kérdőív mellett a Munkahely-Család Egyensúly és a Mentális Egészség Kérdőívet is kitöltötték. A MOLBI struktúrájának elemzésére parallel analízist és feltáró faktoranalízist alkalmaztunk. A globális és specifikus faktorok létjogosultságának elemzésére bifaktor elemzést és modellfüggő megbízhatósági vizsgálatokat végeztünk. A MOLBI kapcsolatrendszerét Kendall tau-b korrelációval elemeztük. Eredmények: Eredményeink azt mutatták, hogy a kérdőív kétfaktoros eredeti faktorstruktúrája megerősíthető (χ2 = 78,489, DF = 26, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,977; NNFI = 0,960; RMSEA = 0,068 ; RMSEA CI90:0,066-0,070). A dimenziók megfelelő reliabilitás értékekkel rendelkeztek. Emellett a bifaktor elemzés eredményei szerint a kérdőív két faktorának összege - a teljes kiégés dimenzió - is megfelelő magyarázó erővel bírt. A kiégés kimerülés faktora elsősorban a munka-család egyensúllyal, valamint a rezilienciával mutatott közepes erősségű kapcsolatot. Következtetések: A MOLBI megfelelő pszichometriai paraméterekkel rendelkező mérőeszköz, amelynek alkalmazásával mind a teljes kiégés, mind a kiábrándultság megbízhatóan mérhető. Ezáltal jól illeszkedik a klinikai diagnosztikában jelenleg uralkodó dimenzionális szemlélethez. A vizsgálatban használt konstruktum és divergens validitás elemzését figyelembe véve, a kimerültség és a teljes kiégés hasonló korrelációs mintázatot mutat, a kiábrándultság viszont a jelenség motivációs és cselekvéses aspektusát méri.

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Prior research has evaluated the effects of acute exercise on episodic memory function. These studies have, on occasion, demonstrated that acute exercise may enhance both short- and long-term memory. It is uncertain as to whether the acute exercise improvements in long-term memory are a result of acute exercise attenuating declines in long-term memory, or rather, are driven by the enhancement effects of acute exercise on short-term memory. The present empirical study evaluates whether the decline from short- to long-term is influenced by acute exercise. This relationship is plausible as exercise has been shown to activate neurophysiological pathways (e.g., RAC1) that are involved in the mechanisms of forgetting.


To evaluate the effects of acute exercise on forgetting, we used data from 12 of our laboratory's prior experiments (N = 538). Across these 12 experiments, acute exercise ranged from 10 to 15 mins in duration (moderate-to-vigorous intensity). Episodic memory was assessed from word-list or paragraph-based assessments. Short-term memory was assessed immediately after encoding, with long-term memory assessed approximately 20-min later. Forgetting was calculated as the difference in short- and long-term memory performance.


Acute exercise (vs. seated control) was not associated with an attenuated forgetting effect (d = 0.10; 95% CI: −0.04, 0.25, P = 0.17). We observed no evidence of a significant moderation effect (Q = 6.16, df = 17, P = 0.17, I 2 = 0.00) for any of the evaluated parameters, including study design, exercise intensity and delay period.


Across our 12 experimental studies, acute exercise was not associated with an attenuated forgetting effect. We discuss these implications for future research that evaluates the effects of acute exercise on long-term memory function.

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