The main goal of this paper is to analyze, depict, and characterize the semantic construction of the latest novel Przewóz [The Carriage] (2021) written by one of the most significant contemporary Polish writers Andrzej Stasiuk. A key way of organizing Stasiuk’s novel is juxtaposing semantically distant wholes, which creates strong tensions not only at the level of language but above all at the level of meaning. Categories of different meaning interpenetrate in the novel, creating a conglomerate of new meanings, showing the fractures of the world described by the novelist, the incoherence of a reality infected by war.
Such construction of the novel, based on contrasts and the tensions resulting from their occurrence, allows Stasiuk to reflect the tragedy of wartime experience. War is a catalyst that makes us aware of the uncertain anchoring of concepts and categories, hitherto considered unchanging and permanent, it allows us to capture the illusory nature of human beliefs, the incoherence of human actions, and the naivety of human recognition. The marginal comes to the fore, becoming a model of the world under a microscope, a theatre of history, revealing the nakedness of human existence. Such basic and key concepts as strength, courage, beauty, sacrifice, patriotism, culture, universality, boundary, and truth are questioned.
Stasiuk’s ontology is based upon a constant play of tensions between particular categories that make up reality. Nonetheless, the writer does not propose a coherent, unambiguous assessment of reality but rather draws attention to its complexity, impossibility of complete cognition, elusiveness, and delusion. These tensions, so pronounced in Stasiuk’s novel, reveal the illusory nature of the concepts in which a human is immersed, and at the same time, as one of the fundamental elements determining the artistic value of artwork, they are expected to lead to a catharsis, to a release of emotions, they also help to understand better the situation into which a person is thrown at the border moments. Thus, works designed in this way – as cleansing and releasing, and saturated with tension and contrasts – become, as it were, automatically universal, going far beyond transient vogues.
The goal of the paper is also to focus on these aspects of Stasiuk’s novel, to demonstrate how war as a border situation can lead to a relativization of concepts, how it can introduce confusion and chaos into a well-established, as it would seem, axiological system, which the writer demonstrates precisely by creating clear tensions. In his novel, Stasiuk does not offer a zero-one vision of the world, tensions are not created mechanically, and the writer uses contrasts and paradox, but what is really important for him are halftones, ambiguities, multivocalities, and a smooth transition in between categories. This is what sets Stasiuk’s world in motion.
Ethologists have observed that some animals use organised violence against members of their own species. Some well-known scholars call this form of animal aggression war, deliberately omitting the quotation marks. And how was it in antiquity? Was war believed to be part of the animal world? The aim of the presented article is to analyse the ancient written sources in search of correlations between the notion of war and animals, and to determine what conceptual assumptions lie at the heart of this correlation. In light of the preserved records, it seems that the conviction about the existence of an inherent correlation between war and the animal world emerged slowly; that is, basic military terms (polemos, machē, etc.) were used with respect to animals reluctantly in the beginning and rather metaphorically, but gained popularity over time. Even though animals appear in the military context beginning from Homer's Iliad, Aristotle was most probably the first one to explicitly formulate a thesis about the presence of war (polemos) in the animal world. Aristotle's concept of war comes down to a series of duels fought between animals. It seems that what made it easier for Aristotle to transfer the notion of a battle (machē) from the human world to the animal world was the Greek tendency to present duels between soldiers as being equivalent to a clash between two armies.
Authors:M. Grall-Bronnec, C. Victorri-Vigneau, T. Rouaud, A. Verholleman, B. Schreck, J. Leboucher, E. Thiabaud, F. Feuillet, M. Roy, J.B. Hardouin, M. Guillou-Landreat, P. Derkinderen, and G. Challet-Bouju
Background and aims
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. First-line medications consist of drugs that act by counteracting dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, iatrogenic impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) can occur in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. ICBs must be considered multifactorial disorders that reflect the interactions of the medication with an individual's vulnerability and the underlying neurobiology of PD. We aimed to explore the predictive genetic, psychopathological and neurological factors involved in the development of ICBs in PD patients by building a complete model of individual vulnerability.
The PARKADD study was a case/non-case study. A total of 225 patients were enrolled (“ICB” group, N =75; “no ICB” group, N =150), and 163 agreed to provide saliva samples for genetic analysis. Sociodemographic, neurological and psychiatric characteristics were assessed, and genotyping for the characterization of polymorphisms related to dopaminergic and opioid systems was performed.
Factors associated with “ICBs” were younger age of PD onset, personal history of ICB prior to PD onset and higher scores on the urgency and sensation seeking facets of impulsivity. No gene variant was significantly associated, but the association with the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) rs1799971 polymorphism was close to significance.
Discussion and conclusions
The influence of gene-environment interactions probably exists, and additional studies are needed to decipher the possible role of the opioid system in the development of ICBs in PD patients.
This paper investigates the (hybrid) agreement patterns with collective and military rank nouns in Jordanian Arabic, both inside and outside the determiner phrase (DP). It will be argued that the number, unit (group), and feminization features are hosted on functional heads merged in various positions in the course of the syntactic derivation of the DP, and that agreement is determined on the basis of the Merge sites of those functional projections. More particularly, it will be shown that the heads Num(ber) and Unit may be situated higher or lower within the DP, and that each head controls agreement on the adnominals above it via feature sharing prior to movement, consequently producing different patterns of number agreement inside the DP, which in turn feeds DP-external agreement. The feminizing head, by comparison, is optionally merged, but when it is present, mixed gender agreement arises, depending on its Merge position. Finally, it will be shown that the above assumptions are substantiated by empirical data from Jordanian Arabic as well as from other languages.
In this study, we propose a simple, cost-effective, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with both detection techniques such as diode-array detection and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD) for the determination of nesfatin-1 in fetal bovine serum samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for nesfatin-1 were set at satisfactory values in the range 0.22–0.35 mg mL−1 and in the range 0.67–1.05 mg mL−1, respectively (at two different wavelengths (DAD) and at four different wavelengths (FLD)). Analyte concentrations were determined as the average value from fetal bovine serum matrix samples. The preliminary results show that the SPE procedure on Isolute Si-TsOH (SCX-3) could be used for further nesfatin-1 analyses in human serum samples. Both the SPE technique, chromatographic analysis with gradient elution mode and detection technique are fast and convenient.
Authors:M. Reyzov, M. Eftimov, S. Gancheva, M. Todorova, M. Zhelyazkova-Savova, M. Tzaneva, and S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on glucose tolerance, triglyceride levels, and adipose tissue in rats with MS induced by high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Fifty rats were allocated in 5 groups: control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5, and MS+AMFJ10. In the course of 10 weeks, the control group was on a regular rat diet while the other groups received HFHF diet. During the experiment, control and MS groups were treated daily orally with distilled water (10.0 mL kg−1) and the other three groups – with AMFJ at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mL kg−1, respectively. In MS rats, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, visceral obesity, and increased adipocyte size were observed. In AMFJ-treated groups, the serum glucose and triglycerides, as well as visceral fat and adipocyte size decreased significantly and did not differ from those of the control group. AMFJ at doses 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg−1 showed an anti-apoptotic activity in adipocytes, while at the dose of 10 mL kg−1 a pro-apoptotic effect was detected. In conclusion, AMFJ could antagonise most of the negative consequences of HFHF diet on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat MS model.
Authors:Céline Bonnaire, Gaëtan Devos, Servane Barrault, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Olivier Luminet, and Joël Billieux
Background and aims
Blaszczynski and Nower (2002) conceptualized their Pathways Model by postulating the existence of three subtypes of problem gamblers who share common characteristics, but also present specific ones.
This study investigated how the psychological mechanisms postulated in the Pathways Model predict clinical status in a sample that combined treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 59) and non-problematic community gamblers (n = 107). To test the Pathways Model, we computed a hierarchic logistic regression in which variables associated with each postulated pathway were entered sequentially to predict the status of the treatment-seeking gambler. Self-report questionnaires measured gambling-related cognitions, alexithymia, emotional reactivity, emotion regulation strategies and impulsivity. Behavioural tasks measured gambling persistence (slot machine task), decision-making under uncertainty (Iowa Gambling Task) and decision-making under risk (Game of Dice Task).
We showed that specific factors theorized as underlying mechanisms for each pathway predicted the status of clinical gambler. For each pathway, significant predictors included gambling-related cognitive distortions and behaviourally measured gambling persistence (behaviourally conditioned pathway), emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategies (emotionally vulnerable pathway), and lack of premeditation impulsivity facet (impulsivist-antisocial pathway).
Discussion and conclusions
Our study adds to the body of literature confirming the validity of the Pathways Model and hold important implications in terms of assessment and treatment of problem gambling. In particular, a standardized assessment based on the Pathways Model should promote individualized treatment strategies to allow clinicians to take into account the high heterogeneity that characterizes gambling disorder.
Authors:Zsolt Péter Szabó, Málna Benza, Edina Nikoletti, Julianna Oláh, and Mirtyll Miasnikov Gréti
Háttér és célkitűzések
Tanulmányunkban a magyar nemzeti csoporthoz kapcsolódó kollektív áldozati vélekedéseket kívántuk vizsgálni egy kérdőívben szereplő nyitott kérdés segítségével. Tanulmányunk három fő kérdése: (1) Milyen kollektív áldozati vélekedések jelennek meg a csoporttagok körében? (2) Milyen kapcsolat van az egyes vélekedések között? (3) Mennyire fontos a csoporttagok számára a csoport történelmi áldozattá válása?
A vizsgálat egy nagyobb kérdőíves kutatás keretében zajlott. Ennek során 933 fő töltötte ki az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kérdőívet. A kérdőív kitöltését követően egy nyitott kérdést tettünk fel, amelyre 139 fő válaszolt. A kapott válaszokra egy kódrendszert dolgoztunk ki.
Kutatásunk számos kérdésben alátámasztotta a szakirodalom korábbi megállapításait, ugyanakkor a választott módszer segítségével új eredményeket is kaptunk. A magyar csoport történelmi viktimizációjának a jelentősége vitatott, az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések közül elsősorban az inkluzív vélekedések jelentek meg, jellemzően nem társulnak okok és tanulságok az áldozattá váláshoz.
A kollektív viktimizáció szakirodalmában nagy jelentőséggel bíró összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kevésbé jelentek meg a magyar kontextusban, a legtöbb vizsgálati személy a kollektív áldozati tudat személyes fontosságára vs. annak hiányára reflektált.