Accurate identification of Mitis group streptococci especially Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae seems difficult due to the lack of specific and sensitive tests. We performed an approach for the identification of atypical pneumococci in pediatric Tunisian population. In this study, 49 streptococcal isolates that were considered as atypical S. pneumoniae were analyzed by: optochin susceptibility in ambient and 5% CO2 atmosphere, oxgall disk sensitivity, PCR targeting several genes and antimicrobial susceptibility.
The combined results of biochemical and molecular methods showed the presence of 23 S. pneumoniae, 7 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 19 other mitis group. Among S. pseudopneumoniae, all isolates were collected from respiratory tract samples and showed a high level of resistance to β-lactams with a MIC90 of 32 mg L−1. Two isolates of S. pseudopneumoniae showed the typical phenotype of optochin resistance described in the literature. All isolates could be identified only by molecular tests. Among Streptococcus pneumonaie, all strains harbored the lytA gene and the Spn9802 fragment. But only 14 strains were encapsulated.
This study describes several assays for the identification of atypical pneumococci in order to gain insights on the nature of isolate and raise alert about the presence of these strains in the pediatric Tunisian community.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is an increasingly common consequence of antiresorptive treatment, which often leads to the development of necrotic exposed bone surfaces with inflammatory processes affecting the jawbone. Although the development of MRONJ is often associated with the inflammatory response or infections caused by the colonizing members of the oral microbiota, the exact pathogenesis of MRONJ is still not fully understood. In the present paper, we aimed to provide additional, microbiological culture-supported evidence, supporting the “infection hypothesis” that Actinomyces spp. and related organisms may play an important pathogenic role in the development of MRONJ and the resulting bone necrosis. In our case series, all patients presented with similar underlying conditions and anamnestic data, and have received antiresorptive medications (bisphosphonates or a RANK ligand (RANKL) inhibitor) to prevent the occurrence or progression of bone metastases, secondary to prostate cancer. Nevertheless, a few years into antiresorptive drug therapy, varying stages of MRONJ was identified in the mentioned patients. In all three cases, quantitative microbiological culture of the necrotic bone samples yielded a complex microbiota, dominated by Actinomyces and Schaalia spp. with high colony counts. Additionally, our followed-up case series document the treatment of these patients with a combination of surgical intervention and long-term antibiotic therapy, where favourable clinical responses were seen is all cases. If the “infection hypothesis” is valid, it may have significant consequences in the preventative and therapeutic strategies associated with this disease.
The aim of the study was to analyse the use of digital devices among children.
A specially designed questionnaire was distributed to 249 schoolchildren to assess their use of digital devices both in school and outside school. The questionnaire was used before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The children were asked about the extent of their use of digital devices, as well as about ophthalmic and general health complaints. Their responses were assessed statistically.
Regarding age distribution, 145 children were between seven and 10 years old when they started to use digital devices. Most of the children used a digital device for between one and two hours a day. The majority preferred using smartphones. The second most popular devices were laptops and tablets, and the third most popular was the desktop computer. Fifty-six children wore glasses, 14 to correct hyperopia and 42 to correct myopia. 97 children spent between one and two hours a day outdoors; 99 children spent more than two hours outdoors; and 51 spent less than one hour outdoors. 71 children reported eye problems; 48 reported other general health problems (back and neck pain); and 43 mentioned blurred vision while using a digital device.
The use of digital devices can be regarded as general among schoolchildren, and most children use a digital device for longer than the recommended time. Excessive use of digital devices may contribute to an increase in the prevalence of myopia and other general eye and back problems.
The soaking step of dry pulse products' – e.g. chickpeas' – food processing is a time consuming process. Soaking time can be significantly reduced by ultrasonic treatment or using higher processing temperatures. The effect of ultrasonic treatment can be investigated by examining the soaking water characteristics. Ultrasound-assisted soaking of chickpeas was performed at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. Additionally, control samples were also prepared without ultrasonic treatment at the same temperatures. The dynamics of the fitted curve clearly shows the relationship namely the higher the treatment temperature, the faster the hydration of the raw material for both untreated and treated groups. In contrast to control group, swelling rate of 2.00 – except the group 45 °C – is not achieved during ultrasound-assisted soaking. In case of treated group, the swelling rate was about 1.90 for all temperatures applied. The ANOVA test shows that the color of the ultrasonically treated samples was significantly different compared to the control (F (5;12) = 207.86; P < 0.001). Average dry matter content and °Brix value were significantly higher in the ultrasound treated group compared to the control in case of all temperatures. This may indicate the destructive effect of ultrasound, which may cause more components to dissolve out of the raw material by the end of the soaking process.
Simulated gambling products, like loot boxes and social casino games, contain gambling elements, but are not classified as gambling. They are available to minors, raising concerns about a “gateway effect” into gambling. This study examined the time course of young people's engagement in simulated and monetary gambling, and associations between simulated gambling and gambling problems and harm. A necessary, although not sufficient, condition for simulated games leading to real money gambling is that simulated play must come first.
Participants were 1,026 young adults (aged 18–25 years) who played video games in the last year. They reported the age at which they first took part in seven simulated and twelve monetary gambling products, and current gambling problems and harm.
First use of loot boxes and video games with gambling content tended to precede monetary gambling. Forms where gambling is a core gameplay element, such as social casino and demonstration games, tended to follow some monetary gambling forms. Engagement in most simulated gambling products was associated with greater harm from monetary gambling.
The findings leave open the possibility of a catalyst pathway from youth engagement in loot boxes and games with gambling content to later monetary gambling, but causal psychosocial mechanisms remain unclear. However, a pathway from social casino and demonstration games to monetary gambling appears less likely, which may instead reflect containment or substitution effects. Simulated gambling disproportionately attracts youth who are vulnerable to gambling problems and harm, indicating the need for consumer protection measures.
The objective of our work was to analyze the differences between four nut pastes, which were the following: walnut, peanut, pistachio, and tahini (sesame). The process technology of them is unknown, however, all the products contain 100% nut without any additives or flavoring.
The paste samples were measured at 25 ± 0.2 °C. The apparent viscosity at a 10 1/s shear rate during flow curve recording, and the dynamic viscosity at a constant 20 1/s shear rate was determined by viscosity measurement with the use of the MCR302 modular compact rheometer. The L*a*b* color components were determined by ColorLite sph850 spectrometer, finally, the particle sizes and shapes of the samples were analyzed by the high-speed image analysis instrument QICPIC.
The apparent viscosity and the average dynamic viscosity values of the four nut pastes were significantly different from each other. Differences were found between each paste according to the L*a*b* parameters. The complex structures of the particles are detailed and measurable, whereby the lengths and diameters of the particles can reliably be determined and fine deviations between the samples are detected. The sphericity decreases slightly with increasing particle size which means that bigger particles are more irregularly shaped.
The Sonoran Desert Toad (Incilius alvarius) is the only vertebrate known to produce the powerful psychedelic, 5-MeO-DMT, which is easily-accessible form the animal's exterior glands. This paper seeks to present the biocultural (ecological and cultural) history, and conservation concerns of I. alvarius. Discovery of 5-MeO-DMT in I. alvarius was first reported in 1965 and 1967 (Erspamer et al.), and eventually led to the popular psychedelic use of this species after a pamphlet was published in 1984 (Most). Its mostly unmitigated use in for-profit spirituality, wellness, and adventurism has driven erroneous, coerced, and exploitive narratives of ancient Indigenous use – increasing: exploitation of I. alvarius, biocultural erosion, and malpractice of 5-MeO-DMT. Reconciliation of diverse needs is intellectually and financially challenging. It must be careful of approaches that are implicitly biased by a demand that extracts, appropriates, and trades in Indigenous and wellness motifs – but can be reached from the reconciliation and intersection of Indigenous and Western science and priorities. Few conservation-oriented studies and outreach elements concerning I. alvarius exist, and most have been supported by crowdfunding.
Background and goals: In our research, we examined infant observation protocols with a psychoanalytical approach made for professional training purposes. Considering their original purpose, the observations focused on mother-infant interactions, the development of the baby, and the experiences by the observer, however, we were looking for the answer to what specific experiences this information is fed from, and what sociophysical aspects of these can be seen in action. We were, therefore, curious to see whether, even though this was not the goal, environmental psychological/socio-physical factors appeared in the aspects of the observation and, if so, how they were articulated. Method: Students participating in the Ego Clinic's method-specific child therapist training provided data for the research as observers. We performed an analysis of ten protocols containing the notes of weekly infant observations made between 2006 and 2016 for one to one and a half years. The qualitative research was conducted with content analysis, using the Grounded Theory (GT) method developed by Corbin and Strauss (2015). Results: According to our content analysis, three important key categories emerged, which displayed the socio-physical aspect of the observations, these bear the category names “movement in space”, “experience of place” and “cover-ups”. In addition, categories with a non-directly sociophysical aspect emerged (called “imprints of the past”, “emotions”, and “adaptations”), which can be interpreted as an important contextual background. Conclusions: Our research revealed that the environmental psychological socio-physical context, as an unconscious but still strongly present factor, lies in the background of the phenomena to be observed, even though the observation task did not include the observation of physical aspects. The socio-physical factors clearly outlined in the records presumably influenced the observer's thoughts and methods of interpretation and seem to have served as an important source of information, in many cases as the cornerstones of their interpretation framework. This feature also raises the possibility that the study of socio-physical environmental conditions can be included in the analysis of observation records.
In this study, two different ethanol-based RP-HPLC methods for assay and quantification of rivaroxaban related substances in tablets were developed, based on green analytical chemistry (GAC) principles, using the design of experiments approach. The chromatographic separation was performed on X-Bridge C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size), using isocratic elution with ethanol : water (35:65, % v/v) for the assay and gradient elution with ethanol/water mobile phase, for related substances, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The gradient method was optimized for the separation of three specified impurities (impurity G, impurity H, and impurity 14) and the selectivity was further confirmed using forced degradation studies. Both methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines. The robustness of the methods was confirmed with the Central Composite Face Design of Experiments. Analytical Eco-scale approach and AGREE metrics confirmed that both methods are in accordance with the GAC principles. The proposed ethanol-based RP-HPLC methods were applied for assay and determination of related substances in rivaroxaban 10 mg tablets obtained from three different manufacturers available on the Macedonian market.
With growing attention to health and lifestyle changes, functional foods have become crucial and in demand. These foods are a rich source of probiotics and prebiotics, but most probiotic products are dairy-based, making them inappropriate for people with lactose intolerance or milk protein allergies. Nevertheless, egg white offers a viable substitute and is considered one of the best sources of functional proteins. As an alternative food matrix, they come highly recommended for those who are hypersensitive to dairy products or who follow a high-protein diet, such as athletes. In this context, egg-white drink with different carbohydrate sources, including monosaccharide (fructose) and oligosaccharide (fructooligosaccharide), was fermented by Lacticaseibacillus casei 01. After 24 h of fermentation, the total cell count was higher than 8 log10 CFU mL−1 thus, the egg white drink was suitable for L. casei 01 to grow. Additionally, the survival of L.casei 01, the pH value, and the rheological properties of fermented beverages within three weeks of refrigerated storage were also investigated. Throughout the storage period, the control samples exhibited considerably lower cell count and higher pH values compared to the samples with carbohydrate sources, also, samples containing the same carbohydrate source showed no noticeable changes. Viscosity measurements of the studied samples showed a shear thickening behaviour during the time.