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Background and aims

Cybersex use (CU) is highly prevalent in Switzerland’s population, particularly among young men. CU may have negative consequences if it gets out of control. This study estimated prevalence of CU, frequency of CU (FCU), and problematic CU (PCU) and their correlates.

Methods

A non-selective sample of young Swiss men (N = 5,332, mean age = 25.45) completed a questionnaire assessing FCU and PCU, sociodemographics (age, linguistic region, and education), sexuality (being in a relationship, number of sexual partners, and sexual orientation), dysfunctional coping (denial, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, and self-blame), and personality traits (aggression/hostility, sociability, anxiety/neuroticism, and sensation seeking). Associations were tested using hurdle and negative binomial regression models.

Results

At least monthly CU was reported by 78.6% of participants. CU was associated positively with post-secondary schooling (vs. primary schooling), German-speaking (vs. French-speaking), homosexuality, bisexuality (vs. heterosexuality), more than one sexual partner (vs. one), dysfunctional coping (except denial), and all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with being in a relationship (vs. not), age, and sociability. FCU was associated positively with homosexuality, bisexuality, no or more than one sexual partner, dysfunctional coping (except denial), and all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with age, being in a relationship, and sociability. PCU was associated positively with bisexuality, four or more sexual partners, dysfunctional coping, and all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with German-speaking and sociability.

Discussion and conclusions

CU should be viewed in light of its associations with sociodemographic, sexual, and psychological factors. Healthcare professionals should consider these aspects to adapt their interventions to patients’ needs.

Open access
Authors: Guilherme Borges, Ricardo Orozco, Corina Benjet, Kalina I. Martínez Martínez, Eunice Vargas Contreras, Ana Lucia Jiménez Pérez, Alvaro Julio Peláez Cedrés, Praxedis Cristina Hernández Uribe, María Anabell Covarrubias Díaz Couder, Raúl A. Gutierrez-Garcia, Guillermo E. Quevedo Chavez, Yesica Albor, Enrique Mendez, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Philippe Mortier and Hans-Juergen Rumpf

Background and aims

DSM-5 includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study. While online and offline gaming may produce undesired negative effects on players, we know little about the nosology of IGD and its prevalence, especially in countries with emerging economies.

Methods

A self-administered survey has been employed to estimate prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and study the structure and performance of an instrument in Spanish to measure DSM-5 IGD among 7,022 first-year students in 5 Mexican universities that participated in the University Project for Healthy Students (PUERTAS), part of the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health International College Student Initiative.

Results

The scale for IGD showed unidimensionality with factor loadings between 0.694 and 0.838 and a Cronbach’s α = .816. Items derived from gaming and from substance disorders symptoms mixed together. We found a 12-month prevalence of IGD of 5.2% in the total sample; prevalence was different for males (10.2%) and females (1.2%), but similar for ages 18–19 years (5.0%) and age 20+ (5.8%) years. Among gamers, the prevalence was 8.6%. Students with IGD were more likely to report lifetime psychological or medical treatment [OR = 1.8 (1.4–2.4)] and any severe role impairment [OR = 2.4 (1.7–3.3)]. Adding any severe role impairment to the diagnostic criteria decreased the 12-month prevalence of IGD to 0.7%.

Discussion and conclusions

Prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and the performance of diagnostic criteria in this Mexican sample were within the bounds of what is reported elsewhere. Importantly, about one in every seven students with IGD showed levels of impairment that would qualify them for treatment under DSM-5.

Open access

EMLÉKEZÉS

Hommage Haynal André, az „Aranyember” emlékére

Author: Sipos Júlia
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EMLÉKEZÉS BARKÓCZI ILONÁRA

A kutató manipulációtól az alkotó gondolkodásig

Author: Kónya Anikó
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Evolutionary explanations of human behavior have produced many new insights, but also much resistance. This essay examines 2 books on sex differences written with very different approaches. Rosemary Hopcroft's Evolution and Gender argues that men and women can be both equal and different and that average biological differences between the sexes, which are often small, do not threaten the ideal of political equality. In Hopcroft's view, understanding these differences with the help of evolutionary theory is a condition for the realization of equality, not an obstacle. Saini's Inferior depicts an opposition between an ‘old science’, portraying sex differences as immense, and a ‘new science’, with most sex differences being so small that they cannot possibly account for social trends. While Evolution and Gender gives a concise and representative view of current evolutionary research on sex differences, Inferior claims that obsessions pervade entire research areas. Evolution and Gender has a careful tone, while Inferior often emphasizes the allegedly ‘controversial’ nature of studies. The essay ends with reflections on how to best communicate the results of evolutionary psychology to the public.

Open access

FELE JÁTÉK – FELE GYÖTRELEM

Interjú Molnár Márkkal 70. születésnapja alkalmából

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Background and aims

Although studies have suggested that individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) may have impairments in cognitive functioning, the nature of the relationship is unclear given that the information is typically derived from cross-sectional studies.

Methods

Individuals with active IGD (n = 154) and those individuals no longer meeting criteria (n = 29) after 1 year were examined longitudinally using functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of cue-craving tasks. Subjective responses and neural correlates were contrasted at study onset and at 1 year.

Results

Subjects’ craving responses to gaming cues decreased significantly at 1 year relative to study onset. Decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lentiform nucleus were observed at 1 year relative to onset. Significant positive correlations were observed between changes in brain activities in the lentiform nucleus and changes in self-reported cravings. Dynamic causal modeling analysis showed increased ACC–lentiform connectivity at 1 year relative to study onset.

Conclusions

After recovery from IGD, individuals appear less sensitive to gaming cues. This recovery may involve increased ACC-related control over lentiform-related motivations in the control over cravings. The extent to which cortical control over subcortical motivations may be targeted in treatments for IGD should be examined further.

Open access
Authors: Olimpia Matarazzo, Michele Carpentieri, Claudia Greco and Barbara Pizzini

Background and aims

Although numerous correlational studies have shown an association between cognitive distortions and problem gambling, only a few behavioral studies have investigated this topic by comparing problem (PGs) and non-problem gamblers (N-PGs). This quasi-experiment investigated the occurrence in both groups of a widespread cognitive distortion, the gambler’s fallacy (GF), using a fictitious roulette game. Moreover, it investigated whether the GF increased the bet amount and whether impulsivity and sensation seeking were associated with the GF.

Methods

Two indices of the GF were used: a cognitive index, the probability estimate of each outcome (black/red) after manipulating the final run length (the same outcome occurring four times/once), and a behavioral index, the choice of the outcome on which to bet. A total of 320 (160 PGs and 160 N-PGs) unpaid male volunteers, aged between 18 and 68, participated in this study.

Hypotheses

Erroneous probability estimates should mediate the effect of longer runs on the alternation choice (i.e., the choice of an outcome different from the previous one) to support the occurrence of GF. The GF should increase betting. PGs should be more prone than N-PGs to GF.

Results

The choice of the outcome depended on both cognitive (erroneous probability estimates) and affective (preference for red) factors. PGs bet more than N-PGs but they were not more prone than N-PGs to incurring GF. Although impulsivity and sensation seeking were more intense in PGs than in N-PGs, they scarcely affected GF.

Discussion and conclusions

Overall, our results corroborate the tested model of the GF that links mistaken probability estimates, choice of the outcome on which to bet, and bet amount. However, they are similar to PGs and N-PGs and fail to corroborate the hypothesis that the GF is more evident in PGs.

Open access

Theoretical background: Premature birth is in the focus of research interest as it is the most common perinatal risk endangering the development of children. However, the implications of prematurity for the long-term outcome are far from fully understood. Compromised development of cognitive and executive functions may be underlying academic underachievement in school-age preterm children. Aim: to assess the school-age outcomes of Hungarian VLBW/ELBW preterm children in basic cognitive abilities and executive function as compared to typically developing, full-term children as well as to investigate the background of individual differences. Method: 54 preterm children (27 ELBW, 27 VLBW) and a matched group of 27 healthy full-term children, aged 9–10 years, were tested using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), the Corsi Block Tapping Task (digital version) for measuring spatial–visual working memory and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, digital version) for testing cognitive flexibility. As background variables perinatal and socioeconomic factors were entered in the analysis. Results: In each measure of the WISC-IV all three groups performed in the normal range. The ELBW children displayed certain developmental lags. They scored significantly lower in the Full-Scale IQ and the Processing Speed than the other two groups, and in the Perceptual Reasoning and one measure of spatial–visual working memory as compared to the non-risk comparison group. Perinatal complications and maternal education were related to the outcome. Conclusions: With the improved perinatal care preterm children have fair chances for good developmental outcomes. However, the individual variations are great and various perinatal and social factors may hamper the development of cognitive and executive functions. A birthweight below 1000 grams is a notable risk, particularly if combined with perinatal complications.

Open access
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