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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Lenke Jenei Kluch, Irén Erdei, Éva Remenyik, Éva Surányi, Ferenc Bodnár, Gabriella Emri and Andrea Szegedi

Összefoglaló. Két fiatal nőbetegnél a valproátról lamotriginre történő gyógyszerátállítás során a 3–4. héten influenzaszerű prodromalis tüneteket követően toxikus epidermalis necrolysis (TEN), más néven Lyell-szindróma alakult ki. Mindkét beteg 5 napja kezdődött bőr- és nyálkahártyatünetekkel, kiterjedt hámleválást okozó hámnekrózissal került felvételre a Debreceni Egyetem Bőrgyógyászati Klinikájának Égési Intenzív Osztályára. Multidiszciplináris szupportív terápia mellett nagy dózisú szteroid- és immunglobulin-terápiát alkalmaztunk. A 37 éves nőbetegnél 3 hét után a kórkép fatális kimenetellel végződött. A 19 éves nőbeteg tünetei 4 hét intenzív terápia után szövődményekkel gyógyultak. A TEN ritka, gyógyszer által okozott, életet veszélyeztető, késői hiperszenzitivitási reakció. Patogenezisében a gyógyszermolekula, a humán leukocytaantigén (HLA) I. osztályú molekula és a T-sejt-receptor kóros interakciója szerepel. Kezelésében a legfontosabb a kiváltó gyógyszer elhagyása, valamint az azonnal kezdett komplett szupportív terápia alkalmazása. A specifikus kezelést illetően nincsenek egységes szakmai irányelvek. A veszélyes gyógyszerek titrált bevezetése csökkentheti a kialakuló hiperszenzitivitás súlyosságát, ezenfelül a beteg szoros követése és az adverz tünetek korai felismerése javíthatja a TEN kimenetelét. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(46): 1959–1965.

Summary. After switching from valproate to lamotrigine, on the 3rd–4th weeks, two young female patients developed flu-like prodromal symptoms, followed by the development of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), also known as Lyell syndrome. Both patients were admitted to the Burn Intensive Care Unit of the Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen with skin and mucosa symptoms; extensive epithelial death and detachment started 5 days earlier. In addition to multidisciplinary supportive treatment, high-dose corticosteroid and immunoglobulin therapy were administered. In the case of the 37-year-old female patient, the disease resulted in a fatal outcome. The 19-year-old patient healed with some sequelae. TEN is a rare, life-threatening delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction caused by drugs. Its pathogenesis involves an interaction between small-molecule drug, human leukocyte antigen class I molecule and T-cell receptor. The most important treatment is immediate withdrawal of potentially causative drugs and prompt application of supportive therapy. There is no standard guidance on specific treatment. Slow dose escalation of dangerous drugs can be beneficial in avoiding severe reactions, furthermore, close patient follow-up and early detection of the possible adverse reactions contribute to a more favourable outcome of TEN. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(46): 1959–1965.

Open access

Abstract

Micro-organisms can attach to food surfaces and develop biofilms which present a concern in food and environmental safety. The main goal of the current study was to investigate the biofilm formation of six non-pathogenic Listeria strains under different stress conditions using a microplate assay. The effect of the weak biofilm-forming non-pathogenic Listeria strains on the biofilm formation of a strong biofilm-forming pathogenic Listeria strain (Listeria monocytogenes #8) was also examined. Listeria innocua CCM4030, Listeria innocua 2885 and Listeria seeligeri/welshimeri 292 showed the same patterns of biofilm formation with increasing NaCl concentrations from 0.05 to 15%, but all the other strains showed a continuously decreasing trend of OD595 in the same conditions. This study showed that in the case of non-pathogenic Listeria strains, higher concentrations of NaCl do not present a stress condition that enhances biofilm formation. Decrease in pH inhibited biofilm formation for all the non-pathogenic Listeria strains. The weak biofilm forming non-pathogenic Listeria strains (Listeria innocua 2885 and Listeria innocua CCM4030) overgrew the strong biofilm-forming Listeria strain (Listeria monocytogenes #8) during biofilm formation. This phenomenon could be beneficial and potentially be used as a novel control strategy to prevent the colonization of the pathogenic Listeria at food processing facilities such as in meat industry.

Open access

ABSTRACT

Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet is a common bean in Asia. High protein content and similar amino acid composition with soybean makes good substitutes against dependency on imported products in Asian countries. One example of a bean product is vegetable milk. Fortification is executed to create a product, which compels our diet. Many people experience low protein and mineral intake from food. Fortification of plant origin products utilizing food waste by-products, namely eggshell waste by-product, may give an opportunity on this field. Milk created using beans is processed immediately. However, physiological process (germination) is capable of increasing its nutrition quality. This research focuses on variation of germination time: 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Protein digestibility is selected as the main parameter to consider the time. Protein, and mineral content, pH, and total soluble solid content of the milk are analyzed. Germination time of 36 h establishes sprout with digestible protein of 13.36 ± 0.59 g/100 g, milk protein content of 7.21 ± 0.06 g/100 g, pH of 6.74 ± 0.17, and total soluble solid content of 19.0 brix. The addition of eggshell extracted calcium as calcium fortification is 2% w/v, which resulted in mineral content of 276 ± 0.13 mg/100 g.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ervin Albert, Rita Sipos, Szilárd Jánosi, Péter Kovács, Árpád Kenéz, Adrienn Micsinai, Zsófia Noszály and Imre Biksi

Abstract

The last surveys on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bovine milk in Hungary took place in the 2000s. To elucidate the genetic variability and to estimate the burden of the pathogen, MRSA from our strain collection and prospectively collected Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates originating from two milk hygiene laboratories were investigated. Between 2003 and 2018, 27 MRSA strains originating from 10 dairy farms were deposited and characterised. Most strains (n = 20) belonged to ST1-t127-SCCmecIV and were recovered from three unrelated farms. From other farms, variable genotypes were identified sporadically: ST22-t032-SCCmecIV from three farms; a newly described double locus variant of ST97, ST5982-t458-SCCmecIV from two farms; and ST398-t011-SCCmecIV and ST398-t011-SCCmecV from two respective farms. The prospective screening of 626 individual SA isolates originating from 42 dairy farms resulted in four (0.48 %) MRSA strains from three (7.14 %) farms. All MRSA isolates belonged to the clonal complex 398 and a novel spa-type t19251 was also identified. Most isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. The occurrence and significance of MRSA of dairy origin seems to be unchanged in the past decade in Hungary. However, the low host specificity and multiresistance of the identified genotypes calls for periodic revision on the role and distribution of the pathogen in the Hungarian dairy sector.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Mohsen Bashashati, Zohreh Mojahedi, Ali Ameghi Roudsari, Morteza Taghizadeh, Aidin Molouki, Najmeh Motamed, Fereshteh Sabouri and Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi

Abstract

Despite the use of wide-scale vaccination programmes against the H9N2 virus, enzootic outbreaks of H9N2 avian influenza (AI) have often occurred and caused serious nationwide economic losses, particularly in broiler chickens. In this study, the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of nine recent H9N2s and a common vaccine strain were fully sequenced and compared with other representative Iranian viruses. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Iranian viruses were grouped into the G1 sub-lineage with different clusters in which recent isolates (2014–2017) formed a distinct cluster compared to the vaccine group (1998–2004). All Iranian H9N2s exhibited low pathogenicity AI connecting peptide feature with an R/KSSR motif. Amino acid 226, located in the 220 loop of the receptor binding site, was leucine among the recent Iranian viruses, a characteristic of human influenza viruses. With an overall gradual increase in the genetic diversity of H9N2s, Bayesian skyline plots of Iranian HA and NA genes depicted a fluctuation and a relative stable situation, respectively. It is recommended to apply constant surveillance to assess any increase in viral human adaptation and evolutionary changes in circulating field H9N2s. Moreover, antigenic characterisation of the prevailing H9N2 viruses seems to be necessary for evaluating the possible antigenic drift from the vaccine strain.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: István Szabó, Lajos Bognár, Tamás Molnár, Imre Nemes and Ádám Bálint

Abstract

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) causes significant losses to the swine industry worldwide, which leads to launching eradication programmes. The PRRS eradication programme in Hungary is based on the territorial principle, and it is obligatory for each swine farm irrespective of the number of animals kept there. Hungary has an exceptionally large herd size in large-scale pig farms. Large fattening farms operate as all-in/all-out or continuous flow systems. The large-scale breeding herds are predominantly farrow-to-finish types. In large-scale breeding farms, PRRS eradication was carried out by the depopulation-repopulation method in 33 farms, of which 23 received state compensation, 18 farm units either finished production or changed to producing fatteners only. Two farms used the test and removal method for eradication. One farm was classified as ‘vaccinated free’. At this farm the breeding animals are vaccinated continuously but there is no vaccination of the progeny at any age, and the PRRS-free status of the farm is strictly controlled and monitored. By 31 December 2019, all pigs in five euroregions of Hungary had become free from PRRS virus, while the PRRS eradication process is still ongoing in the remaining two regions.

Open access

Abstract

Future teachers agree to meet a pupil once a week to engage in cultural, social and educational activities within the framework of two mentoring projects conducted at the University of Kassel. The students are supported at the University by an educational science seminar and by professional supervision (Garlichs et al., 2000; Heinzel et al., 2007). At the end of the project the students write a case study. Since 2015 these projects are part of PRONET, a government-funded bundle of various projects in the field of educational research, located at the University of Kassel, which are part of the nation-wide research initiative “Qualitätsoffensive Lehrerbildung”. This initiative aims at the improvement of teachers' education regarding inclusion by continuous evaluation of the projects. The mentoring projects promote students' inclusive attitude by stimulating their reflexive and cooperative skills and by raising their awareness for habitus-sensibility. Previous research has shown that mentoring projects can, for example, facilitate teachers' acceptance of heterogeneity of childhood experiences by providing insights into different social environments and by improving reflection on prejudices and stereotypes (Kottmann, 2014; Maas, 2007; Wenzler-Cremer, 2016). Following these findings, the actual research focuses on which kind of reflection students use and if they develop or strengthen inclusive orientations. With regards to data analysis, the qualitative content analysis of the case study is accompanied by sequential interpretation of audio statements, which the students produce at three points in time during their mentoring year. First results show that different kinds of reflection take place, that the students get confronted with inclusive and exclusive inconsistencies, and that they begin to reconceptualize ideas about normality.

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes exhibited by multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii, to analyze biofilm formation and to investigate clonal subtypes of isolate. Whole genome sequencing was done by Illumina NovaSeq 6,000 platform and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed by Oxford and Pasteur typing schemes. Influence of imipenem and levofloxacin on biofilm formation was investigated in 96-well plates at 3 replicates. The strain was found to carry OXA-23, OXA-51-like, AmpC and TEM-1 beta-lactamases. The sequence of the bla OXA-51-like gene has been identified as a bla OXA-66. According to Pasteur MLST scheme the strain displayed ST2 allelic profile. However, based on Oxford MLST scheme this strain represents the new ST2121, as the gdhB gene has a single allelic mutation namely, the gdhB-227. It was determined that MDR isolate carried bap, basABCDFGHIJ, csuA/BABCDE, bauABCDEF, plcD, pgaABCD, entE, barAB, ompA, abaIR, piT2EAFTE/AUBl, fimADT, cvaC, bfmR, bfmS virulence genes. In our study imipenem induced the highest biofilm formation at a concentration of 32 µg/ml and levofloxacin at a concentration of 16 µg/ml. In conclusion, we detected a new MDR A. baumannii ST2121 clone harboring bla OXA-66 gene that has been reported for the first time in Turkey.

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Abstract

Eggs are commonly used in the food industry because of their excellent nutrient value and also for their coagulating, foaming, emulsifying, colouring and flavouring properties. Manufacturers substitute shell eggs with processed egg products, such as liquid whole egg, liquid egg yolk or albumin. They have a shelf life of a few weeks, but freezing can increase it to 1 year. However, freezing causes gelation in case of egg yolk. This process is highly dependent on the conditions of freezing and thawing.

In our study, raw liquid egg yolk was frozen and stored for 14 days at −18 °C. On days 1, 7 and 14 samples were thawed by two different methods. Denaturation temperature and enthalpy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Besides, rheological properties were examined at 20 °C, Herschel–Bulkley model was fitted to flow curves of the examined samples. The dry matter content was also recorded during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyse data.

The results of the study showed that method of thawing had no significant effect on calorimetric and rheological properties and dry matter content. In contrast, freezing and frozen storage had a significant effect on denaturation enthalpy and rheological properties.

Open access