Franciscus Filelfus (Tolentino 1398 – Florenz 1481) is the author of the largest Humanistic correspondence in Latin and Greek. He is also a relevant source for the intellectual and political history of his times. In the 1420s, he gained a full knowledge of Greek in Constantinople, where he was integrated into Byzantine élite. In particular, the joint emperor John VIII Palaiologos appointed him as his personal secretary. On behalf of John, Filelfo attended in 1423 the international congress in Buda, where he met personally with the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and other European leaders. In his Letters to Roman popes, kings and princes, the Italian humanist proposed himself as alter Nestor, the best man to give his advice on the war against the Turks in Central and South-Eastern Europe. He is particularly interested in Hungarian history. At this respect, he mentions the most important events relating to Hungarian resistance against the Ottoman empire such as the defence of Belgrade (Nándorfehérvár) in 1456. Therefore, he praises the exploits and military successes against the Turks pursued by the regent John Hunyadi and his son, King Matthias Corvinus who is remarkably worthy of admiration. Both are praised as defensores Christianitatis. Therefore, Filelfo assigns to Hungary and Hungarian people the leading role in the crusade against the Ottomans.
The research is dedicated to determine one of the most important mechanical properties which is the Young's modulus. Its value is crucial for clearly explaining and understanding the results of any mechanical loading experiment. Three cylindrical samples of 15 mm height and 7.5 mm diameter were designed using SpaceClaim application in the ANSYS Software and then 3D printed using Direct Metal Laser Sintering via EOS M 290 3D printer. The specimens were then tested under compression in order to determine the value of the Young's modulus for titanium alloy of grade 23 (Ti, Al, V, O, N, C, H, Fe, Y). The finite element method was executed using ANSYS mechanical to run a comparison between laboratory results with nominal results of the Young's modulus. Young's modulus value is affected by the 3D printing accuracy and quality, the material's quality as well; however, the deviation is within 10%.
The research aim was to evaluate the Portuguese honey consumers’ profile, their attitudes, perceptions, and trends towards the product, production, and consumption, to allow the development of marketing strategies. With this purpose, a questionnaire was developed in accordance with the Ajzen's Planned Behaviour Theory and was then completed by 784 interviewees to retrieve quantitative and qualitative data. These included demographic, consumption pattern, and behavioural pattern variables collected in a Likert scale. Spearman correlations were performed between ordinal and continuous variables, and chi-squared tests of independency applied to contingency tables between nominal variables. A positive correlation was found between age and frequency of purchasing. Men consume honey more frequently than women. Portuguese honey has a good reputation, and it is preferred in relation to imported honey. The Portuguese consumer is not completely aware of the different floral characteristics of honey, other hive products, and positive externalities associated with beekeeping. By filling the marketing gap identified, production and consumption of honey could be increased in Portugal. Marketing campaigns promoting the health benefits of honey and other hive products, as well as the externalities of beekeeping may be advantageous.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) has originated, spread extensively, and become a prominent source of bacterial infections in both human and animal.
We report the prevalence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from dogs and cats with eye discharges.
A total of 12 (6.0%) coagulase-positives staphylococci were identified as (6/200, 3%) S. aureus and (6/200, 3%) S. pseudintermedius. The phenotypic methicillin resistance of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius were 50.0% (3/6) and 16.7% (1/6), respectively. None of the isolates showed biofilm formation in the microtiter plate assay. The highest resistance (50.0%) for S. pseudintermedius strains was detected against clindamycin and tetracycline. 67.0% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin-G. The PCR analysis conducted for detection of mecA gene indicated that only one S. aureus isolated from a cat was mecA gene positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) showed that all strains were typable and generated PCR products ranging from 800 bp to 4,400 bp. The lineages ST241 and the novel ST2361 in multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis were detected in one methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius and methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius of dogs, respectively. In addition, the lineages ST4155 and ST7217 of two methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains of cats were connected epidemiologically to previously reported cases.
These results indicate epidemiologically related strains (ST241, ST4155, and ST7217) transferring between animals and humans. Therefore, the strategies to combat the widespread MRS should be based on collaboration between human and veterinary medicine under the One Health concept.
Hands of healthcare workers play essential role in the spreading of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in and out of the healthcare settings. Less is known about the role of laboratory workers (LWs). The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of biofilm-forming staphylococci on the surface of jewelry rings of LWs and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.
A total of 79 LWs from eight different microbiology laboratories that process and analyze specimens from the tertiary care hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia participated in the study. The study was reviewed and approved by the institutional review boards at hospitals. Samples were taken after hand washing. Bacteria on LWs wedding rings were detected with the rolling method, and further analyzed in order to determine the number of colony forming unit (CFU) per ring, species of bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, methicillin resistance and biofilm-producing capacity in vitro.
Staphylococci were recovered from 60.8% of wedding rings. All strains produced biofilm (25% weak, 56.2% moderate and 18.8% large amount), with significant difference between species (P < 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis formed the largest amount of biofilm and had the largest number of CFU per ring. Staphylococci were most commonly resistant to penicillin (66.7%), tetracycline (50.0%), and erythromycin (45.8%); 41.7% of isolates was multidrug resistant and mecA gene was detected in five strains. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline.
Staphylococci colonize LWs wedding rings, form biofilm on it, have multidrug resistant phenotype and/or carry mecA gene, representing a significant reservoir for the spreading of microorganisms and resistance. As far as we know, our study is the first that address this topic in laboratory workers.
It is well understood that engagement with some forms of gambling, like EGMs, is riskier than other forms. However, while reports of associations are common, few studies have attempted to evaluate and compare the relative risk of all available forms, and none have estimated the relative contribution of each form to the total burden of gambling problems (GP) in a population.
Using an aggregated dataset of national and state-based prevalence studies in Australia (N = 71,103), we estimated prevalence and unique effects of frequency of engagement on each form on GP. Two alternative numerical methods were then applied to infer the relative contribution of each form to the total amount of GP.
EGMs are responsible for 51%–57% of gambling problems in Australia, and 90% of gambling problems are attributable to EGMs, casino, race, and sports betting. Casino table games and EGMs are equally risky at the individual level, but the former contribute far less to problems due to low participation. Bingo and lottery play show no statistically detectable risk for GP.
Discussion and conclusion
The results illustrate which forms present the greatest population burden and illuminate the reasons why. EGMs have an outsized impact. EGM uniquely combines high risk conditional on play, with a high participation rate and a high frequency of play among participants. This is in contrast to risky but less commonly played casino games, and prevalent but non-risky forms like lotteries. We conclude that EGM regulation should be a primary focus of policy action in Australia. More innovative policy ideas relating to EGMs should be tested due to the disproportionate impact of this product type.
Reducing sugars are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly by means of the glycation reaction. The hydroxyl radical, a prominent entity of ROS, is known to alter cellular DNA and induces damage to DNA, and plays a role in diseases such as diabetes mellitus. In this study, the oxidative damage of DNA induced by the lysine/Fe3+/MG reaction was investigated. Silybum marianum seeds extract (SlyE), standard silymarin (Sly), and vitamin B6 derivatives, pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine (PM), and pyridoxine (P) in reversing glycation-induced damage in DNA were evaluated. In addition, different sugars and sugar phosphates were incubated with plasmid pBR 322 DNA to control and compare their harmful effects. Our results revealed that SlyE protected lysine/Fe3+/MG induced oxidative DNA damage more effectively than Sly. Vitamins, on the other hand, prevented this DNA damage in the order of PLP>P>PM. The DNA altering and damaging intensity of sugars and sugar phosphates tested increased considerably in the following order: Ribose-5-phosphate > fructose-6-phosphate > ribose > fructose > fructose-1,6 biphosphate > glucose-6 phosphate > glucose. The results show that the lysine/Fe3+/MG glycation reaction can cause oxidative damage of DNA through a mechanism involving hydroxyl radicals. It also provides evidence that ribose-5-phosphate and fructose and its phosphate metabolites can alter DNA more rapidly in vitro than glucose and its phosphate metabolites.
In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify bacteria from environmental matrices. The aim of this work was to determine the efficacy of this rapid technique and the bacterial community of agricultural samples. Environmental samples included the collection of irrigation waters and manures, and bacteria from the surface of vegetables were also investigated. From food safety point of view, the investigation of these microbial communities is inevitable considering their potential hazardous impact on the food production chain. Altogether 235 bacterial isolates were identified with the most frequent genera being Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Aeromonas. Our results indicated that MALDI-TOF MS can be used to identify causative agents of foodborne illnesses, food spoilage and common plant pathogens. However, limitations of the rapid identification technique were also encountered as we obtained correct identification at species level for 30.2% and at genus level for 69.8% of the isolates.
In this work we contend that studying dance syntax systematically is essential to gain a deeper understanding of dance practices. The reason is that syntax has to do with an essential aspect of dance, music and action in general, namely possibility. To the best of our knowledge, the efforts towards a systematic method to study dance syntax are scarce. Therefore, this work proposes the method of Finite-State Automata, borrowed from computer science, and presents three case studies of progressive complexity were the method is applied: (1) learning the basics of salsa, (2) diachronically comparing hip-pushing action in Afro-Ecuadorian Bomba del Chota, and (3) characterizing improvisation in Afro-Peruvian zapateo. While the first case is didactic and introduces the method progressively, the second and third cases are based on several years of fieldwork conducted by the authors with the Afro-Ecuadorian and Afro-Peruvian communities. The precondition for the application of the method we propose is structural analysis itself; that is, that the dance can be analyzed into small movement units that are combined progressively into more complex units. In regards to syntax, however, structural analysis is only the first step. The goal is a synthesis that brings forward the possibilities that arise from structural analysis; that is, the possibilities that are available to dancers and agents in a dance event. We trust that the approach to syntax this work presents will stimulate a renewed interest for researchers in dance, music and movement in general.
The two chemical components Escitalopram (ESC) and Etizolam (ETZ) are beneficial for the health of individuals because it helps to treat anxiety. The study mainly illustrated that a green approach is essential in the medical sector with the help of “Green Analytical quality by design”. According to AQbD, the techniques of HPTLC have become eco-friendly, and decided to use “ESC” and “ETZ”. Hence, ethanol and phosphate buffer pH 3.5 adjusted with 1% “orthophosphoric acid”. After the retardation factor, the product ESC was found at 0.34 min and ETZ was found at 0.53 min. The linearity of ETZ the range varies from 300 to 1800 μg mL−1 and for ESC it varies from 100 to 600 μg mL−1. The validation parameter of R2 Values ranged from 0.9997 to 0.9994 for both ESC and ETZ. The study also demonstrated that different other methods were also useful for the medical sector to make it more convenient and eco-friendly. Some of those approaches are “GAPI”, “AGMS”, “NEMI”, and “AGREE”. The outcome of the study helped to find that the technique “HPTLC” is a green analytic design that helps to maintain the stability of the medicine and it was also approved as a quality design and also a novel approach in the pharmaceutical sector.