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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: M. Grall-Bronnec, C. Victorri-Vigneau, T. Rouaud, A. Verholleman, B. Schreck, J. Leboucher, E. Thiabaud, F. Feuillet, M. Roy, J.B. Hardouin, M. Guillou-Landreat, P. Derkinderen, and G. Challet-Bouju

Abstract

Background and aims

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases. First-line medications consist of drugs that act by counteracting dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia. Unfortunately, iatrogenic impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) can occur in up to 20% of PD patients over the course of their illness. ICBs must be considered multifactorial disorders that reflect the interactions of the medication with an individual's vulnerability and the underlying neurobiology of PD. We aimed to explore the predictive genetic, psychopathological and neurological factors involved in the development of ICBs in PD patients by building a complete model of individual vulnerability.

Methods

The PARKADD study was a case/non-case study. A total of 225 patients were enrolled (“ICB” group, N =75; “no ICB” group, N =150), and 163 agreed to provide saliva samples for genetic analysis. Sociodemographic, neurological and psychiatric characteristics were assessed, and genotyping for the characterization of polymorphisms related to dopaminergic and opioid systems was performed.

Results

Factors associated with “ICBs” were younger age of PD onset, personal history of ICB prior to PD onset and higher scores on the urgency and sensation seeking facets of impulsivity. No gene variant was significantly associated, but the association with the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) rs1799971 polymorphism was close to significance.

Discussion and conclusions

The influence of gene-environment interactions probably exists, and additional studies are needed to decipher the possible role of the opioid system in the development of ICBs in PD patients.

Open access

Abstract

This paper investigates the (hybrid) agreement patterns with collective and military rank nouns in Jordanian Arabic, both inside and outside the determiner phrase (DP). It will be argued that the number, unit (group), and feminization features are hosted on functional heads merged in various positions in the course of the syntactic derivation of the DP, and that agreement is determined on the basis of the Merge sites of those functional projections. More particularly, it will be shown that the heads Num(ber) and Unit may be situated higher or lower within the DP, and that each head controls agreement on the adnominals above it via feature sharing prior to movement, consequently producing different patterns of number agreement inside the DP, which in turn feeds DP-external agreement. The feminizing head, by comparison, is optionally merged, but when it is present, mixed gender agreement arises, depending on its Merge position. Finally, it will be shown that the above assumptions are substantiated by empirical data from Jordanian Arabic as well as from other languages.

Full access

Abstract

In this study, we propose a simple, cost-effective, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with both detection techniques such as diode-array detection and fluorescence detection (HPLC-DAD-FLD) for the determination of nesfatin-1 in fetal bovine serum samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for nesfatin-1 were set at satisfactory values in the range 0.22–0.35 mg mL−1 and in the range 0.67–1.05 mg mL−1, respectively (at two different wavelengths (DAD) and at four different wavelengths (FLD)). Analyte concentrations were determined as the average value from fetal bovine serum matrix samples. The preliminary results show that the SPE procedure on Isolute Si-TsOH (SCX-3) could be used for further nesfatin-1 analyses in human serum samples. Both the SPE technique, chromatographic analysis with gradient elution mode and detection technique are fast and convenient.

Open access

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) on glucose tolerance, triglyceride levels, and adipose tissue in rats with MS induced by high-fat high-fructose (HFHF) diet. Fifty rats were allocated in 5 groups: control, MS, MS+AMFJ2.5, MS+AMFJ5, and MS+AMFJ10. In the course of 10 weeks, the control group was on a regular rat diet while the other groups received HFHF diet. During the experiment, control and MS groups were treated daily orally with distilled water (10.0 mL kg−1) and the other three groups – with AMFJ at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mL kg−1, respectively. In MS rats, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, visceral obesity, and increased adipocyte size were observed. In AMFJ-treated groups, the serum glucose and triglycerides, as well as visceral fat and adipocyte size decreased significantly and did not differ from those of the control group. AMFJ at doses 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg−1 showed an anti-apoptotic activity in adipocytes, while at the dose of 10 mL kg−1 a pro-apoptotic effect was detected. In conclusion, AMFJ could antagonise most of the negative consequences of HFHF diet on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat MS model.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Blaszczynski and Nower (2002) conceptualized their Pathways Model by postulating the existence of three subtypes of problem gamblers who share common characteristics, but also present specific ones.

Methods

This study investigated how the psychological mechanisms postulated in the Pathways Model predict clinical status in a sample that combined treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 59) and non-problematic community gamblers (n = 107). To test the Pathways Model, we computed a hierarchic logistic regression in which variables associated with each postulated pathway were entered sequentially to predict the status of the treatment-seeking gambler. Self-report questionnaires measured gambling-related cognitions, alexithymia, emotional reactivity, emotion regulation strategies and impulsivity. Behavioural tasks measured gambling persistence (slot machine task), decision-making under uncertainty (Iowa Gambling Task) and decision-making under risk (Game of Dice Task).

Results

We showed that specific factors theorized as underlying mechanisms for each pathway predicted the status of clinical gambler. For each pathway, significant predictors included gambling-related cognitive distortions and behaviourally measured gambling persistence (behaviourally conditioned pathway), emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategies (emotionally vulnerable pathway), and lack of premeditation impulsivity facet (impulsivist-antisocial pathway).

Discussion and conclusions

Our study adds to the body of literature confirming the validity of the Pathways Model and hold important implications in terms of assessment and treatment of problem gambling. In particular, a standardized assessment based on the Pathways Model should promote individualized treatment strategies to allow clinicians to take into account the high heterogeneity that characterizes gambling disorder.

Open access

„Nem tudom mi kárpótolhatná a magyar nemzet lelkét a 20. századért” – a magyar nemzeti csoporthoz kapcsolódó kollektív áldozati vélekedések vizsgálata

“Nothing could compensate the Hungarian nation's soul for the 20th century” – An investigation of the collective victim beliefs in the Hungarian context

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: Zsolt Péter Szabó, Málna Benza, Edina Nikoletti, Julianna Oláh, and Mirtyll Miasnikov Gréti

Háttér és célkitűzések

Tanulmányunkban a magyar nemzeti csoporthoz kapcsolódó kollektív áldozati vélekedéseket kívántuk vizsgálni egy kérdőívben szereplő nyitott kérdés segítségével. Tanulmányunk három fő kérdése: (1) Milyen kollektív áldozati vélekedések jelennek meg a csoporttagok körében? (2) Milyen kapcsolat van az egyes vélekedések között? (3) Mennyire fontos a csoporttagok számára a csoport történelmi áldozattá válása?

Módszer

A vizsgálat egy nagyobb kérdőíves kutatás keretében zajlott. Ennek során 933 fő töltötte ki az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kérdőívet. A kérdőív kitöltését követően egy nyitott kérdést tettünk fel, amelyre 139 fő válaszolt. A kapott válaszokra egy kódrendszert dolgoztunk ki.

Eredmények

Kutatásunk számos kérdésben alátámasztotta a szakirodalom korábbi megállapításait, ugyanakkor a választott módszer segítségével új eredményeket is kaptunk. A magyar csoport történelmi viktimizációjának a jelentősége vitatott, az összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések közül elsősorban az inkluzív vélekedések jelentek meg, jellemzően nem társulnak okok és tanulságok az áldozattá váláshoz.

Következtetések

A kollektív viktimizáció szakirodalmában nagy jelentőséggel bíró összehasonlító kollektív áldozati vélekedések kevésbé jelentek meg a magyar kontextusban, a legtöbb vizsgálati személy a kollektív áldozati tudat személyes fontosságára vs. annak hiányára reflektált.

Open access

Abstract

This study aims to select the suitable density of the material according to the mechanical properties needed by the 3D-printing application in which it will be used. 3D-printed carbon fiber filaments with different printing densities have been tensile, and a fatigue test was experimented with to find the mechanical properties. Furthermore, the modulus of elasticity, yield stress, and ultimate tensile strength of the material was determined by analyzing the stress-strain curves. The result shows that the parts printed with a high infill density give better mechanical properties, more time to build the object, more strength, and heavier weight than those printed with low infill density.

Full access

Abstract

Accessibility is known as the ease of reaching destinations. The accessibility is determined by the spatial distribution of potential destinations, and the magnitude, quality, and character of the activities found there. However, modernization and the fast expansion of urban development transform cities' local cultural life from walkable accessible places to just car places. This has encroached into every corner of our urban environment today. In addition, the available services and systems to manage the pedestrian movement in the historic core are inadequate and inefficient, posing risks to both the traffic and the pedestrians. That affects the walkability for cities gradually. Hence, this paper aims to explore the main physical elements that contribute toward accessibility under three main categories (pedestrians, vehicles and public transport) as one of the walkability characters in Salt City in Jordan. Historical review, site analysis, and survey were the main methodology used in this study.

Open access

Abstract

Cracking in composite steel-concrete bridge decks is a common problem in civil engineering. Before, or shortly after, the bridge is subjected to live loads; various levels of cracking can appear, mostly due to plastic shrinkage and temperature effects.

This paper presents an investigation of the behavior of cracked concrete in a composite deck slab of a railway bridge supported by steel girders using the finite element method. Eurocode 4-2 proposes a few simplified methods for calculating shrinkage and cracking effects in concrete. Through the proposed methods of analysis, an analytical simulation of a continuous composite steel-concrete bridge deck is performed and some practical recommendations for analyzing beam girders of this type are given.

Open access

Abstract

Background and Aims

Little is known about individual differences in Hallucinogen Persisting Perceptual Disorder (HPPD). This study investigated visual processing style and personality across two HPPD types (HPPD I and HPPD II) and a Non-HPPD group.

Methods

An online survey was delivered to participants sourced from online HPPD and psychedelic user groups and forums (N = 117). Using one-way ANOVA, respondents were compared across four measures of individual difference. Using logistic regression, a range of visual symptoms and experiences were investigated as potential predictors of group categorisation.

Results

The HPPD I group had higher absorption and visual apophenia scores than the other groups and was predicted by higher drug use. The HPPD II group showed significantly higher trait anxiety than both other groups. Across the HPPD groups, HPPD II categorisation was also predicted by increased negative precipitating experiences, lack of prior knowledge and pre-existing anxiety diagnoses.

Conclusions

Anxiety, negative precipitating experiences and lack of prior knowledge are associated with negative experiences of persistent visual symptoms following hallucinogen use, whilst higher absorption and visual apophenia are associated with positive or neutral experiences. Together these findings indicate that differences in personality may play a role in determining an individual's experience of HPPD, highlighting the role of individual difference research in expanding knowledge around HPPD.

Open access